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Патент USA US2112945

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April 5, 1938-
- |_. B. YARBROUGH
2,112,945
RAILWAY TRAFFIC CONTROLLING APPARATUS
Filed March 5;' 1956 _y
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April 5, 1938»
|_. B. YAÉBROUGH
2,112,945
RAILWAY TRAFFIC CONTROLLÍNG' APPARATUS
Filed Maron 5, 1956
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-April 5, 1938.
l.; B. YARBROUGH
2,112,945
RAILWAY TRAFFIC CONTROLLING APPARATUS
Filed March 3, 1936
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
.mîUN
R01
INVENTOR
“awr”
¿H5
ATTORNEY
Patented Apr. 5, 1938
2,112,945
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,112,945
RAILWAY TRAFFIC CONTROLLING
APPARATUS
Lowell B. Yarbrough’Decatur, Ill., assignor to
The Union Switch & Signal Company, Swiss
vale, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania
Application March 3, 1936, Serial No. 66,811
11 Claims.k (Cl. 246-22)
In order to simplify the drawings and to enable
My invention relates to railway traino control
ling apparatus, and particularly to signaling the circuits to be more readily traced, I have
apparatus for governing the movement of traffic herein identified each switch and signal by a
over stretches of single track over which traiiic
5 moves in both directions.
I will describe two forms of apparatus embody
ing my invention, and will then point out the
novel features thereof in claims.
number and each relay by a letter or combination
of letters with a distinguishing prefix identify
ing the switch or signal with which the relay is
associated. The various relay contacts are iden
In the accompanying drawings, Figs. 1A, 1B
titled by numbers and those contacts not adja
cent the respective relays which operate them
10 and 1C, when placed end to end in order with
bear the reference characters 4for the respective
Fig. 1A at the left, constitute a diagrammatic
View showing apparatus embodying one form of
my invention applied to that portion of a single
track railroad located between and including the
' ends of two adjacent passing sidings, while Figs.
1A and 1C placed end to end in the reverse
order, that is, with Fig. 1A at the right of Fig.
1C, form a diagrammatic view showing the appa
ratus of my invention applied to the double track
90 portion oi the railroad which includes the siding
situated between two adjacent single track
relays as well as the numbers identifying the con
stretches.
Fig. 2 illustrates a modification of a
portion of the apparatus of Fig. 1B., having to
do with the approach lighting of the signals and
also embodying my invention.
One object of my invention is the provision
of a novel absolute-permissive block signaling
system, in which the signals for both directions
are controlled over circuits employing but two
, line wires, and in which the relative polarity of
the current supplied to the line circuit at one
end or the other may be reversed to provide
three-position control of the signals for both
directions. A feature of my invention is the
:. provision, in a system of this character, of means
for preventing short circuits when two current
sources are connected to the opposite ends of the
same line circuit in such direction that their
effects are additive.
Another object of my invention is the provision
of an improved system of directional control for
the single track stretch, which operates upon the
approach of a train towards a signal that has
been cleared, to maintain the established traffic
direction until the train vacates the stretch.
A further ob-ject of my invention is the pro
vision of improved means for lighting the signals
upon the approach of a train, which operates in
such a manner as to render the signal visible
when the train is at a greater distance than
heretofore without the use of additional line
wires.
Other objects and purposes of my invention
will be made apparent as the description pro
55. ceeds.
tacts. Furthermore, instead of showing the
sources of current for energizing the various line
and local circuits Vand the wires leading thereto
in detail, I have shown only the terminals` of
the sources, which I have designated by the
reference characters B and C, referring to the
power supply and common return terminals, re
spectively. It is to be understood that in ac
ccrdance with the usual practice, a separate local
source of current is provided at each location,
for each direction.
Referring to the drawings, the references I and
0
la designate the“ track rails of the main track
of a single track railway over which traffic may
move in either direction, the track rails being
divided into sections by insulated joints 2, each
section being provided with a track circuit iden
tified by the reference character T with a dis
tinguishing prefix. Each track circuit is pro
vided with the usual track battery 3 and with a
track relay identified by the reference TR with
a preñx corresponding to that of the associated
track circuit. Power-operated track switches 5
and 'I connect the two ends of a non-track cir 35
cuited passing siding PS with the main track,
and the movement of trailic over these switches
is governed by signals bearing the references 6
and 8, respectively, each signal being identiíied
by a distinguishing prei-lx. The head block sig 40
nals RAB and RCS govern trafñc moving from
left to right on the main track or from the siding,
respectively, over switch 5 into the adjacent
single track stretch, and considering the drawings
IA, IB and IC to be arranged end-to-end in that
order, it is to be noted that the control limit of
these signals, as far as opposing traffic is con
cerned, extends to the opposing head block sig
nals LAS and‘LCS which are similarly arranged
to govern trañic moving from right to left over 50
the same territory. The spacing of trains mov
ing in the same direction through the single
track stretch is governed by the intermediate sig
nals I2 and I0, or by signals II and I3, of Fig. 55
2
2,112,945
1B, depending upon the direction of movement,
current of the opposite relative polarity, front
as will be apparent from the drawings.
