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Патент USA US2112964

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April 5, 1938.
R. J. MdcKENzlE-
2,112,964
MUFFLER
Filed Deo. 28, 1936
JQ(
2 Sheets-Sheeì l
April 5, 1938.
R. J. MacKENZ|E
2,112,964
MUFFLER
Filed DeO. 28, 1956
2 Shee’ßS-Shee’fl 2
2,112,964
Patented Apr. 5, 1938
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,112,964
llIIUFFLER
Roy J. MacKenzie, Buffalo, N. Y., assignor to
Buffalo Pressed Steel Company, Buffalo, N. Y.
Application December 28, 1936, Serial No. 117,761
15 Claims.
This invention relates to improvements in
mufllers or silencers for internal combustion en
but it will be understood that it is not intended
to limit this invention to the particular type
the ends of an intermediate shell into engage
ment with an inner shell extending through
the intermediate shell. This leaves longitudi
nal portions of the intermediate shell between
of muffler illustrated. The muñler shown has a
casing or housing comprising an outer shell 9
and heads I0 and II arranged at opposite ends
thereof and secured to the outer shell 9. The
head I0 is provided with a tubular inlet portion
or duct I2 to which an exhaust pipe leading from
the engine may be connected and the head II is
provided with a tubular duct or connection I4
to which a tail pipe may be connected. The
.such pressed in portions, which are spaced from
mufller also has an inner shell or duct I5 pro
gines.
In application No. ’723,735 filed jointly in my
name and in the name of L. L. Haas, a muffler is
shown in which a restricted channel or bottle
neck passage is formed by pressing portions of
the inner shell to form channels or bottle necks.
kAccording to this prior construction, such chan
nels or bottle neckscan be formed at one or both
ends of the intermediate shell. It is some times
necessary, however, in order to produce satis
factory silencing to provide a channel or bottle
neck in a part of an Yintermediate shell spaced
vfrom the ends thereof, for example, in case it
becomes necessary to provide three or more se
ries of bottle necks together with their coop
erating resonance chambers.
One .of the objects of this invention is to
provide a construction by means of which an
intermediate shell may be provided with a chan
nel or bottle neck at a portion thereof spaced
Vfrom the ends kof the intermediate shell. It is
also van object of this invention to provide an
30 intermediate muffler shell having portions formed
to produce with an inner shell channels capable
of cooperating with three or more bottle neck
type of resonance chambers. Another object of
this invention is to provide a construction of this
35 kind by means of which the channels or bottle
necks can be produced without the use oi addi
tional parts. Other objects of the invention will
appear from the following description and
claims.
In the accompanying drawings:
40
Fig. 1 is a longitudinal sectional View of a part
of a muñler embodying this invention.
Fig. 2 is a similar view of the remainder of the
muffler, this figure being substantially a contin
45
(Cl. 181-48)
uancc of Fig. 1.
'
_
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary longitudinal view `of a
portion of an intermediate shell prior to the press
ing of the same into the desired shape to produce
a passage or bottle neck for a resonance cham
ber.
Figs. 4, 5, and 6 are tranverse sectional views
of the muñler taken» respectively on lines 4-4,
5_5, and 6--6, Fig. l.
I have illustrated in the drawings one type of
vided _at intervals with groups of apertures or
perforations I6 of any suitable or desired form,
the several groups of perforations being prefer- ,
ably separated by imperforate portions of the
muiiler. One end of the inner shell may be suit
ably secured to the head I0 to receive exhaust
gases from the inlet duct I2, and the opposite
end of the inner shell may be similarly arranged Ou O
to discharge gases into the discharge duct I4,
both ends of the inner shell being telescopically
arranged in the ducts in the particular construc
tion illustrated.
