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Патент USA US2113109

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April 5, 1938.
2,113,109
R. G. DE LA MATER
HYIDRODYNAMIC BRAKE MECHANISM
Filed Feb. l0,` 1936
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.April 5, 1938.
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R. G. DE LA MATER
2,113,109
HYDRODYNAMI‘C BRAKE MECHANISM
Filed Feb. l0, 1956
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April 5, 1938.
R. G. DE I_'A MATER '
2,113,109
HYDRODYNAMIC BRAKE MECHANISM
Filed Feb. l0, 1936 '
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April 5, 1938.-
R. G. DE LA_MATER
_
HYDRODYNAMIC vBRAKE MEQHANISM
Filed Feb. 1o, 1936
2,113,109
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Patented Apr. 5, 1938
_ 2,113,109
UNITED sTArEs
PATENT OFFICE i
\ >2,113,109
`
~
‘
”
maonrnamc BRAKE MEcnANIsM
Robert Grimn De la Mater; Parkersburg, w. va,
assignor to The Parkersburg Rig & Reel Com
pany, Parkersburg, W. «'Va., a corporation of
_ West Virginia
_
~ Application February 1o, iassrsemi No. 63,240
‘
sa claims.
'I'his invention relates to hydrodynamic .brake
mechanisms, and i\ an improvement over the
structures described,` nd claimed in my prior Pat
5
(ci. lss-9o)
is governed by varyingthe space between the rotor
and stator.
'
-
;
ents Nos. 1,992,911 Á)and 1,992,912, granted Feb
A further object is to provide novel means for
eiiecting relative axial movement between the'
ruary 26, 1935.
rotor and stator to thus determine the amountl -
~
~
I_n the prior patents referred to I have dis
of effective fluid within the brakewhereby the
closed several types of hydrodynamic brakes in_ _ braking action may be varied as desired.v
cluding the use of stator and rotor elementshav
A further object is to provide control means of f
ing coacting pockets _containing a liquid adapted the character referred to embodied in conjunction
to absorb a substantial amount of the energy of with liquid supply means whereby’the supplying
the rotor so as to exert a retarding force there- ‘ of liquid to the brake also may be utilized for
against. 'I'he prior structures referred‘to may governing the braking action.
be generally employed where the use of abrake ' IA rurther object is to provide governing means
of this character is desired, although they were for the braking action in conjunction with means _
15 particularly designed for use in connection with for venting the brake casing to theatmosphere
oil well drilling apparatus, in which use they _are to facilitate the complete evacuationof the cas
highly eiiicient.
-
'
_
ing when it is desired to render the brake com
__
In my copending application Serial No. 61,231,
pletely
` ñled January 28, 1936, I have disclosed a highly ’ ~
inoperative.
.
'
-
`
‘
"
A further object is to provide novel governing
20 perfected type of hydrodynamic brake which »means of the character referred .to in combina
possesses a high degree of flexibility of control, tion ,with novel means for governing the-admission 20
thus adapting it for a wide variety of uses, such Y -of liquid into the pockets of the rotor and stator .K
as braking means for heavy trucks, buses, etc.
elements.
In such use, the brake structure shown in my .co
o pending application referred to is highly efilcient
as means for limiting the speed of a vehicle when
desired, for example, in descending long grades.
The brake possesses the highly desirable char
acteristic of being subject to control by the op
30 erator to, provide any desired braking action as
determined by given conditions of operation.
In the structure of my copending application`
referred to, several means are disclosed for pro
_
,
_
Other objects and advantages ofthe invention
will become apparent during the course of the 25
following description.
f In the drawings I have shown several embodl-> I
ments of the invention. In this showing: '
Figure 1 is a sectional View .through the _brake `
mechanism taken transversely of the axis there 30
of substantially on line I--I of Figure 3, parts
being shown in elevation and parts being broken
viding the desirable flexibility of operation. For
away,
example, the apparatus embodies such features as control valves for governing the admission of
indicated by the line 2-2- of Figure 1, showing a 35
development of the stator and rotor pockets'wit
braking liquid into the brake casing and into the
.fluid pockets, control valves for governing the
discharging of ñuid from the stator pockets to the
brake casing, means for evacuating the brake
s'ructure when no braking action is desired, etc.
~An important object of the present invention is
to provide a brake structure adapted for the same
general uses as the structure of the copending
applica'ion referred to, but wherein a substan
tially different means is employed for varying the
braking action.
"
_
A further object is to provide a novel brake
structure of the character referred to wherein
59 the braking action is controlled by Aincreasing or
~
Figure 2 isa section taken _substantially as
respect to each other,l
p
'
Figure 3 is a sectionon line 3_3 of Figure 1,
Figure 4 is a similar view on line 4-4 of Flg
ure
1,
'
'
`
stantially centrally of the width thereof on a
plane at right angles to the axis of the brake,
_ Figure 6 is a sectional _view similar to Flgure 2
taken as indicated substantially on the line 6-6
of Figure 1,
y
l '
Figure 7 is a detail sectional view of the vent
valve and associated parts,
-
decreasing the rate of discharge oi- the liquid
radially outwardly between the rotor and stator
Figure 8 is a fragmentary sectional view similar
to the upper portion of Figureß showing a modi
elements.
fled form of the invention,
_
_
-
'
A further object is to provide a brake- of the
Gl 5 character referred to wherein the braking action
40
Fig-_ure 5 is an enlarged fragmentaryl sectional
view of the upper portion of the brake taken sub
A50
-
~Figure 9 is a detail sectional view'taken sub
stantially as indicated by the line 9,-9 of Fig lili>
2,113,109
ure 8 showing( two of the inlet valves and asso . -members axially toward the rotbr _is -limited by
ciated elements,
shoulders 3| 'formed in the casing _section II.
_
c.