Considering now that Fig. 1A is placed to the
right of Fig. 1C so as to further extend the ter
ritory illustrated it will be noted that signal RA8
governs tramo moving from left to right on the
main track of the double track portion, and that
its control limit, as far as opposing trañic is
concerned, extends to the corresponding oppos
contact Y and back Contact G of the circuit con
ing signal LAä when switch 5 is normal, but only
to signal RAt` which is then at stop, when switch
5 is reversed to permit an opposing train to enter
the siding.
The circuits are symmetrically ar
ranged with respect to the two directions, and
the control limit of signal LAS similarly extends
to signal RA8 when switch l is normal and to
signal LAB, then at stop, when switch 'l is re
versed. Signals RBB and LBS are slow speed sig
nals governing the movement of trañic into the
20 siding, and their control limits extend only to
the ends of the corresponding switch section.
It is to be understood that each of the track
switches and the associated group of signals of
troller are closed, as illustrated for example by
mechanism ISM, as shown, and the signal then
displays a yellow light indicating caution; and
that when the winding is deenergized both back
contacts are closed, as illustrated by the remain
ing mechanisms, as shown, and the signal then
displays a red light, indicating stop. Each signal
is electrically lighted by a lamp E which is ener 10
gized continuously in the case of the manually
controlled signals, while the intermediate signals
are lighted only upon the approach of a train, as
will be hereinafter explained.
Each signal mechanism controls a repeating 15
relay bearing the reference H with a prefix iden
tifying the corresponding signal, which relay is
energized when the signal indicates proceed or
caution and serves to control the energization of
the next signal in the rear for the same direction. 20
Each relay H associated with a head-block sig
nal is of the slow-release type, While each relay
H associated with an intermediate signal is a slow
Figs. 1A and 1C are subject to manual control
from a remote point, such as a dispatcher’s of
ñce, through the medium of a centralized trafñc
control system. To illustrate such control in its
pickup slow release relay, as indicated conven
tionally on the drawings by transverse arrows
applied to the contacts of these relays. A direc
tional stick relay designated by the reference S
relation to the present invention, considering Fig.
1A for example, (that shown in Fig. 1C being
with identifying preñx, is associated with each
relay H controlled by the intermediate signals of
30 similar) a dotted line connection is shown ex
tending from a switch machine 5W for control
ling switch 5 to a two-position switch lever SW
and also to two switch indication relays ENWP
and ERWP, and it is to be understood that in
accordance with the usual practice that when
lever SW occupies position N, as shown, switch 5
is operated to normal, relay SNW'P is energized
and relay SRW’P deenergized, as shown, but that
when lever SW occupies position R, switch 5 is
40 reversed, relay ERVVP is energized and relay
SNWP deenergized. The manual control of the
signals is effected by energizing one or the
other of a pair of signal control relays which are
identiñed by the reference HS with distinguish
45. ing preñx, such, for example, as the relays REI-IS
and LSHS of Fig. 1A, and as illustrative of the
manual control of the signals, dotted line connec`
tions are shown from these relays to a three-po
sition signal lever bearing the legend “Sig” and
50 a reference number.
It is to be understood that
when lever 5, for example, is in its mid-position
as shown, the signals identified by the same num
ber are at stop, but when the lever occupies po
sition L or R, relay LBHS or REHS will be ener
gized to clear one of the associated signals 6,
subject to control by traffic conditions and in ac
cordance with the position of the track switch
and the condition of the opposing signals, to per
mit a trañic movement toward the left or right,
60 respectively, over the associated track switch.
Each of the signals is illustrated as of the
searchlight type, such for example as that dis
closed in the Reissue Patent No. 14,940, granted
to Eli J. Blake on August 31, 1920. Each signal
65 mechanism bears the reference M with a preñx
similar to the designation of the corresponding
signal, and each mechanism including a three-po
sition circuit controller. It is to be understood
that when the Winding of a signal mechanism is
70 energized by current of one relative polarity,
front contact G and back contact Y of its circuit
controller are closed, as illustrated for example
by mechanism HM, as shown, and the signal
then displays a green light indicating clear or
proceed; that when the winding is energized by
Fig. 1B.
These relays serve to provide the so
Called absolute-permissive feature of the scheme
of control, and operate in such a manner that
when a train enters the single track stretch all
signals for the opposing direction are held at
stop until the entire stretch is vacated, While
the signals for the same direction are caused to
successively indicate caution and proceed in the
rear of a moving train so as to permit following
trains to enter the single track stretch and to
properly space the movement of these trains 40
through the stretch.
It is to be understood that switch locking
means, not shown in detail, is provided to pre
vent operation of the track switches except when
conditions are proper. The switch locking means 45
includes a pair of approach locking stick relays,
one for each direction for each switch, which
relays are identiñed in the drawings by the gen
eral reference LS. Considering the approach
locking stick relay RSLS, for example, (the 50
scheme of control for the remaining relays LS
being similar), it is to be understood that switch
machine 5W is locked against operation unless
relay RSLS is energized, that relay RGLS is ener
gized only when a signal indication relay R6RP 55
is energized, and that the latter relay is energized
only when the home signals RCS and RAB for
the corresponding direction indicate stop and the
distant signal, which is signal RA8 in this in
stance, indicates stop or caution. Furthermore, 60
if signal RCS or RA6 is put to stop manually, the
energization of relay RBLS may be delayed for
a time interval following the energization of relay
RERP by the operation of a time element relay
STE, Which relay is checked to insure that it 65
occupies its normal position when the signals
are put to stop by including a back Contact there
of in the signal control circuits. This control of
the approach locking relays LS by the signal
indication relays RP is indicated by a dotted line 70
connection between these relays, and may be
arranged as disclosed in Fig. 2 of Patent No.