The muffler also includes one or
more intermediate shells extending about the
inner shell and spaced therefrom and from the
outer shell to form chambers for sound waves
and gases which pass out of the inner shell I5
through the perforations or apertures I 6. The
muñler shown is provided with a tubular inter- ,_,
mediate shell IB, one end of which is provided
with inwardly bent longitudinally extending
channeled portions I9 which may be secured to
an imperforate part of the inner shell I5. Be
tween these inwardly bent channels are arranged
portions 20 of the intermediate shell which are
spaced from the inner shell and thus form chan
nels or bottle necks 2|, Fig. 4, which connect an
inner chamber 22, arranged between the inner
shell I5 and the intermediate shell I8, with a
chamber 23 arranged between the intermediate
shell I8 and the outer shell 9. 'I‘his latter cham
ber terminates at one end in a baille or transverse
partition 24 extending from the intermediate shell
to the outer shell. This portion of the construc
tion is similar to ,that disclosed in the aforemen
tioned application No. 723,735.
At the other end of this intermediate shell,
another chamber 25 is formed between the inter
mediate shell and the inner shell I5 and gases
entering into this chamber may be discharged
through the open rear end of this chamber into
a resonance chamber 21 extending from the head
II to another baffle or transverse partition 28 55
muñler
to
which
>my
invention
may
be
applied,
'
55
2
2,112,964
arranged between the intermediate and outer
shells.
The muffler is preferably also provided with
high frequency resonance chambers, which in the
particular construction shown, are formed be
tween the inner shell I5 and another interme
diate shell 30. This latter shell may be formed
in any suitable or desired manner, for example,
shells such as shown in copending application
No. 89,606, ñled in the names of R'oy J. Mac
Kenzie, Lucien L. Haas, and Gail C. Stark
weather, may be employed. In the construction
shown, the shell is formed of two or more sec
tions having longitudinally extending flanges 3|
welded or otherwise secured together so that the
several sections together form a complete inter
mediate shell. If a plurality of separated reso
nance chambers is desired, the sections of the
shell 30 may be provided with integral inwardly
extending parts or waist portions 32, extending
into contact with the inner shell I5, thus form
ing two resonance chambers 33 and 34, by means
of which certain high frequency sound waves
may be eliminated by destructive interference.
The outer walls of the intermediate shell also
form a portion of the inner walls of the reso
nance chamber 21.
The various parts of the muiiler which have
thus far been described have heretofore been
30 used in the construction of muiiiers and do not
of themselves constitute a part of this invention.
It will be noted that by means of the construc
tion described, there is formed between the bañ‘les
24 and 28 an outer chamber 35 spaced between
35 the outer chambers 23 and 21. It may be desir
able in order to silence certain sounds present in
the exhaust of an engine to utilize this third outer
chamber 35 as a part of a bottle neck type of
resonance chamber, independently of the outer
40 chambers 23 and 21. For this purpose, I pro
vide between the ends of the intermediate shell
I8 a channel or bottle neck leading from one of
the inner chambers to the outer chamber 35 and
in order to provide such channel or bottle neck
45 without using an additional intermediate shell,
resonance chamber 35.
In order to adapt a muñler to cooperate with
an engine producing certain noises or sounds to
be eliminated, it may some times be necessary to
provide three outer resonance chambers which
may have to be tuned so that each chamber op
crates to destroy a certain band of sound waves
occurring in the exhaust. In order to tune these
chambers to operate on different sound waves, l0
the baflies 24 and 28 may be located at different
distances from each other and from the heads
I 0 and II, and the bottle necks or channels 20
may be varied in length and cross sectional area
to cooperate with the outer chamber 23. Sim
ilarly the channels or bottle necks 39 formed
in an intermediate portion of the shell I8 may be
varied in length and cross sectional area by vary
ing the lengths and widths of the inwardly pressed
grooves 31, to enable the bottle necks 39 to co 20
operate to the best advantage with the outer
chamber 35. The length of the annular channel
between the right-hand end of the intermediate
shell I8 and the imperforate portion of the inner
shell surrounded by this part of the intermedi 25
ate shell may also vary in length. This muiiier
may, therefore, be used to good advantage where
three different types of low frequency sound
waves occur in an exhaust which must be de
stroyed by means of three outer resonance cham
bers. It will, of course, be obvious that the con
30
struction herein described is equally applicable to
mufliers in which more than three outer reso
nance chambers are provided, as well as to muf
?lers having less than three resonance cham- ‘
bers, since it may be desirable to form a channel
or bottle neck in a part of an intermediate shell
between the ends thereof.