Figure 10 is a similar view’showing a- slightly '» When the ’stators are in :engagement ,with ‘the’
" modified arrangement of the inlet valves.
l Figure 11 is a fragmentary elevation showing
a modified form of rotor and stator'` pockets,
shoulders', the spaces between the rotor and stator.
-elements are arranged the minimum distance
apart. and this distance may be increased by
~ Figure ,12'is a similarview showing _a further
imparting rotational movement~ to the stator ele
modification of the same,
ments, as will become appareñt._ The space be- .
.
-
‘
Figure 13 is a sectional view similar to Figure 2, . tween‘the rotor and the casing II constitutes a
10 showing a modiiied formv of rotor and stator -for chamber receiving yiïluid passing radially out 10
'providing a braking action upon rotation ofthe wardly between .the rotor and stator members.
rotor in either direction, and,
, '
' y
The coacting liquid pockets 23r and 28 incline .
Figure 14 is 'a diagrammatic view illustratins ' away from the center of the rotor in the direc- ~
` - the circulating system for thebrake.
15
vtion of rotation of the latter as indicated in
vReferring to Figures 1, 2, and 3, the numeral
Figures 2 and 6.. Thevanes dividing the pockets 15
_ I3 designates the brake casing as a whole, com
can extend'substantially radially as indicated in
Aprising a generally cylindrical` center'section II ' Figures 1 and 5. 'I'he latter arrangement, how->
and end sections I2 .and I3.
center section ever,-may be modified in a manner tobe referred
II' is shown as being, provided with horizontally 1 to later.. _
’ _
_'
,
.
à
extending- arms I4 bolted asat I I to supporting ' ` Each oi' the casing sections I2 and I3 is pro-I
frames I3, rubber or similar cushioning elements yvided with an inwardly extending annular flange '
I1 preferably being interposed between -the ends 32 forming a supporting -bearing for'_the adja
of the arms I4 and the supporting frame mem
cent stator member, these bearings permitting
" bers. These frame members are the side mem
axial» movement of each of the stator members
bers of a motor vehicle chassis, but it is'pointed away from the rotor in a mannercto be described. 25
out that while the present invention is capable _ Each of the end 'casing sectionsis providedwith
of general application, it is particularly intended suitable' packing 33 to eliminate leakage of the
braking liquid along the shaft I9. Each_packThe casing sections are secured together by ing is retained by a gland 34 which is engageable .
30 suitable bolts I3, thus forming, in effect, a single by a retaining ring’ 33 carrying anti-friction 30
casing in which the braking elements are con
bearings-36, as shown in Figures 3`and 4. The
tained. A shaft I9 extends through'the casing , retaining rings 35 are secured to the yrespective
and has its .ends suitably formed to be coupled casing sections by suitable bolts 31. The pack
to forward and rear sections of the vehicle drive ing elements 33 and bearings 36 may besupplied
-for use in connection with motor vehicles. -
shaft. It will be-apparent, however, thatl the
shaft I9 may be driven from any suitable> rotat
ingpart of the vehicle, or may be connected to'
with lubricant through suitable passages 38 and 35
"
39 respectively.
_
_
Each casing section I2 and I3 is provided with
any rotating part of any apparatus in ,connec
a fluid space 40, as shown in Figures 3 „and 4,
tion with which the braking action __is desired. and each of these spaces is annular, as will be
l40 A rotor 201s keyed as at 2l .to the shaft I9 and apparent. At one point in its periphery, the cas
is concentric therewith. However, the shaft I9 ing section II is provided with means for intro
preferably has its axis arranged slightly above ducing braking liquid into the spaces or passages
the axis of the casing, and accordingly the rotor - 43. Referring 'to Figures 4 and 5. the numeral 4I
» 20 is' slightly eccentric with respect to the casing. designates a valve housing secured to the casing
Accordingly the clearance between the rotor and» section II and connected to'a ñuid supply pipe 45.
45. the
casing section II_is greater at the bottom of 42 through which braking liquid is supplied to
the brake than at _the top thereof, and this ar
the spaces 4II. The pipes 24 and 42 lead to a
rangement facilitates the .pumping action of the heat exchanger 43 (Figure 14) which preferably
Írotor and the evacuation of the brake, and will ‘also is employed as a reservoir for the circulat
lbe referred to later. “
A
ing liquid.l Hydrodynamic brakes develop a sub- -'-'
'I'he periphery ofl the >rotor is 'provided with stantial degree of heat inthe braking liquid, as
pockets 22 formed as shown in Figures 3, 4, and 5, is well known, and the heat exchanging means
to generate a pumping action tending to move 4_3l is included in'the circulating system for the
liquid in the casing toward the top thereof to be brake to minimize the‘temperature of the circu
discharged through an opening 23. _This _action lating liquid. In the case of a motor vehicle
maintains a circulation of liquid through the installation, the heat exchange means may be
brake when .the latter is in operation and eñects the usual> v hicleradiator or it may be a supple
the' evacuation of the brake when the`latter is mental ra ator provided solely for the purpose
rendered. inoperative by the control means to be
60 described.
'I'he outlet passage 23 is connected to
of.cooling the braking liquid.
~
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_
_
<
-
The valve housing 4I is bolted to the casing 60
a pipe 24 as shown in Figure 14. _ The rotor 20 is section II as at 44 and a portion of the housing
provided with a center wall 29 and 'opposite faces - 4I projects into anopening 45 in the casing sec- `
of the rotor are provided with pockets 26 divided tion II and terminates in~ar valve seat 46.t This
by walls or vanes 21, as shown in Figures 2_ and 6. seat is engageable by~ a,l valve 41 carried by a
65 These pockets directly communicate with -similar guide 48 operable in .the housing 4I.- ' Thé valve es'
Apockets 28 formed in the inner -faces of stator -41 controls the admission of liquidK into a trans
members 29. The stator members are mounted verse passage 49 communicating with the liquidfor rotation >and .axial movement with respect to spaces 40.