1,952,072, granted May 15, 1934, to H. A. Wallace,
for Railway traffic controlling apparatus. A1
though the switch locking forms no part of the 75
3
2,112,945
present invention, the approach locking relays
are shown herein because front contacts of the
relays LS for each direction are included in the
control circuits for the signals for the opposite
direction, as will be pointed out hereinafter, and
these relays not only control the switch but also
serve to prevent clearing of two opposing signals
at the same time and safeguard the reversal of
traffic if a signal is put to stop in the face of an
10
approaching train.
` Since the relative polarity oi the current sup
plied to the line circuits for the contro-1 of the
signals is reversible, and since the same line wires
are used for the control of the signals for both
15 directions, it may happen that current sources
may be connected at opposite ends of the same
line wires in such direction that their effects are
additive. To -prevent excessiveiìow of current
under this condition, I include a series relay
20 identified by the general reference Z in each line
circuit where this may occur. Each relay Z is
adjusted to be non-responsive to the normal line
current due to the voltage of a single source and
to pick up only under the double voltage condi'
25 tion mentioned, in which case the relay will open
its back contact to include a resistor I 4l in the
line circuit so as to reduce the current to a
safe Value, but not enough to release the relay Z
as long as it is energized by the two sources in
30 series.
As illustrated in the drawings, the apparatus
is shown in the condition which it assumes fol
lowing a train movement from right to left', all
ofthe head block signals being at stop. The
35 intermediate signals are not lighted, although
mechanism I3M is energized in the caution posi
tion and mechanism IIM in the clear position.
The relays which repeat the stop indication of
the “A” signals, such as relay RAGRP, are ener
40 gized. The circuits for all such relays shown are
similar, and that for the one referred to may be
traced from terminal B, back contacts G and Y
of the circuit controller of mechanism RASM,
relay RABRP to terminal C. The signal indica45 tion relays such as RGRP are also energized. The
circuit for RSRP, for example, may be traced
from terminal B, back contact G of the circuit
controller for signal RAS, wire I5, fro-nt contact
I6 of relay RABRP, back contacts G and Y of
50 the circuit controller for signal RCS, relay RBRP
to terminal C. Relay RSRP being energized, the
approach locking relay RBLS is likewise ener
gized, as indicated on the drawings, and each of
the remaining relays LS are also energized. The
55 winding of the mechanism for signal I3 is ener
gized over a circuit which may be traced from
terminal B, back contact I1 and winding of relay
I 3Z, back contact I8 of relay LABI-I, front con
tact I9 of relay RBLS, back contact 20 of relay
60 RIBHS, front contacts 2l and 22 of track relays
5TR and 4TR, line wire 23, front contact 24 of
track'relay I3TR, back contacts 25 and 26 of
relays 12H and I2S, winding of mechanism I3M,
back contacts 21 and 28 of relays I 2S and I 2H,
65 front contact 29 of relay I3TR, line wire 36, con
tacts 3| and 32 of relays 4TR and 5TR, backI
contact 33 of relay RBHS, front contact 34 of
relay RSLS, back contact 35 of relay LABH, to
terminal C. Mechanism ISM is energized in the
caution direction over the circuit just traced,
but relay I3Z remains in itsv deenergized position.
Relay I3H is now energized over a circuit which
may be traced from terminal B, back contact G
and front contact Y of mechanism I3M, front
contact 36 of relay I2TR, relay I3H to terminal
C. The energization >of relay-I3H completes .af
circuit _which may be traced from terminal »B,
back contacts G and Y of I2M, ‘front `contact 31
of relay I3H, contact 38 of track relay IZTR, line
wire 39, contact 40 of track relay IITR., back
contacts 4I and 42 of-relays VIIlI-I and IIIS, winding
of mechanism lIM,contacts y43, 44, 45, line wire
46, contacts 41 and 48 to terminalC.
Mecha
nism I IM is energized in the clear direction over
this circuit.
f
»
Assuming now with the apparatus as shown
that the operator desires to effect a train move
ment from section 6T through the `singletrack
stretch from left to right, and that signall lever=6
is moved Ato Aposition R to energize relay-RGHS,
lever SW vfor switch 1 being in position N. The
energization of relay RGHS opens back contacts
20 and 33 in- the circuit for I3M, thereby causing
this mechanism to assume the stop position, .de
energizing relay I3H. When relay kI3H releases
it opens contacts 31 and 48 in the circuit for
I IM, which assumes the stop position,-deenergiz
ing relay IIH.` When relay IIH releases »it com
pletes a circuit for IUM which may be traced
from terminal B, back contact 49 and winding of 25
relay IûZ, back contact 50 of relay RA8H,'front
contact 5I of relay LBLS, back contact 520i `relay
L8HS, front contacts '53 and 54 of relays-.1TR
and STR, line wire 55, front contact 5610i ‘relay
IUTR, 'back contacts 51 and 58 of relays IIH and
I IS, winding of IOM, contacts 59, 60, 6I,’line »Wire
62, contacts 63, ‘64, 65, 66, 61 to terminal yC.
