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Патент USA US2113325

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Patented I Apr. 5, 1938
Thcodoor Koch, Oosterbeek, Netherlands, as
signor to American Enka Corporation, Enka,
N. 0., a corporation ofv Delaware
No Drawing. Application March 3, 1936, Serial
No. 66,967. In Germany March 12, 1935
2 Claims. \(CI, 19—68)
This invention relates to the treatment of nat
’ It has now been determined that an improved.
ural and arti?cial ?bers composed principally of
process and product is produced if ?bers consist
cellulose or of cellulosic origin. vMore particu
lng essentially of cellulose are impregnated with '
larly the present invention contemplates soften
a ?nishing agent having both hydrophobic and,
_; ing and’ ?nishing cellulosic ?bers to produce an
increased and. superior suppleness and \?exibility
in the thread.
hydrophilic properties. ‘ These combined proper
In order to properly condition threads of both
natural and arti?cial origin for weaving and knit—
ties render the thread treated therewith both
pliable and less frictionable. Finishing agents
having the necessary prerequisites have now been
found to be the partly saponifled esters of poly
10 ting purposes, it is necessary to subject the - valent alcohols and higher fatty acids which still 10
thread to’ numerous handling operations which . contain free hydroxyl groups. For example,
necessitate employing a protective medium; and those compositions may be mentioned having
during knitting and weaving stages the friction more'than eight carbon atoms, although in some
on the thread must be reduced to a‘ minimum
15 while at the same time a high vdegree of pliability
_is desired.
' I
It is known to apply certain oily and fatty com
positions to threads for lubrication purposes to
thereby decrease the friction between the threads
themselves and between the threads and me
.cases this may not be essential. These esters con
.tain unesteri?ed hydroxyl groups which-groups
are hydrophilic and accordingly impart an in_
creased suppleness to the thread while the lubri
cating properties are in no way impaired. The
mono~ and diglycerides of higher fatty acids have '
been found to be particularly adaptable to the 20
chanical parts with which they come in contact. presentinvention, as they havein‘addition to the
However, prior to the present invention, it has aforementioned advantages, the'property of emul
been impossible simultaneously to effect the_de
sifying readily in water without the addition of
‘sired amount of suppleness in the thread. The emulsifying agents per se. This property renders
25 basic reason why the oils and fats formerly em
the thread or fabric manufactured therefrom
ployed did not improve the suppleness of the
threads to a very‘high degree is not: completely
However, it appears reasonable’ to as
susceptible to subsequent simple treatments
whereby the composition is easily removed with
out the usual extensive scouring operations.
sume that the reason resides in the chemical
3o properties'of the oil‘ and the cellulose. Cellulosic
compositions are strongly hydrophilic, i. e., ca
pable of absorbing moisture, whereas the oils ‘are
hydrophobic, i. e., will not absorb moisture to
such a marked extent. For this reason its seems
35 evident that ?bers' consisting of cellulose only
absorb oils or fats to a small extent. When'such
hydrophilic ?bers are treated with the hydro
phobic oils then the oils are primarily held in the
‘ - Examples‘ of the speci?c materials which may
be. employed in this process are glycol mo-no
oleate, glycerin distearate, erythrit tripalmitate
and the like. Further mixed esters of‘ polyvalent
alcohols ‘which contain unesteri?ed hydroxyl
groups may be used such as glycerin-l-palmitateé
The fatty acid esters with free unesteri?ed hy
droxyl groups may be manufactured by several
methods such as by esterifying fatty acid an
form of a ?lm on the outside of the ?bers and - hydrides with polyvalent alcohols, by double de
10 are absorbed into the body of the ?bers to a very composition of chlorhydrins with fatty acid salts,
by- heating natural triglycerides with polyvalent‘
.,It is, therefore, the object of the present inven
alcohols or their alkvl ethers with more than one.
‘ tion to provide a process for softening and ?nish
ing cellulosic ?bers having a highdegree of sup-v
free hydroxyl group (with or without the addi
tion of a catalyzer), or by fractionated saponi-'
slight degreeonly.
45 pleness and pliability.
?cation of glycerides.
' :In addition to the materials mentioned above,
threads and the like with a composition which
combined fatty acids of the type oxy-fatty acids
may be employed such as acetyl ricinoleic fatty
will reduce the frictional contact on the thread
A further_'object of the invention is to treat
to a
The invention further contemplates the'utiliza-r
acids which contain esteri?ed hydroxyl groups.
Other oxy-fatty. acids. adaptable for use are 50
tion of an improved and novel composition for,‘ estoliden fatty acids, fatty acids: of blown oils,
imparting- to the threads the desired properties. polymerized fatty acids, and fatty acids with sev-.
Other objects and advantages willbe apparent .
by referring to the following detailed descrip
55 tion-
eral carboxyl groups.
All of the materials mentioned above may be
used in ‘emulsion form or dissolved in the proper 55
solvents. They can also be used in various coin
binations with the fats, waxes, mineral oils, soaps,
sulphonated products, et cetera.
Example 1.—Natural or arti?cial ?bers con
If desired, a catalyzer ‘may be\ employed. .
The yarn, having been dressed, is centrifuged and
dried in the usual manner.
The above examples are given merely to specify
sisting essentially of cellulose are immersed in an improved compositions to be employed in the
aqueous emulsion which contains 5% glycerine ‘ present process and it is to be understood that
mono-oleate. After complete impregnation the
they do not limit the spirit and scope of the pres
?bers are taken out of the bath and the excess
ent invention.
?uid is removed by hydro-extraction and ?nally
10 dried'by any suitable means.
Example 2.—A yarn consisting of a mixture of
cotton and arti?cial silk staple ?bers is dressed
with 'a solution containing 3% oil dissolved in a
mixture of acetone' ~and su?icient water to pro15 duce a homogeneous solution. The oil is pre
pared by heating 100 parts olive oil and 22 parts
glycerine in a vacuum to 175° C. until the product
has a. saponi?cation member of approximately
What I claim is:
1. A process for softening and ?nishing cellu 10
lose ?bers comprising treating said, ?bers with a
dilute aqueous acetone solution of glycerine
mono-palmitate mono-oleate.
2. A process for softening and ?nishing cellu
lose ?bers comprising treating said ?bers with a
3% aqueous acetone solution of glycerine mono
palmitate mono-oleate.
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