_
-the rotor by means of relatively heavy threads « Each of the. stator elements is provided with a
30 formed respectively in the periphery of -the plurality of inlet tubes 5I), preferably formed in 70
stator members and within opposite ends of the- tegral therewith, and adapted to permit the flow '
center casing section II. a
.
The adjacent faces of the rotor and stator
-members are arranged as close together as is
of liquid from the-spaces or passages 40 into the
rotor and stator pockets, the flow of liquid being
induced by' operation of the rotor, as will become
75 practicable, andthe 4movement of the 'stator apparent. As shown in Figures 1, 3, and 4, the
i
75
aliases
ï
' "'
provided wana preferirei
inlet tubes have their longitudinallyL inner ends
inclined radially outwardly with respect to the
'ina '6lopenings”.
pmieètins 1.therefromzïand
The outer: gend `_
axis of rotation of the rotor. As indicated in' _ linlet
Figures 1 and 2, the longitudinally inner ends of 'ing 68 _is ‘openfand 'slidably_,_ïrecei_ves_¿
theinlet tubes are also inclined in the direction-of vrotation of the rotor. In the form of the in
, _
.
having- a Spriìißl„.'|l__„ urging; it outwardly »_int'o' -en-`A
gagement with
annular~j‘ringf'i2:ïpreferablyï.
f
vention _shown in Figures 1 to'6_\inc_lusive„|?he_
‘valves 10
integral
and associated
with `vthejeaisiniz
parts'maybe
_section ,iai
identicalv
'^ fine' Y l
inlet tubes 50 are not provided with any control.\ „formed
valve means, but such means may bege'mployed ~
with each other'as indicated-m:9-’5-1.'n www.
if desired and is .described later-.in connection
with a modified form of the invention.
'
_
Y
'I‘he casing section Ii is provided near the topv
» thereof witha bearing boss 6I rotatably support- '
ing a control shaft 52, and this shaft may bero- ^
15 tated by any suitable means (not shown), ex
tending to a convenient point of operation, such
' - as a point adjacent the driver’s seat `when- the
brake is `used on a motor vehicle. The endcf` the
shaft 52 to which theoperating means is con
' 20
case they will`_ b'e simultaneously l'opened' and
.
..
1o`
-closed at the same rate upon axial. movement of
the stator'elements'.V -.
»,
»_
.l
..
' »
,_
l'The form" vof’ the.- invention shown in Figure l0
is` identicalwith that’shown'lin 'Figure 9 except ._
that the valves> 16' are made slightly‘diñerent '»
from each other. `The s_ame results may be ob
tainedfby-vary'ing the- ports 69 in the valve hous
ing 68. . The valves 1li may be of slightly varying
_lengths -so 1j that the valves progressively reach
nected extends through the casing section I2 _the entirely _closed- positions instead of being
and the latter is providedwith a suitable stumng ' simultaneously'oper'ated at the same rate as in
box 53‘to prevent leakage of. liquid around thev , the form of the. invention shown in Figures 8 '
shaft.
'
.
A pair- of pinions 54 is >keyed or otherwise se
cured to'the shaft 52. Each of these pinions
meshes with the teeth of a segment gear 55
» formed in the periphery of one of the stator ele
ments. These segment gears are arranged axial
and 9.
_
.
"
In _the‘forms ofthe invention previously de
scribed, the pockets in the rotor and stator -are
substantially radial. A somewhat modified form
of the invention is illustrated in Figure 1l, which
may be either the rotor or the stator. In .this
ly outwardly of the threads 30 andare relatively- case the pockets 13 are formed between vanes
longer than the teeth of the pinions to permit 14 which are curved from end te end. The outer Í
axial movement of the stator elements upon rota
ends of the vanes14 curve backward with respect
tion of the shaft 52.
.
'to the direction of rotation, and 'this construction
I_i;- will be‘apparent that rotation of the shaft increases the velocity of the'braking liquid, as
l' 52 transmits rotational movement to the'stator4 will become apparent, thus increasing the max
elements and that these elements partake of axial imum braking capacity.A ’ ' _ ' '
_
movement due to their threaded connection with ’
the casing. This axial movement determines the
escape of liquid from the rotor and stator pockets
‘ In Figure l2 a 4further modification is- illus
trated which is applicable to both the rotor and
stator, wherein pockets 15 are formed between
'and is utilized for governing the admission of - vanes 164 which are straight and are inclined ra
liquid into the casing. Referring to Figure 4, the
numeral 56 designates a relatively stiff leaf spring
having one end pivotally connected as at 51 to va
dially outwardly opposite to the direction of ro
tation. This construction also increases thev
liquid velocity and the brake capacity in the
boss y58 formed integral with the casing section 'same manner as the structure shown in Figure 1l.
i3. 'I’he spring 56 is bent intermediate its ends _'
In Figure 13 of the drawings a brakestructure
45 as atV 56 and has its free end 60 engageable with is shown for use where the brake is required to
` the valve 41 to close the latter when the stator develop resistance in either direction of rotation.
adjacent the spring' 56 moves axially away from In this form of the invention va rotor 11 is illus
the rotor.
‘
trated as being »provided in opposite _faces with
The closing of the valve 41 and the axial move
ment of the stator elements away from each other
evacuate the brake and render it inoperative,
and valve means is provided for preventing the
creation of a partial vacuum within the brake,
tending to prevent -the complete evacuation
thereof._ Referring to Figures .3 and '7, the nu
meral 6i designates a valve housing which may
be threaded in a suitable opening in the casing
' section I3.
Il'fhe valve casing 6I slidably carries
a valve stem 62 therein._
valve casing 6i» serves as
end Aci’ the valve stem 62,
the latter is slidable in a
pockets 18. In the other forms of the invention
described the/vaines separating the pockets of the
rotor have parallel opposite faces. The form of '
the invention shown-in Figure 13, however, 'pro-vides separating walls 19 between the pockets»
having oppositely inclined faces 80, the width of
each pocket increasing toward the center of the
rotor.