The construction described can be readily pro
duced, and it will be noted that the channel or 40
bottle neck between the ends of the shell can be
produced without using any additional parts, it
being merely necessary to slit and form the in
termediate shell in the manner described. It is,
I provide the following construction.
of course, not necessary to form the groove or Li5
The intermediate shell I8 is provided with one
or more circumferentially extending slits 31, two
after forming one or more slits 31 in the shell,
the formation of the annular groove or depression
being employed in the construction illustrated,
which are arranged at opposite sides of the inner
shell at the zone of said duct or inner shell I5
which is imperforate, and which slits are sepa
rated by unslitted portions of this shell. The un
slitted portions of the shell are then pressed
inwardly to a suñicient extent to form longitudi
nally extending grooves 38 in the intermediate
shell, the inner portions of the grooves prefer
ably contacting with the inner shell I5. This
leaves the portion of the metal of the intermedi
60 ate shell which terminates at the slits 31 spaced
from the inner shell as shown at 39 to form chan
nels or bottle necks communicating with the
inner chamber 22. An annular band or part of
the metal of the intermediate shell at the right
hand side of the slits 31, in the particular con
75
through the channels or bottle necks 39 into the
struction shown, is pressed inwardly into con
tact with the imperforate zone of the inner shell
I5, as shown at 40, thus forming an end wall
for the inner chamber 25. This leaves the chan
nels or bottle necks 39 which terminate at the
slits 31, along the imperforate zone of sheet I5,
in open ends which communicate with the outer
chamber 35, and the other ends of these channels
communicate with the chamber 22, so that sound
waves from the inner chamber 22 may pass
grooves 38 in the intermediate shell, since if,
40 will establish communication between the
chambers 22 and 35.
I claim as my invention:
1. A muii‘ler having outer, intermediate and
inner shells, heads secured to the ends of the
outer shell, the inner shell being provided with
perforations, said shells forming between them i
inner and outer chambers and the inner shell
forming a passage for gases, said intermediate
shell having a slit therein which extends gen
erally peripherally through a part only of the
periphery of said shell, the wall of said intermedi
ate shell along one side of said slit extending in
wardly toward the inner shell, to form an open
ing in said intermediate shell at said slit through
which gases and sound waves may flow from an
intermediate to an outer chamber, the wall of
said inner shell being imperforate for a substan
tial distance in both directions endwise thereof
from said slit.
2. A muiiier having outer, intermediate and
inner shells, heads secured to the ends of the
outer shell, the inner shell being provided with
perforations, said shells forming between them
inner and outer chambers and the inner shell
forming a passage for gases, said intermediate
shell having a slit therein which extends cir
75
2,112,964
cumferentially through a part only of the cir
cumference of said shell, the wall of said in
termediate shell immediately adjacent to and
along one side vof said slit extending inwardly to
ward the inner shell, to form an opening in said
intermediate shell at said slit through which
gases and sound waves may ilow from an in
termediate to an outer chamber, said intermedi
ate shell at the opposite side of the slit also being
inwardly constricted at the ends of said slit for
a short distance from the slit, the wall of said
inner shell being imperforate for a substantial
distance in both directions endwise thereof from
said slit.
3. A muiiier having outer, intermediate and
inner shells, heads secured to the ends of the
outer shell, the inner shell being provided with
perforations, said shells forming between them
inner and outer chambers and the inner shell
ZO forming a passage for gases, said intermediate
shell having a series of slits in approximate tan
dem arrangement and extending in a direction
peripherally of said shell and spaced apart end
for end, the wall of the intermediate shell im
PC Ca mediately adjacent .to and bordering one side of
said lseries of slits extending inwardly toward
said inner shell, to form openings at the other
side of said slits to establish communication be
tween an inner and an outer chamber, the wall
30 of said inner shell being imperforate in the zone
at the slit and extending a substantial distance
endwise of the inner shell in both directions from
said slit.
4. A tubular muiiler shell having intermediate
of `its ends a slit which extends generally periph
erally of the shell but through a part only of the
periphery of said shell, a part of the metal of
said shell at one side of said shell being con
stricted out of the contour of the remain-der of
said shell along the slit to form an opening at
said slit, and other parts of the metal of said
shell at the other side of said slit and at opposite
ends of said slit also being constricted inwardly
of the shell for a substantial distance endwise
along the shell, to form in the interior of said
shell a channel of substantial length terminating
in the opening at said slit.