Mechanism vIIIM is now energized in the caution
direction, completing a circuit for relay -I 0H simi
lar to that already traced for relay I3H, and relay
IIIH When energized completes `a >circuit `for I2M
which may betraced from terminal B, back con
tacts G and Y of IIM, front contacts 4I and 43 of
relays IGH and II'I'R, line wire 39, front contact
38 of relay 'I2TR, back contacts 31 and 68 of
relays I3H and I 3S, winding of relay I2M, con
tacts 69, 48, 41, line wire 46, front conta-cts `45
and 44 to terminal C.
Mechanism I2M is now
energized in the proceed direction, completing
thecircuit for relay I2H, and relay 12H whenenergized completes a circuit for RABM,A which
may be traced from terminal B, back contacts »G
and Y of mechanism I3M, front contacts 25 and
24 of relays I2l-I andl I3TR, line Wire 23, front
contacts 22, 2|, 20 and 10 of relays 4TR, 5TR,
RBHS and ILßRP, back contact 1I of relay LBHS,
front contact12 of relay 5TR, back contact 13 of
relay ETE, front contacts 14 and 15 of relays
RBHS and 5NWP, win'ding of relay RASM, »front
contacts 16, 33, 32, 3I, line Wire 30, front contacts
29 and 28 to terminal C. Signal RAG nowindi
cates proöeed, relay RABH becomes energized and
relay RAGRP` is deenergîzed. The release o_f the
latter relay causes relays RBRP and RSRS to re
lease in sequence, and relay RBRS when released
locks switch 5 and also opens contact 1'1 in the
circuits for controlling signals LA6 and LBS vand
contacts I9 and 34 in the circuit for controlling
signal
I3.
’
`
»
Assuming next with the apparatus as- shown
that the operator desires’to effect a train move-_
ment from siding PS through the single track
stretch from left to right, and that signal ‘lever
6 is moved to position R after switch '5 has'been
reversed in response to a movement of lever `>SW
to position R. The several operations which re
sult from the energization of relay RSHS 'now
take place as already described in connection
with the clearing of signal RAB, except that since
relay -5NWP is ïnow deenergized, mechanism
te’
4
2,112,945
RA6M is disconnected from front contacts 14
and 33 of relay RBHS. However, relay 5RWP is
now energized and connects these contacts to
mechanism RCSM over front contacts 18 and 19,
so that RCSM is energized in place of RABM. It
will be apparent from the drawings that the
circuit for controlling signal RCS is otherwise
identical with that for signal RAG, and that
mechanism RCGM when energized likewise re
10 leases relays RGRP and RSLS to lock switch 5
and the opposing signals. It follows, therefore,
that signal RAS or RCS, dependent upon the
position of switch 5, can be cleared only when all
site direction enters section |3T, because then re,-»
lay I3S will be energized and Will open the circuit.
for lamp I2E at its back contact 86. Another
purpose of the directional stick relays S is to sup
ply current of reverse polarity to the line circuit
for the next signal in the rear. . Thus when relay
I2H releases closing back contacts 25 and 28, front
contacts 26 and 21 of relay I2S supply current of
reverse polarity to line wires 23 and 30 included
in the control circuit for signals RAG and RCS, as 10
soon as the train vacates section I3T and relay
ISTR picks up. However, in the case described
opposing signals up to and including signals
it has been assumed that relay RSHS has been
released, and it follows that this line circuit now
15 LAS and LC8 are at stop, and all track sections
between signal RAB and RA8 at stop are un
includes a current source at each end and that
these sources are connected in the additive direc
occupied.
tion.
I will now assume that a train moving from left
to right accepts signal RAG or RC6 and passes
20. through the single track stretch. When the train
This circuit may be traced from terminal B
of the source adjacent signal I3, back contacts G
and Y of ISM, front contact 21 of relay I2S,
thence as already described over line wire 30, to
enters section 5T, track relay 5TR releases to open
contacts 12, 2| and 32 in the signal control cir
cuit to put the signal to stop. It is to be under
stood that relay REHS also releases and that the
25 operator restores lever 6 to normal. Signals RAG
and RCS will therefore remain at stop until lever
6 is again operated. As the train proceeds, track
back contact 35 of relay LABH, terminal C of the
source adjacent signal LAG, through this course to
its terminal B, back contact I1 and winding of
relay |3A, back contact I8 of relay LAGH, thence
over line wire 23, front contact 26 of relay I2S to
terminal C of the first-mentioned source. Relay
I3Z picks up under this condition and by opening
relays 4TR and I3TR release successively, the
apparatus of Fig. 1A again assuming the condi
back contact I1 inserts a current limiting device
as illustrated by the resistor I4 in the line circuit
30 tion shown as soon as the train vacates sections
5T and 4T. When the train enters section |3T,
so as to prevent an excessive flow' of current.
the'release of track relay ISTR completes the
lighting circuit for signal I2 which extends from
terminal B, back contact 80 of relay I3TR, lamp
35 |2E, back contact 86 of relay |3S to terminal C.