When the rotor is rotating in a direction
corresponding to movement of the rotor to the. t
left as lviewed in Figure 13, the right hand faces
The inner end of the 80 of the pockets 18 transmit movement to the
a guide for the inner braking liquid to generate necessary liquid ve
and the outer end of i locity for the braking action. When the rotor co
plug 63 vented to the rotates in the opposite direction, the left hand
_ atmosphere as at 64. , The stem 62 carries a valve
faces 80 of the rotor pockets perform the same
65 urged longitudinally inwardly by a spring 65’
function.
v
.
"
and engageable with a seat 66, and when the
Thel stators 8| in Figure 13 are similarly con
valve is open, the interior of the valve housing i structed, the pockets 82 thereof being separated 65
communicates with the interior of the casingk by walls 83 having oppositely inclined faces 84 `
` through a port 61. _ 'I'he inner end of the s_tem
62 is.` engaged bythe adjacent stator element
whereby the latter, upon movement _away from
the rotor, unseats the valve 65. ._
to „respectively act on the braking liquid de-„
pendent upon the direction of rotation of the
rotor. Each wall 83, or certain of these walls,
'may be provided with liquid inlet passages 85
corresponding rto the tubes 50 previously de
In the modified form of the invention shown
in Figures 8 and 9 valve means is employed for
controlling the admission of fluid into the inlet
scribed, except that the passages 85 are arranged .
tubes 50. Each of the stator members may be
tion, The passages 85, however, slope toward
in planes radial with respect to the axis of rota
anaioaf
4
their inner ends radially outwardly with respect
to`the agis of the brake, and accordingly the
brake. The heat generated by the brake is dis-’ sipated byv means of the heat exchanger 43 ,
rotor is operative for inducingv a flow of liquid»> through .w ch the liquid flows- from the pipe 24„
through these passages.
I
y
` The operation of the f_ormxof the invention
"shown in Figures l to 'I inclusive is as follows:l
As\previously" stated, the present construction
is adaptedfor any-use in which a hydrodynamic
the nquiá ug returned to the brake rthrough ì
the pipe 42 and thenceintc the passage 40, since 5'
the valve 41 _is open under the conditions being
considered.
.
f
'
.
y
In operation, the brakeelements per se com»
brake is practicable, as in oil well drilling equip- ' -prising the rotor 20, stators 26 and the pockets in' ’ .
10 ment wherein it is desirable Ito reduce'the ex
these elements, functionas lfully describe‘d in my 10i
prior patents referred to and need not be de
brake is disclosed in my prior patents referred scribed at substantial length herein. It will be
. to. 'I'he flexibility of control of the present con
apparent that the operation of the rotor gener
struction renders it particularly adapted vfor use ates centrifugal force inI the liquid ofthe pockets
on heavy motor vehicles such`as trucks and i» 26, thus creating a radial flow of this liquid to `15
buses. It is proposed, of course, that vehicles the~ radially o_uter ends of the pockets ‘26 from
retain the present types of friction brakes for whence the'yiiuid is discharged into the radially
bringing the- vehicles to a complete stop, the outer portions of the pockets 26. These pockets'
present apparatus being adapted only for re-~4 are stationary, and accordingly i’t will be apparent
cessive wear on friction brakes. «Buch use of the
tarding the movement of the vehicle or `for de
termining a maximum rate ofdv movement and
thus materially save wear and tear on the fric
that- they overcome the‘inertia of the liquid and
react' therethrough to retard the rotational
speed of the rotor.` As the liquid reaches the
. radially iuneriimits of the pockets 2s, the nuid
is discharged int'o the corresponding ends of the
ticularly intended for limiting the speed of heavy ‘ pockets 26, the vanes between the latter pockets
tion brakes.
-
'
’ For example, the present construction is par- ,
vehicles when descending grades without the
cutting tiiròugii the sowing liquid»
necessity for the driver having to constantly
employ the conventional friction brakes for this
It requires substantial energy to again set the
liquid into rotary and `radial motion, and the
purpose. In descending long grades, as in~hilly ï' action of the braking means therefore is to re-»
tard the rotationof the rotor 2U. The degree to 30
motor vehicles are subject to rapid wear and de
`which the braking action takes place depends, of
e struction due to the heat generated in the brakes. ' course,'on the total amount of fluid in the pockets
The present construction requires that the fric
of the rotor and stator and the speed of rotation`
tion brakes be used only when a vehicle is to be »of the shaft I9. Any desired retarding action
brought to a stop.
‘
may be readily accomplished upto a given maxi
When the present invention is used in con
mum for a given vehicle speed by increasing up
30 and mountainous country, the friction brakes of
nection with motor vehicles the brake mecha
nism may be supported in the manner suggested
in Figure 1. The shaft I9 may be coupled in
40 the vehicle propeller shaft or may be suitably
driven from any rotating part of- the vehicle.
'I‘he mounting of the brake is such that the
shaft I9, and consequently the rotor 2l, will be
driven at a speed proportionate to the speed of
vrotation of the vehicle wheels.
vto the maximum the amount of fluid contained
within the rotor and stator pockets. Beyond
such point the braking action will increase `upon
the increased speed of rotation of the shaft I 8,
it _being known that in a brake of 'this type the
braking action increases as they square of the
speed of rotation of the rotor.