5. A tubular muilier shell having a slit .therein
which extends circumferentially through a part
-only of the circumference of said shell, said shell
CLL) along one side of said slit extending inwardly
and providing with the portion of the shell along
the opposite side of said slit an enlarged opening
at said slit, said shell having a longitudinally
extending groove at said opposite side of said
slit between opposite ends of said slit and form
ing on the interior of said shell a channel termi
nating in said enlarged opening.
6. A muffler having outer, intermediate and
inner shells with spaces between them, heads se
cured to the ends of the outer shell, the inner
3.
stantially closes communication between the por
tions of the space provided between the inter
mediate and inner shells at opposite sides of said
slit, the portion of said intermediate shell at the
ends of the slit but on the same side of said slit
as said passage, being constrîcted into approxi
mate contact with said inner shell for a short
distance from said slit measured in a direction
endwise of the inner shell to define the side edge
walls of said passage, the portion of said inner
shell along said passage being substantially im
perforate, and said passage at the slit end there
of opening into the space between said outer and
intermediate shells.
'7. kA muiiier having outer, intermediate and in
ner shells, heads secured to the ends of the outer
shell, the inner shell being provided with perfo
rations, said shells being spaced apart, baffles
between said outer and intermediate shells form
ing with said heads a plurality of outer chambers,
said intermediate shell having therein intermedi
ate of its ends a slit which extends circumfer
entially through a part only of the circumference
of that shell, with the wall ofsaid intermediate
shell on one side of and bordering said slit spaced
from said inner shell to form with that shell a
passage leading from said slit to the chamber
between the inner and intermediate shells at
that side of the slit, the wall of said intermediate
shell in the circumferential zone immediately at
the opposite side of the slit from said passage
being constricted until it substantially closes com
munication between the chambers provided at
opposite si-des of the slit between said inner and
intermediate shells, the portion of said interme
diate shell at the ends of the slit, but on the
same side of said slit as said passage, being con
stricted into approximate contact with said inner
shell for a short distance from said slit measured
in a direction endwise of said inner shell, to 40
deñne the side edge walls of said passage, the
end of said passage at said slit opening into the
space between the intermediate and outer shells
and between said baffles, the portion of the wall
of the inner shell in the zone along said passage 13:',
being imperforate.
8. A muiiler comprising a casing with closed
ends, a conduit passing through said casing from
end to end, a shell within said casing and inter
posed between the peripheral casing wall and
said conduit and largely spaced from said con
duit and casing wall, bafile means interposed be
tween said casing wall and said shell so as to
divide the space between the casing wall and
shell into a plurality of chambers disposed in
tandem arrangement along the casing, said shell
having intermediate of its ends a slit extending
generally in a peripheral direction for a part only
of the periphery of said shell, the portion of said
shell along and bordering one side of said slit GO
extending inwardly towards said conduit, and the
shell being provided with perforations, said in-_ portion of said shell along the opposite side of
termediate shell having therein intermediate of
its ends a slit which extends circumferentially
.through a part only of the circumference of that
65
shell, and also having its wall on one side of and
bordering said slit spaced from said inner shell
4to form withsaid inner shell a passage from the
slit to the chamber between the inner and inter
mediate shells at that side of the slit, the wall
of said intermediate shell in the circumferential
zone immediately at the opposite side of said
slit from said passage being constricted towards
rthe periphery of the inner shell in a direction
circumîerentially of the inner shell until it sub
75
said slit being spaced from sai-d conduit to pro
vide a passage between the outer chamber at the
slit and a compartment between said conduit and l
said shell, said conduit being apertured in the
portion along said compartment but imperforate
in the peripheral zone adjacent said slit and for
a substantial distance from said slit along said
spaced portion of the shell, whereby communi
cation will be established between said conduit
and said compartment and from the latter
through the opening provided by said slit into
the chamber at said slit.