Mechanism I2M being energized in the proceed
position, the lighting of lamp I2E causes signal
I2 to display a proceed indication to the ap
proaching train.
40 , At the same time, contact 8| oi relay I3TR
drops to open the circuit for relay 12H and to
complete a circuit for the directional stick relay
I2S, which may be traced from terminal B, front
contact G of mechanism I 2M, back contact 8|
of relay ISTR, front contact 82 of relay IZI-I, back
contacts 83 and 84 of relays IBS and ISH, relay
I2S to terminal C, whereupon relay I2S picks up,
completing a temporary stick circuit from ter
minal B, front contact G of I2M, back contact
50 8| of relay I3TR, front contact 85 and winding of
relay I2S to terminal C. As hereinbefore men
tioned, relay I2H is a slow pickup, slow-release
relay, and when it releases a second stick circuit
for relay I2S is closed which extends from ter55. minal B, back contact 82 of relay |2H, front con
tact 85 and winding of relay I2S to terminal C.
It follows, therefore, that relay I2S remains
picked up as long as relay I2H remains deener
gized, that is, as long as section |3T is occupied
6.9
or signal I2 remains at stop. v
c
It is to be noted that the pickup circuit for
relay I2S includes back contacts 83 and 84 of
the corresponding relays I3S and I3H for the
opposite direction and that the circuit for relay
65 I3S is similar to that for relay I2S and includes
back contacts 81 and 88 of relays I2S and 12H.
The two relays I2S and ISS are therefore fully
checked so that but one direction of traiTic can be
set up at a time.
One purpose of the directional stick relays S is
to provide directional control of the approach
74
lighting circuits for the intermediate signals.
Thus lamp |2E is lighted when a train approach~
ing signal I2 enters section |3T, as already de
scribed, but not when a train moving in the oppo
This overload condition exists only when relay IS
is energized, but when relay |2H is energized to
supply current of normal polarity to the line. cir
cuit the sources at the two ends are in opposition
so that substantially no current will flow and re
lay I3Z is not operated.
If, now, with relay I2S energized, the operator
reenergizes relay RBHS to permit a following train
to enter the stretch, the control circuit for signal
RAS or RCE as already described will be re 40
established, except that in this case the polarity
will be reversed. It follows that signal RAG or
RCS will indicate caution if relay RBHS is oper
ated when a train moving from left to right has
vacated section I3T and signal I2 is at stop.
Assuming now that the train continues through
section I2T and enters IIT, the release of IITR
will complete a circuit for lamp HIE causing signal
I0 to display a caution indication to the approach
ing train, because, as already pointed out, IDM is A50
energized in the caution direction, and relay IOS
will be picked up and relay IDH released in a man
ner similar to that described for the correspond
ing relays associated with signal I2. It follows
that mechanism |2M will become energized in the 'Í
caution direction by current of reverse polarity
supplied over front contacts 42, 43 of relay IUS as
soon as the train vacates section IIT to permit
relay I ITR to pick up.
When I 2M becomes ener- -
gized, relay I2H again picks up, breaking the stick 60
circuit for relay I2S so that relay I2S releases.
Current of normal polarity is now supplied over
front contacts 25 and 28 of relay I2H to energize
RAB or RBB in the clear direction, so that signal
RAB or RBB will also indicate proceed, providing
relay RBI-IS is energized.
, \
` I will next assume that the operator reverses
switch 1 and moves lever 8 to the right to ener
gize relay RSI-IS, in order to route the train mov
ing from left to right in the single track stretch
into the siding at the right of section 1T. With
switch 1 reversed, it is to be understood that relay
1NWP is released and 1RWP is energized. With
relay R8HS energized the circuit for RBBM is
closed, and may be traced from terminal B, front
7.5.
2,112,945
contact 89 of relay 1RWP, back contact 90 of relay
1N`WP, front contact 9| of relay LSLS, back con
tact 92 of relay LSI-IS, front contact 93 of relay
1TR, back contact 94 of relay 1TE, front contacts
95 and 96 of relays R8HS and 1RWP, winding of
RBSM to terminal C. When RB8M is energized,
signal RBB indicates caution, or slow speed, and
relays R8RP and RBLS are released to lock switch
1 and the opposing signals. The distant signal I0
remains at caution when signal RBB is energized.
Considering for the moment that the operator
had energized relay RSHS with switch 1 normal to
clear signal RAS, relay RASH will become ener
gized and its contacts 50 and B1 will reverse the
15 polarity of the current supplied to IBM. It fol
lows that signal I0 will display a proceed indica
tion to an approaching train only in the event
switch 1 is normal and signal RAB indicates cau
20
tion or clear.
Assuming now that the train moving from left to
right passes signal RBB or RAS, when the train
enters 1T7 track relay 1TB, releases to open con
tact 93 to restore the signal to stop. When the
train vacates section 9T, mechanism |0M will be
25 come energized in the caution direction, because
relay RARI-I is deenergized, energizing relay IGH'
and releasing relay IOS, and current of normal
polarity will be supplied to line wires 39 and 46 to
energize mechanism |2M in the proceed direc
30 tion. The apparatus of Fig. 1B will then be in a
condition similar to that shown except that the
direction of energization of the line circuits is re
versed. Thus considering the block comprising
the track sections IIT and I2T, the right-hand
leaving signal I0 is energized in the caution direc
tion in place of the similar left-hand signal I3,
as shown, and the entering signal I2 is energized
in the proceed direction in place of the similar sig
nal | I, as shown.