'
'
-
The foregoing description covers generally the
operation of the brake‘working at full capacity
i
when the brake is functioning tig/retard the at any given rotational speed. If the braking
vehicle speed, the parts will be inthe positions> action thus provided is excessive under‘a> given i»
shown in Figure 4, the stator elements being at condition, it readily may be reduced n'ierely by
their axially inner limit of movement with the
inlet valve Il in open position. 'I‘he vent valve
rotating the shaft 62 by the operating4 means
(not shown) provided for'such purpose. Rota'
"65 will be closed as shown in Figure l3, and as tion of the shaft 52 in one direction rotates the i
shown in solid .lines in Figure 7.' Under such , stator elements, which action is accompanied by
conditions the brake will be eifecting its maxi
the transmission of axial movement >of the stator
mum braking action. ~The radially outward flow
elements away from the rotor by virtue of the
55 of liquid in the rotor pockets 26 induces a ñow threaded connection between the stator members
of liquid from the passages 50 into -the pocketslof - and the casing section II. It 'will be apparent
the rotor, and the leakage of> liquid radially out- \ that the brake operates at its >highest eiliciency
wardly between the adjacent faces of the rotor under any .given conditions when the rotor and
Land' stator elements is at¢a minimum, and ac
stator elements are arranged in closeproximity
cordingly thermaximum amount of liquid will
and the braking action is reduced by moving the
remain in the rotor ‘and stator pockets to effect
stator elements to increase the lspace' between
' the maximum >braking action at the particularA ¿these elements and the‘rotor.
'speed of rotation of the rotor.
.
.
_
- Of course, there is a constant leakage of liquid
The operation referred to increases thefflow .
'of liquid radially outwardly between the adja
radially outwardly between the adjacent faces _ cent faces olfI the rotor and the stators, thus in-`
of the rotor and stator which is more than com
creasing the liquid “discharge from the brake'
pensated for by the flow of liquid into the Abrake ‘through the opening 23 'and' pipe 24' by the pump
through the inlet tubes 56, and the liquid flowing
outwardly between the rotor and stator elements
70 is pumped fromthe brake by means of the pump
ing action ofthe rotor and the discharge p'ipe24.
The provision of the pockets 22 in the periphery
» of the -rotor and the eccentric mounting of the
latter facilitates the pumping action and main
75 tainsa constant _circulation of liquid through the
` ing action of the rotor. Further rotational move
ment may be imparted to the- stators to effect
further axial movement thereof away fromv the 70
rotor, and under such conditions the spring 56
4(Figuren) will be engaged by the adjacent stator
member to progressively -close the valve 41 and
Vthus reduce the supply of liquid to the passages
4l. Bv increasing the discharging of the liquid 75
~2,118,109
- from the brake pockets and by progressively re
ducing the rate of ñow of liquid into the pas
sages 40, the operator gradually reduces the
amount of braking liquid within the rotor and
stator pockets and otherwise reduces the braking
action by moving the stator elements away from
the rotor, until a point is reached at which the
desired braking action is obtained.
The brake may be rendered completely inop
_
,
5
shown in Figures 8 and 9 is identical with that
previously described- with the‘exception of Athe
controlling of the admission of liquid from the
passages 40.into the rotor and stator pockets.
As the stator elements move inwardly to decrease
the space between the adjacent faces of the rotor
and stator members and thus increase the brak-.
ing action, the ports Glare progressively opened
by the valve 10 to permit a progressively in
10 erative by continuing the operation Just referred creasing rate of flow of liquid into the pockets.
to. In other words, rotation of the shaft 52 may l Conversely, vwhen the brake action is reduced by
be'continued until the stator members have been
moved the maximum distance from the rotor. IAt
such time, the discharging of liquid from the
15 brake pockets will take place at a maximum rate.
During the operation referred to the spring 56
will be further actuated by the adjacent stator
to completely close the valve 41 and thus vprevent
the entrance of any liquid into the brake. 'The
moving the stator elements axially away from the
rotor, the ports 69 are> progressively closed. As
the stator elements are rotated, the outer ends of
the valves 10 slide against the bearing face 12
and accordinglyl the valves themselves do not '
move axially.4 'I'he valve housings 68, however, ,~
partake of movement together with the stator
members, and the rate of communication through
20 apparatus is so constructed that the valve 41 will ' the ports 69 is thus controlled. These ports are 20
reach closed position shortly before the'stators completely closed when the brake is inoperative
have been moved the maximum distance away and the stator members are moved the maximum
from the rotor so that the last increment of distance away from the rotor.
'
movement of the stator member adjacent the
In the form of the invention shown in Figures
25 spring 56 will place the latter under substantial 8 and 9 the valves 10 and their housings 68 are
tension to maintain the valve 41 tightly against identical in construction and arrangement of
its seat and insure the cutting 0E of the liquid parts and accordingly they function identically.
supply.
In the form of the invention shown in Figure 10,
'I‘he brake is thus rendered inoperative by cut
the valves 10 have been indicated as being of
ting off the liquid supply and by so positioningk slightly different lengths so that one or more of V30
the parts that the pumping action of the rotor the valves will first start its movement toward
will completely evacuate the rotor and stator closed position, followed progressively by the Afre
pockets. In order to prevent the possibility of maining valves. This construction is provided
trapping liquid within the brake due to the crea _merely to increase to some extent the degree of
tion of a partial vacuum therein incident to the flexibility of control. The same resultv may be ob 35
evacuation of the brake, the vent >valve 65 is pro
tained by altering the ports 68 instead of employ
vided. At the point where the inlet >valve 41 ing valves 10 of slightly different lengths.
reaches closed position', the adjacent stator mem
In Figures 11 and 12 of the drawings, modified
ber contacts with the inner end of the valve stem forms of rotorl and stator pockets have-been i1
62, and slight further movement of this stator lustrated and such forms may be employed where 40
member unseats the valve 65 and thus vents the it is desired to increase the maximum braking ac
casing to the atmosphere. When the brake is tion. In both Figures 11 and 12, the pockets are
inoperative, therefore, atmospheric pressure is inclined toward their outer ends backward with
present in the brake and the creation of a par
respect to the direction of rotation, and it has
tial vacuum therein is prevented. In most in
been found that such construction increases the 45
stallations this valve is wholly unnecessary; and velocity of the braking liquid for a given rotor
is provided solely as means for positively insur
speed, thus increasing the capacity-of the brake.