9. A muñier comprising a casing having an 75
4
2,112,964
inlet at one end and an outlet at the other end,
a pipe within said casing and conducting gases
through the casing from the inlet to the outlet
and intermediate of its end spaced from the pe
ripheral casing wall, a shell disposed around said
pipe within said casing and spaced largely from
the peripheral wall of said casing and from said
pipe, baille means interposed between shell and
the peripheral wall of said casing for dividing
the space between the peripheral casing and said
chambers having a slit extending generally in a
direction peripherally of the shell and for a por
tion only of its periphery, the portion of said
shell bordering one side of said slit extending in
wardly into contact with said pipe around the
entire periphery of said pipe, and the portion of
said shell along and bordering the opposite side
of said slit being spaced from said pipe, the
portion of said shell at the ends of said slit ex
tending into contact with said pipe for a substan
shell into a plurality of chambers arranged in
succession along said casing, said shell at a point
intermediate of its ends and within one of said
chambers having a slit extending generally in a
direction peripherally of the shell and for a por
of said shell from said slit, so as to provide a
passage from an outer chamber through said slit
to a compartment between said pipe and said
tion only of its periphery, said shell along said
pipe at the side of the slit which is spaced from
slit at one side thereof extending into contact
with said pipe, and at the other side of and bor
dering said slit spaced from said pipe, said shell
having portions at the ends of said slit and along
the sides of said space portion making contact
the pipe, said pipe being apertured in the portion
along said compartment and imperforate in the
zone adjacent said slit, whereby the space be
with said pipe whereby the spaced portion of said
shell along the slit will form with the pipe be~
neath it, an elongated bottle neck passage open
ing outwardly through the slit into an outer cham~
ber between the shell and the casing wall, and
at its other end opening into the space between
said shell and pipe, said last named space being
connected at a substantial distance from said slit
to the interior of said pipe, whereby gases may
pass from said pipe into said last-named space,
and which said last-named space communicates
through said passage with an outer chamber.
lí). A muffler comprising a casing having an
inlet at one end and an outlet at the other end,
a pipe within said casing and conducting gases
through the casing from the inlet to the outlet and
intermediate of its ends spaced from the periph
eral casing wall, a shell disposed around said pipe
within said casing and spaced largely from the
peripheral wall of said casing and from said pipe,
baffle means interposed between said shell and the
peripheral wall of said casing for dividing the
space betwen the peripheral casing and said shell
into a plurality of chambers arranged in succes
sion along said casing, said shell at a point inter
mediate of its ends and within one of said cham
bers having a slit extending generally in a di
rection peripherally of the shell and for a portion
only of its periphery, the portion of said shell
bordering one side of said slit extending inwardly
into contact with said pipe around the entire pew
riphery of said pipe, and the portion of said shell
along and bordering the opposite side of said slit
being spaced from said pipe, whereby the space
between said shell and pipe at the side of the
slit having the spaced portion of the shell may
communicate with an outer chamber through said
slit, and said pipe having a passage communi~
60 eating with said last-named space at a substan
tial distance away from said slit.
l1. A muffler comprising a casing having an
inlet at one end and an outlet at the other end,
a pipe within said casing and conducting gases
65 through the casing from the inlet to the outlet
and intermediate or" its ends spaced from the pe-ripheral casing wall, a shell disposed around said
tial distance along the sides of the spaced portion
shell beyond said portion contacting the said
tween said shell and pipe at the side of the slit 20
having the spaced portion of the shell may com~
municate with an outer chamber through said
slit, and said pipe having a passage communi
cating with said last-named space at a substan
tial distance away from said slit.
12. A muflier having telescoping outer, inter
mediate and inner shells largely spaced from one
another at intervals throughout their length,
baiiie means interposed between the outer and
intermediate shells intermediate of the ends of 30
the intermediate shell, so as to divide the space
between the outer and intermediate shells into
a plurality of chambers arranged in succession
along the outer shell, the intermediate shell at
a point in one of said chambers having a slit ex
35
tending in a direction generally peripherally of
the intermediate shell but for a portion only of
its periphery, the intermediate shell at one side
of said slit being constricted into contact with
said inner shell around its entire periphery, the 40
portion of the intermediate shell at the opposite
side of said slit being spaced from the inner
shell along said slit and constricted into Contact
with the inner shell at the ends of said slit,
whereby the compartment formed between the
inner and intermediate shells at that side of the
slit which has the intermediate shell spaced from
the inner shell along the slit, will communicate
with an outer chamber through the passage
formed along the inner shell from the slit by the „l
unconstricted portion of said intermediate shell
adjacent the slit, said inner shell communicat
ing with said compartment at a substantial dis
tance from said slit, and said inner shell being
connected to the outer shell for conducting gases _
through the outer shell from end to end thereof.