40
I will next assume that with Figs. lA and 1B
placed at the right of Fig. 1C to further extend
- the territory illustrated, and with switch 1 re
versed to permit trains moving from left to right
to enter siding PS, that the operator moves lever
6 to position L with switch 5 normal, to energize
relay LSI-IS to permit a train` moving from right
to left to pass on the main track.
The train or
trains on the siding obviously will be held there
by signal RCB until the opposing train vacates
50 section 5T and switch 5 is restored to normal, the
circuits for controlling signal RCG already hav
ing been described in detail. Signal LAB is at stop
because switch 1 is reversed, and when the opera
tor energizes relay LSI-IS a circuit for energizing
55 LASM is closed which may be traced from. termi
nal B, back contact 91 of relay LABH, front con
tacts 98 and 99 of relays 1RWP and BTR, line
wire |00, front contacts ISI, |02, |03, and |04 of
relays ETR, LSI-IS, SNWP and 5TR, winding of
60 LASM, front contacts E05, 1| and 12 of relays
SNWP, LGI-IS and ETR, back contacts 13 and 14
of relays ETE and RSI-IS, front contacts 11, |06,
|01 and |08 of relays RSLS, 5NWP, LBHS and
GTR, line wire |09, front contacts Ill! and I|| oi
65 relays 8TR and 1RWP, back contact I|2 of relay
LASH to terminal C. Relay LABl-l being de
energized, signal LAB is energized to indicate cau
tion, causing relay LAIîI-I to be energized to re
verse the polarity of the current supplied to its
70
distant signal I3 as already explained in connec
tion with the similarly arranged signals RAS and
I9 for the opposite direction.
After the trains moving toward the right into
siding PS vacate section 1T, signal RB!) may be
5
held at stop b-y restoring lever 8 to normal to re
lease relay RSHS. Switch 1 may then be» restored
to normal, whereupon the operator may move sig
nal lever 8 to position L to energize relay L8HS
to clear signal LAS.
The circuits for controlling signal LAB are simi
lar to» those for the corresponding signal RAS
already described, as is apparent from the draw
ings, and therefore these circuits will not be
traced in detail. Since relay RSHS is released l0
before the switch is operated, contact 98 of relay
1RWP in the circuit for clearing signal LAB be
comes shunted by a branch circuit including back
contact H3 of relay RBHS and contacts ||4 and
||5 of relays 'ITR and R8LS, while contact III .
o1” relay lRWP is shunted by a similar branch
including contacts IIS, I I1 and H8, as soon as
section 1T is vacated and the locking for switch
1 is released, so that the circuit for LASM is not
interrupted when switch 1 is restored to normal .2.0
and relay 1RWP thereby deenergized.
When signal LAS assumes the caution. or pro
ceed position, relay LA8H becomes energized and
its contacts 91 and ||2 reverse the polarity of
the current supplied to LABM to cause the indica
tion of signal LAB to change from caution to
proceed.
Assume now that with relay LA8H energized,
that the operator restoresl signal LAG to stop by
releasing relay LSI-IS, the terminals B and C
of the source adjacent signal LA8 Will then be
connected to the left-hand ends of line wires |09
and |00, respectively, over front contacts I|2 and
91 of relay LAßI-I, While the terminals C and B of
the source adjacent signal RAB Will be connected V
to the right-hand ends of these line wires in such
a direction that the effects of the two- sources
are additive. Thus a connection will be made
from terminal B of the source adjacent signal
RAB over back contact ||9 and winding of relay 40
R8Z, contacts |20, |2I, |22, |02 and |0I to line
wire |00, and thence over front contact 91 to
terminal C of the source adjacent signal LAS,
through this source to its terminal B, and thence
over front contact ||2 to line wire |09, and from 145
line Wire |09 over contacts |08, |01, |23, |24 and
|25 to terminal C of the first-'named source. Re
lay R8Z will therefore pick up, and by opening
back contact ||9 will introduce a resisto-r I4 into
the line circuit so as to prevent an excessive llow
of current under this condition. It is evident
that this condition exists only when relay LABH
is energized, and that when this circuit is in the
condition shown in the drawings the sources at
the two ends are in opposition so that substan
tially no current will flow and relay R8Z not be'
operated.
It is readily apparent from the drawings that
in arranging a meet as hereinbefore described, ,
the operator could have as Well routed the trains
moving from left to right over the main track and
rout-ed the opposing train through the siding,
since the circuits are symmetrically arranged for
both directions. In such case the operator would
have cleared the slow speed signal LBS over cir- ‘
cuits similar to those already described for the
similar signal RBß, and Would have energized a
control circuit for signal RAS that is the same as
that already described for the opposing signal
70
LAG, except that the control circuit for signal
RAB includes the series relay R8Z, which relay
however remains in its released position and is
not operated by the current for energizing RASM.