ing the complete evacuation of the rotor and f Figure _13 of the drawings illustrates an op
stator pockets. __
>
‘_
tional arrangement of rotor and stator pockets
From the foregoing it will be apparent that and associated elements which may be utilized
any desired braking action may be obtained, up for developing a braking action upon rotation
to a maximum point for any given rotational of the rotor- in either direction. The pockets of
speed, in which latter case the rotor and stator both the stator and rotor have inclined side walls
pockets will contain the maximum amount of as previously described whereby the coacting
pockets are adapted to generate a liquid ñow to
braking liquid. Moreover, the brake may be ren
dered completely inoperative by closing the liq
provide a braking action regardless of the direc
uid supply-and completely evacuating the rotor tion of rotation. In order that the flow of lfrak
and stator pockets. Under all conditions, when ing liquid may be induced by rotation of the rotor
the brake is operated, the rotor acts as a- pump in either direction, the inlet passages 85 are
arranged in planes passing through the axis of co
to circulate liquid through the brake.l The pe
ripheral pockets 22 assist in causing the liquid
passing outwardly betweenthe adjacent faces of
rotation.’ These passages however, are inclined _
the rotor and the stators to rotate at the same
inner ends `in order that vthe induction of liquid
speed as the rotor, thus creating centrifugal force
in the liquid to discharge it through the opening
into the rotor. pockets may be eiïected. "
23. The pumping action of the rotor and its
pockets is increased by the eccentric mounting of
.the rotor, the space between the rotor and the
casing Il decreasing toward the outlet opening
23 to tend to place the liquid under pressure to
assist in discharging it. -The same pumping>
means operates to evacuate the brake when the
latter is rendered inoperative in the manner pre
viously described.
75
-
_
The operation of _the form of the invention
radially outwardly toward their longitudinally
'
In each form of the invention the stator mem
bers may be removed for replacement in the event
of breakage or >for replacement with stators of
different types. The threaded connection of the
stator members with the casing section Il per
mits the ready removal of the stator members,
as will `be apparent.
. _
In view of -the foregoing it will bè apparent
that the present construction provides a highly
efficient braking action, thus rendering the appa
ratus applicable for use with heavymotor ve
6
hiclesto permit a retarding of the speed’ thereof ' tive axial movement of said rotor and said stator
without or prior _to application of the conven . member, and common operating means for said
tional friction brakes. The use oi the brake is last two means. ' ,
_
I
particularly advantageous in maintaining the ve
- 9. A hydrodynamic brake comprising a rotor
and a stator member provided with coacting ñuid
hicle speed below a given-> maximum when de
scending long grades, thus relieving the conven
pockets, means for supplying iiuid to said pockets,
tional friction brakes of the wear which is most means for varying the supply of iluid to said
destructive to them. IThe brake structure shown pockets, and means for transmitting movement
and described is highly ilexible in its control, and
10 the functioningsÍ of the various control elements
are subject to operation through a common oper
ating member, namely, the shaft 52. i
It is to be understood that the forms of the
to said stator member to move it axially away
from‘said,` rotor, whereby the supply of ñuid to 10
the brake may be cut oit and said rotor and
stat-or members may move relatively-away from
each other to quickly and substantially com#
invention herewith shown and described are to - pletely‘ evacuate said pockets.
be taken aspreierred examples ofthe same and
that various 4changes in the shape, size and ar
rangement oi parts may be ’resorted to without
departing from the spirit of the invention or the
scope of the subjoined claims.
v20
I claim:
'
`
10. A hydrodynamic brake comprising a rotor 15'
and a stator member provided with coacting> iluid
pockets, means for supplying iiuid to said pockets,
means Tor varying the supply of iluid to said
pockets, means for transmitting movement .to
, said stator member to move it axially away from
`
1. A hydrodynamic brake comprising a rotor
and a stator provided with coacting fluid pockets,
means for ysupplying iiuid to said pockets, means
for varying the supply of fluid to said pockets,
25 and means for varying the discharge of fluid
radially directly from said pockets.
said rotor, and common operating means for said
last two means`- »
11. A hydrodynamic brake comprising a rotor
member and a stator member provided with co
acting fluid pockets, means having threaded con
nection with said stator member, and means for
2. A hydrodynamic brake comprising a rotor
and a stator provided with coacting fluid pockets,
means for supplying ñuid to said pockets, means
30 for varying the supply of iluid to said pockets,
means for varying the discharge of ñuìd radially
directly from said pockets“, and common operat
` ing means for `said last two means.
3. A hydrodynamic brake comprising a rotor
and a stator provided with coacting iluid pockets,
means for supplying ñuid to said pockets, means
for varying the supply o'f fluid to said pockets,
and means for varying the rate oi' discharge of
fluid radially directly from said pockets between
40 said rotor and said stator.
`
4. A hydrodynamic brake comprising a rotor
and a stator provided with coacting :duid pockets,
effecting relative rotation of said stator member
and said last named means to vary the space
between said rotor and stator members.
12. A hydrodynamic brake comprising a rotor
member and 'a stator member provided with co
acting iluld pockets, one oi’ said members being
axially movable on a thread with respect to the
other, and means for rotating said ilrst named
member.
35
`
13. A hydrodynamic brake comprising a rotor
member and a stator member provided with co
acting fluid pockets, one of said members being
axially movable on a thread with respect to the
other, means for rotating said ilrst named mem (0
ber, and means for supplying iluid to said pockets.