13. A muiiier comprising a casing having an
inlet at one end and an outlet at the other end,
a pipe within said casing for conducting gases
therethrough from said inlet to said outlet, a 60
shell within said casing and throughout its
length spaced largely from said-pipe and from
said the peripheral wall of said casing, said shell
having, intermediate of its ends, a slit extending
generally in a direction peripherally thereof but
for a portion only of its periphery, a portion of
said shell at one side of said slit and immediately
pipe within said casing and spaced largely from
the peripheral wall of said casing and from said
70 pipe, baiile means interposed between said shell
and the peripheral wall of said casing for dividing
the space between the peripheral casing and said
munication from end to end of said shell, the
portion of said shell bordering the opposite side
shell into a plurality of chambers arranged in
succession along said casing, said shell at a point
75 intermediate of its ends and within one of said
said slit and at the ends ofthe slit constricted
into` contact with said pipe for a substantial
adjacent the slit being constricted into contact
with said pipe for substantially the entire pe
riphery of said pipe so as to obstruct direct com
of said slit being spaced from said pipe along
70
2,112,964
5
distance measured in a direction endwise of the
pipe, sufficiently to form a bottle neck passage
from the slit endwise of the pipe for a substan
tial distance and opening into the compartment
formed by the space between a continuation of
said shell and said pipe, said pipe having com.
said pipe having communication with said last
named inner space solely beyond said bottle neck
munication with said compartment solely beyond
exhaust gases between said inlet and outlet, a
passage.
15. A muiiler comprising a casing having an
inlet at one end and an outlet at the other end
thereof, a pipe within said casing for conducting
shell also within said casing and largely spaced
from said pipe and the peripheral wall of said
10 chamber between said shell and the peripheral lcasing but terminating at both ends in spaced;
relation to the ends of said casing, baille means
Wall of said casing.
said bottle neck passage and from said compart
ment through said bottle neck passage to a
14. A muffler comprising a casing having an
inlet at one end and an outlet at the other end,
a pipe within said casing for conducting gases
15 through said casing from the inlet to the outlet,
a shell within said casing surrounding said pipe
and largely spaced from said pipe and from the
peripheral wall of said casing, so as to provide
an outer space between the peripheral wall of
20 the casing and said shell and an inner space
between the pipe and said shell, said shell at a
point intermediate of its ends being provided
with a plurality of slits extending generallyin
a direction peripherally of the pipe and arranged
25 in tandem to one another with unslitted por
tions between them, the portion of said shell at
one side of and bordering said slits being`con
stricted into contact with said pipe, and at the
opposite side of said slit being spaced from said
30 pipe along said slits and constrlcted into contact
with said pipe between the ends of said slit‘s for
a distance lengthwise of the pipe sufliciently to
form bottle neck passages opening through said
slits and establishing communication between an
35 outer space at the slit and an inner space at the
side of the slit having the bottle neck passage,
between said shell and the peripheral wall of
said casing for dividing the space between said
shell and said peripheral casing wall into a plu
rality of chambers arranged in succession along 15
the casing, said shell at its ends opening into the
end chambers of said plurality of chambers, the
portion of said shell forming a wall of an inter
mediate one of said plurality of chambers having
therein a slit progressing generally in a direc 20
tion peripherally of the shell but for a portion
only of its periphery, the portion of said shell
along one side of said slit being constricted into
contact with said pipe for at least approximately
the full length of said slit, and along the other 25
side of said slit being spaced from said pipe,
said shell at the ends of said slit being also con
stricted into contact with said pipe at said other
side of said slii'l for a distance suñicient to form
with said spaced portion of the shell along the 30
slit a bottle neck passage opening through said
slit into said intermediate one of said chambers,
and said pipe being apertured into the space
between it and said shell but solely at a substan
tial distance away from said slit.
35
ROY J. MACKENZIE.
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