In systems of this character, it is usually desir
6
2,112,945
able to provide approach control of the lighting
of the intermediate signals as hereinbefore de
scribed, in the interest of economy of current,
but if the train speeds are high and their stopping
Ul distances are relatively great, or if the block sec
tions are short it may be desirable to cause the
signals to become lighted when the approaching
train is at a greater distance than that provided
by arrangement of Fig. 1B. In order to extend
this distance, but without the use of additional
line wires, I propose to modify the circuits of Fig.
1B by including the apparatus of Fig. 2 for con
trolling the connections of the track batteries to
the track rails. It is to be understood that Fig. 2
15 may be substituted for the corresponding portion
of the block including track sections I IT and I2T,
and that similar arrangements may be provided
for the other blocks. Referring to Fig. 2, a series
relay IIA or IZA is included in the connection
20 between the track rails and track battery 3 for
the two adjacent sections I IT and IZT, and each
relay IIA or IZA when energized operates a con
tact |26 or I2'I to disconnect the track battery 3
and to shunt the track circuit including the other
25
relay.
'I‘he relays IIA and I2A are non-responsive to
the current which operates the respective track
relays II’I'RI and I2TRl but pick up due to the
increased flow of current resulting from the
30 shunting of the track relay by the wheels and
axles of a train occupying the section. It follows
that when a train moving from left to right
passes signal I2, relay I2TR will be shunted and
relay IZA will be operated, and contact I2'I will
35 then disconnect battery 3 from and will short
circuit the rails of section IIT to cause IITR to
release also, so as to close its back contact |28
to light lamp IUE. Signal IU will therefore be
come lighted when the approaching train enters
40 section I2T instead of when the train enters sec
tion IIT, thereby substantially doubling the dis
tance available for stopping the train in the event
the signal indicates stop.
It also follows that when relays A are used,
45 relay IUS will become energized when the train
approaching signal I0 enters section I2T rather
than when it enters section I IT, but this is with
out significance, and the apparatus in its modi
ñed form as illustrated by Fig. 2 operates gen
50 erally in the same manner as in the case of the
' form hereinbefore described in detail.
Although I have herein shown and described
only two forms of apparatus embodying my in
vention, it is understood that various changes
55 and modifications may be made therein within
the scope of the appended claims without depart
ing from the spirit and scope of my invention.
Having thus described my invention, what I
claim is:
60
1. In combination, a stretch of railway track
comprising two adjoining track sections each
having a track relay, said relays being situated
at opposite ends of the stretch, signals at the
ends of the stretch each distinctively operable
65 in accordance with the polarity of the current
supplied thereto for governing the movement of
trañîc in opposite directions through the stretch,
a reversible line circuit comprising two line wires
extending from one end of the stretch to the
other for controlling the signals, said circuit in
cluding front contacts of said track relays,
switching means at each end of the stretch op
erable to connect either the adjacent signal or
a source of current of a given relative polarity
75 to the line circuit at that end, and means con
trolled by each said switching means in response
to the deenergization of the track relay at the
same end of the stretch for connecting a source
of current of the reverse polarity to the line cir
cuit at that end.
2. In a signaling system for railroads, a stretch
of track comprising a block section over which
trai’ñc moves in both directions, an entering sig
nal and a leaving signal at each end of the
stretch, a reversible line circuit comprising two 10
line wires extending from one entering signal
to the other for controlling said entering signals
in accordance with traiiîc conditions in said
stretch, means for each leaving signal for clear
ing such signal effective only if the adjacent
entering signal is at stop, and means controlled
by each leaving signal when cleared and by a
train occupying the stretch and approaching
said signal for energizing said line circuit at
the end adjacent said leaving signal to cause the
entering signal at the opposite end of the stretch
to indicate caution when the stretch is vacated
by said train.
3. In a signaling system for railroads, a stretch
of track comprising a block section over which 25
traiiic moves in both directions, an entering sig
nal and a leaving signal at each end of the
stretch, a reversible line circuit comprising two
line Wires extending from one entering signal
to the other for controlling said entering signals 30
in accordance with traffic conditions in said
stretch, means for each leaving signal for clear
ing such signal eiîective only if the adjacent
entering signal is at stop, means controlled by
each leaving signal When cleared and by a train
occupying the stretch and approaching said sig
nal for energizing said line circuit by current of
a given relative polarity at the end adjacent said
leaving signal to cause the entering signal at the
opposite end of the stretch to indicate caution 40
when the stretch is vacated by said train, and
means controlled by each leaving signal eiïective
if said signal is cleared when said stretch is un
occupied for energizing said line circuit by cur
rent of the opposite relative polarity to cause .45
such entering signal to indicate proceed. .
4. In combination, a stretch of railway track
comprising a block section, signals at the ends
of the stretch each distinctively operable in ac
cordance with the polarity of the current sup 50
plied thereto for governing the movement of
traflic in opposite directions through the stretch,
a source of current at each end of the stretch,
a reversible line circuit comprising twov line wires
extending from one end of the stretch to the 55
other for controlling the signals in accordance
With trañic conditions in the stretch, switching
means at each end of the stretch independently
operable to connect either the adjacent signal
or source of current to said line circuit at that 60
end, means at each end of the line circuit for
reversing the polarity of the current supplied
thereto, a relay connected in series with the
source at one end which responds only when the
source at the other end of the line circuit is 65
connected thereto in the additive direction, and
means controlled by said relay for reducing the
flow of current in said line circuit when both
of said sources are connected thereto.