' 14. A hydrodynamic brake,comprising a rotor
means for supplying iluid to said pockets, means
member and a stator member provided with‘co
for varying the supply of duid to s'aid pockets.’
acting ñuid pockets, one oi.' said members being
45 means for varying 'the rate of discharge of ñuid
axially movable on a thread with .respect to thev
radially directly from said pockets "between said
rotor and said stator, and common operating
other, means for supplying uuid tó said pockets,
means for'varying the fluid (supply, and means
means for said last two means.
for rotating said first named member.
. .
,
,
5. A hydrodynamic brake comprising a rotor
50 and a stator provided with ‘coacting iiuid pockets,
" 15.l A hydrodynamic brake comprising a rotor
60 and) said stator, and common operating means
ing ñuid pockets, means- for supplying duid to
member and a stator'member provided with co
means for supplying ñuid to said pockets, means acting ñuid pockets, one of said members being
for varying the supply of ñuid to said pockets, axially movable on a thread with respect to the>
and means for varying' the _Space between said _ other, means for supplying duid to said pockets,
rotor and said stator..
t,
`
means- for varying the fluid supply, means for
6. A hydrodynamic brake comprising a rotor rotating said ñrst named member, and commen
55
and a stator provided with coacting iluid pockets, , operating means for said last two means.
means for supplying ñuid to said pockets, means
16. A hydrodynamic brake comprising a cas
for varying the supply of fluid to said pockets. ing, 4a rotor member and a stator member ar
means for varying the space between said rotor ranged' in4 said casing and provided with coact
said pockets, means for _discharging iiuid from
'7. A' hydrodynamic- brake comprising a rotor said casing, valve means for controlling the sup
and a stator member provided with` coacting fluid ply of iluid to said pockets, andimeans for sup
pockets, means for supplying iluid to said pockets, porting one of said .members in said casing for
relative axial movement with respect to the other
65 means for varying said ñuid supply, .and means
for eiîecting 'relative axial movement 'of said rotor’ member, whereby the supply of fluid to the brake
and said stator member, whereby the supply oi' may be cut oil.' and said rotor and stator mem
fluid to the brake may be cut oiï~and said rotor bers may move relatively away from each other
and stator members -may be moved relatively to quickly and substantially completely evacu
ate said pockets.
70 away from each other- to quickly and substan
70
for said last two means.
'
.
tially completely evacuate said pockets.
..
-
-
8.,A hydrodynamic brake comprising a rotor
and a. stator member provided with coacting iluid
pockets, means for variably supplying 'iiuid to
75 said pockets, means operative -tor „eiïecting rela
~ 17. A hydrodynamic brake comprising a cas
ing, a rotor member and a stator member ar
ranged in saidcasing and provided with coacting
duid pockets. means for supplying duid to‘said
pockets, means for discharging .ñuid from said
7v
. 2,113,109
casing, valve means for controlling the supply‘
of -iiuid to said~ pockets, means for supporting
eating with saidpockets to .supply fluid thereto
and the other communicating with‘said pockets
to receive fluid passing radially outwardly there
one of said members in said casing for-relative
axial movement'l with respect to the other mem ' from between said rotor and said stator, means
ber,v and common operating means for axially
moving said iirst named member and for operat
ing said valve means.
~
18. A hydrodynamic brake comprising a' cas
ing, a rotor and a stator mounted in said casing
and provided with coacting fluid pockets, said
stator being threaded in said casing for axial
for governing the supply of iiuid to said pockets,
means for eiïecting axial movement of said stator
with respect to said rotor, and common operat
ing meansifor said last two means. '
25. A hydrodynamic brake comprising acas
ing, a rotor and a stator arranged in said casing 10.
and provided with coacting fluid pockets, said
‘ movement toward and away from said-rotor, and
stator being threaded in said casing for axial
» means for rotating said stator.
movement toward and away from said` rotor,
said casing being provided with a pair of iluid
chambers one communicating with sa'id pockets
to supply fluid theretov and the other communi
cating with said pockets to 'receive fluid there
from passing radially outwardly between said
rotor .and said stator, and means for rotating
‘
19. A hydrodynamic brake comprising a cas
ing, a rotor and a stator mounted in said casing
and provided with coacting fluid pockets, said
stator being threaded in said casing for axial
movement toward and away- from said rotor,
means for supplying fluid to said pockets, means
for discharging'ñuid from said casing passing
from said pockets between said rotor and said
stator, and means for rotating said stator.
20. A hydrodynamic brake comprising a cas,
ing, a rotor and a stator mounted in said casing
'and provided with coacting ñuid pockets, said
stator being threaded in said casing for axial
movement toward and away from said rotor,
means for supplying fluid to said pockets, valve
means for governing the supply of fluid to said
30 pockets, means for discharging fluid from said
casing passing between said rotor and said stator,
and means for rotating said stator.
21. A hydrodynamic brake comprising _a cas
ing, a rotor and a stator mounted in -said casing '
and provided with coacting ñuid pockets, said
stator being threaded in said lcasing for axial
movement toward and away from said rotor,
means for supplying fluid to said pockets, valve
means for governing the supply of ñuid to said
40 pockets, means for discharging iluid from` said
casing passing between said rotor and said stator,
means for rotating said stator, and common op
erating means for said last named means and
said stator.
y
26. A hydrodynamic brake comprising a cas
ing, a rotor and a stator arranged in said casing
and provided with coacting iiuid pockets, said stator being threaded in said casing for axial
movement toward and away from said rotor, 25
said casing being provided with a pair of fluid '
chambers one communicating with said pockets
to supply fluid thereto and the other communi
cating with said pockets to receive fluid there
from passing radially outwardly between said
rotating said stator.
.
27. A hydrodynamicbrake comprising a casing,
a rotor and a stator arranged in said casing and 35
provided with coacting ñuid pockets, said stator
being threaded in said casing for axial movement
toward and away from said rotor, said casing
being provided with a pair of ñuid chambers one
communicating with said pockets to supply fluid 40
Athereto and the other communicating with said
pockets to receive fluid therefrom passing radially
outwardly between said _rotor and said stator,
said valve means.,
22. A hydrodynamic brake comprising a c_as
ing, a rotor and a’ stator mounted'in said casing
means for governing the' supply of fluid to said
pockets, meansfor rotating said stator, and com
and having coacting ñuid pockets, said stator
being supported in said casing for relative axial
movement with respect to said rotor, said casing
mon operating means for said last two means.
_and a stator provided with coacting iiuld pockets,
having a pair of ñuid chambers, one communi
eating with said pockets to supply fluid thereto
and the other communicating with said pockets
to receive fluid passing radially outwardly there
from between said rotor and said stator, andI
means for effecting axial movement of said stator
with respect to said rotor.
30
rotor and said stator, means for governing the
supply of fluid to said pockets, and means for
28. A hydrodynamic brake comprising a rotor
means for supplying iiuid to said pockets, means
for varying the space between said rotor and said
stator, and means for reducing the supply of
iiuid to said pockets upon the increasing of the
space between said rotor and said stator.I
29. A hydrodynamic brake comprising a rotor
and a stator provided with coacting fluid pockets,
means for supplying iiuid to said pockets, means
23. A hydrodynamic brake comprising a cas
ing, a rotor and a stator mounted in said casing for-moving said stator axially away from said '
„ and having coacting ñuid pockets, said stator ’ rotor„and means for reducing the supply of fluid
to said pockets upon axial movement of'said
60 being supportedin said casing for relative axial
stator >away from said rotor.
_
movement with respect to said rotor, said cas
30. A hydrodynamic brake comprising a rotor
ing having a pair of ñuid chambers, one com
municating with said pockets to supply iiuid ‘ and a stator provided with coacting fluid pockets,
thereto and the other communicating with said
said stator having a passage for supplying ñuid
pockets to receive fluid passing radially outwardly
to said pockets, means for varying the space ybe- '
therefrom »between said rotor and said stator,
means for governing the supply of fluid to said
pockets, and means for effecting axial move
ment of said stator with respect to said rotor.
24. A hydrodynamic brake. comprising _a cas
ing, a rotor and a stator mounted in said casing
tween said rotor and said stator, and means for
and having coacting ñuid pockets, said stator
said stator having a passage for supplying fluid
to said pockets, means for moving said >stator
axially away from said rotor, and means for re
ducing the rate of communication through said 75
being supported in said casing for relative axial
movement with respect to said rotor, said casing
75 having. a pair of fluid chambers, one communi
reducing the rate of communication through said
passage upon the increasing of the space between
said rotor land said stator.
31. A hydrodynamic brake comprising _a rotor
and a stator provided with coacting ñuid pockets, 70
8
.
-
9,113,1oa
,
passage upon axial movement of said stator away
inclined ,wiihvrespect m the axis of rotation o'f
from said rotor..l
said rotor and terminating within one of said
"
32. A hydrodynamic brake comprising a cas
- stator pockets to> supply _iluid by inductioninci
v ing, a rotor and a stator arranged in said casing dent to the movement of the ñuid in said pockets,
and provided with coasting fluid pockets, said and means for varying the discharge of iluid 5
stato'r being.` threadedrin said casing for axial- radially i’rom said pockets.r`
'
movement toward and away trom said rotor and
`36. A hydrodynamic brake comprising a rotor
provided with gear teeth, and a pinion meshing and a stator lprovided-with coacting fluid pockets, '.
withv said gear teeth to rotate said stator.
said stator being provided with an inlet conduit
33. A hydrodynamicv brake comprising a cas
inclined with respect to the axis of rotation oi'
ing, a rotor and a stator arranged im said casing said rotor and terminating within one of said 10
and provided with coacting fluid pockets. said stator pockets to supply iiuid by induction inci-stator being threaded in said casing for axial dent to the movement’ of the fluid in said pockets,
movement toward and away i'rom said rotor and _ and means for varying~ the space ’between said
provided with gear teeth, means i'or~ supplying
' uuid to said pockets, means for discharging nuia
passing from said pockëts radially outwardly
between said rotor and said stator, an‘d a pinion
rotor and said stator.
- l
v
°
37. A hydrodynamic brake comprising a rotor
and a stator provided with coacting fluid pockets, ‘
said> stator being provided with‘an inlet -conduit - ’
meshing with said gear teeth to rotatesaid stator. inclined with respect to the axis oi' rotation oi
34. A hydrodynamic brake comprisinga cas . said rotor and terminating within one of said n
` ing', a rotor and a stator arranged in saidcasing
stator pockets to supply fluid by induction inci- ‘
and provided with coacting ñuid pockets, said dent to the movement of the iluid in said pockets, '
stator being threaded in said casing for axial ` arïd means for moving said stator member axially _
movement toward and away from said _rotor and with respect to said rotor.
,
i
provided with gear teeth. means i'or supplying
38. A hydrodynamic brake comprising a rotor g
ñuid to said pockets, means for discharging> ñuid and a stator provided with coacting fluid pockets, '
passing from said pockets radially outwardly be
said rotor being provided with an inlet'conduitJ
tween said rotor and said stator. means for gov
inclined- with respect to the axis of rotation oi
erning the supply oi iiuid to said pockets, a pinion said rotor and’terminating within one of said
meshing with said gear teeth to rotate said stator, stator pockets to 'supply ñuid by induction in- a
and means operative upon movement of sa_id\ ‘.cident to the movement of the fluid in said pock- ~
stator' away from said rotor for reducing the' ets, said conduit terminating substantially` in the
I supply of iluid to said pockets.
35. A hydrodynamic brake comprising a rotor
and a stator provided with coacting ñuid pockets,
said stator'being provided with an inlet conduit
plane of the face of said stator member adjacent
said rotor, and means for varying the space be
tween said rotor and said stator.
RQBERT GRIFFIN DE LA
f
.
ß
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