5. In combination, a reversible line circuit corn
70
prising two line wires, a source of current and
an electroresponsive device selectively responsive
to the polarity of the current supplied thereto
at each end of said line circuit, switching means
at each end of the line circuit independently 75
7
2,112,945
operable to connect either the adjacent source
or electroresponsive device to said line circuit
at that end, means at each end of the line cir
cuit for reversing the polarity of the current sup
plied thereto, a relay connected in series with the
source at one end, and means controlled by said
relay for limiting the ñow of current when the
two sources are connected to the line circuit in
the additive direction.
6. In combination, a reversible line circuit com
prising two line wires, a source of current and an
electroresponsive device selectively responsive to
the polarity of the current supplied thereto at
each end of said line circuit, switching means at
each end of the line circuit independently oper
junction of said sections, for energizing said track
relays; two auxiliary relays, one being connected
across the track rails of each section in series
with the source of current for such section, and
means controlled by each auxiliary relay in re
sponse to the occupancy of the corresponding
track section by a train for releasing the track
relay for the other section, comprising contacts
of such auxiliary relay included in the connection
to the track rails of the source of current for the
other track section.
10. In a signaling system for railroads, a
stretch of railway track comprising a block sec
tion over which traflic moves in both directions,
electrically controlled entering and leaving sig
able to connect either the adjacent source or
nals at each end of the stretch, a reversible line
electroresponsive device to said line circuit at
that end, means at each end of the line circuit
circuit extending from one entering signal to the
other and controlled by trafiic conditions in said
stretch, a slow pickup slow release repeating relayv
for each signal, means controlled in'accordance 20
with traiîic conditions for selectively energizing
for reversing the polarity of the current supplied
20 thereto, a current limiting device, a relay at one
end of the line circuit which responds to the cur
rent in said line circuit only when the two sources
are connected thereto in the additive direction,
and means controlled by said relay when ener
the leaving signal at one end of the stretch or
said line circuit in series with the source adja
cent said relay.
7. In a signaling system for railroads, a stretch
of railway track over which traffic moves in both
gized to disconnect the adjacent entering signal
the other, a circuit closed by eachsignal when
energized for energizing the associated repeating
25 gized for including said current limiting device in ì relay, means effective when the repeating relay 25
30 directions and comprising two adjoining track
sections, a track relay for each section, one track
relay being located at each end of the stretch,
signals at the ends of the stretch for governing
the movement of tra?ñc in opposite directions out
35 of the stretch, a lighting circuit for each signal,
means for closing each lighting circuit including
a back contact oi' the track relay at the same end
of the stretch, and means responsive to the
shunting of the other track relay by a train at
40 the remote end oi the stretch for releasing said
ñrst named track relay.
.
8. In a signaling system for railroads, a
stretch of railway track over which trafüc moves
in both directions, comprising two adjoining track
45 sections, a track relay for each section, one being
located at each end of the stretch, a source of
current for each track section, an auxiliary relay
in series with each said source, and means con
trolled by each said auxiliary relay in response
50 to the occupancy of the corresponding track sec
associated with a leaving'signal becomes ener
from the line circuit and to then connect a
source of current to the line circuit at that end
to energize the entering signal at the other end 30
over said line circuit, and means effective when
the repeating relay for either entering signal be
comes energized for preventing the energization
of the adjacent leaving signal.
`
11. In a signaling system for railroads, a
stretch of track comprising a block section over
which trafñc moves in both directions, electrically
controlled entering and leaving signals at the
ends of the stretch, each adapted to indicate stop,
caution, or proceed, a reversible polarized line 40
circuit extending from one entering signal to
the other and controlled by trañic conditions in
said stretch, means for selectively energizing the
leaving signal at one end of the stretch or the
other to cause such signal to indicate caution or 45
proceed, a slow pickup slow release repeating re
lay Íor each leaving signal, a circuit closed when
a leaving signal indicates caution or proceed for
energizing the associated repeating relay pro
vided a portion at least of said block section is 50
tion for opening the track circuit for the other
track sect-ion, a signal at each end of the stretch
for governing the movement of tra?iic out of the
stretch, a lighting circuit for each signal, and
55 means including a back contact of each track
repeating relay becomes energized to disconnect
the adjacent entering signal from the line circuit
relay for controlling the lighting circuit for the
signal at that end of the stretch.
end t0 cause the entering signal at the other end
9. In combination, a stretch of track compris
ing two adjoining track sections, a track circuit
60 for each section including a track relay connect
ed across the track rails, one track relay being
located at each end of the stretch, a source of
current for each track section located at the
selecting means rendered effective when a train
not occupied, means rendered effective when a
and to then connect a source of current of a
given relative polarity to the line circuit at that 55
of the stretch to indicate proceed, and direction
governed by said signals vacates said stretch to
supply current of the opposite relative polarity 60
to said line circuit to cause said last named en
tering signal to indicate caution.
LOWELL B. YARBROUGH.
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