Патент USA US2113325код для вставки
2,113,325 Patented I Apr. 5, 1938 UNITED STATES PATENT ‘ orrl'cr. PnocEss AND COMPOSITION FOR. TREAT ING NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL FIBERS Thcodoor Koch, Oosterbeek, Netherlands, as signor to American Enka Corporation, Enka, N. 0., a corporation ofv Delaware ‘ No Drawing. Application March 3, 1936, Serial No. 66,967. In Germany March 12, 1935 2 Claims. \(CI, 19—68) This invention relates to the treatment of nat ’ It has now been determined that an improved. ural and arti?cial ?bers composed principally of process and product is produced if ?bers consist cellulose or of cellulosic origin. vMore particu lng essentially of cellulose are impregnated with ' larly the present invention contemplates soften a ?nishing agent having both hydrophobic and, _; ing and’ ?nishing cellulosic ?bers to produce an increased and. superior suppleness and \?exibility in the thread. - hydrophilic properties. ‘ These combined proper . In order to properly condition threads of both natural and arti?cial origin for weaving and knit— 5 ties render the thread treated therewith both pliable and less frictionable. Finishing agents having the necessary prerequisites have now been found to be the partly saponifled esters of poly 10 ting purposes, it is necessary to subject the - valent alcohols and higher fatty acids which still 10 thread to’ numerous handling operations which . contain free hydroxyl groups. For example, necessitate employing a protective medium; and those compositions may be mentioned having during knitting and weaving stages the friction more'than eight carbon atoms, although in some on the thread must be reduced to a‘ minimum 15 while at the same time a high vdegree of pliability _is desired. . ' ' I It is known to apply certain oily and fatty com positions to threads for lubrication purposes to thereby decrease the friction between the threads themselves and between the threads and me .cases this may not be essential. These esters con .tain unesteri?ed hydroxyl groups which-groups are hydrophilic and accordingly impart an in_ creased suppleness to the thread while the lubri cating properties are in no way impaired. The mono~ and diglycerides of higher fatty acids have ' been found to be particularly adaptable to the 20 chanical parts with which they come in contact. presentinvention, as they havein‘addition to the However, prior to the present invention, it has aforementioned advantages, the'property of emul been impossible simultaneously to effect the_de sifying readily in water without the addition of ‘sired amount of suppleness in the thread. The emulsifying agents per se. This property renders 25 basic reason why the oils and fats formerly em the thread or fabric manufactured therefrom ployed did not improve the suppleness of the threads to a very‘high degree is not: completely known. However, it appears reasonable’ to as susceptible to subsequent simple treatments whereby the composition is easily removed with out the usual extensive scouring operations. sume that the reason resides in the chemical 3o properties'of the oil‘ and the cellulose. Cellulosic compositions are strongly hydrophilic, i. e., ca pable of absorbing moisture, whereas the oils ‘are hydrophobic, i. e., will not absorb moisture to such a marked extent. For this reason its seems 35 evident that ?bers' consisting of cellulose only absorb oils or fats to a small extent. When'such hydrophilic ?bers are treated with the hydro phobic oils then the oils are primarily held in the ' ‘ - Examples‘ of the speci?c materials which may be. employed in this process are glycol mo-no oleate, glycerin distearate, erythrit tripalmitate 30 and the like. Further mixed esters of‘ polyvalent alcohols ‘which contain unesteri?ed hydroxyl groups may be used such as glycerin-l-palmitateé 3-oleate; ' I . O . The fatty acid esters with free unesteri?ed hy droxyl groups may be manufactured by several methods such as by esterifying fatty acid an form of a ?lm on the outside of the ?bers and - hydrides with polyvalent alcohols, by double de 10 are absorbed into the body of the ?bers to a very composition of chlorhydrins with fatty acid salts, F by- heating natural triglycerides with polyvalent‘ .,It is, therefore, the object of the present inven alcohols or their alkvl ethers with more than one. ‘ tion to provide a process for softening and ?nish ing cellulosic ?bers having a highdegree of sup-v free hydroxyl group (with or without the addi tion of a catalyzer), or by fractionated saponi-' slight degreeonly. \- 45 pleness and pliability. - . ?cation of glycerides. , ' ' ' :In addition to the materials mentioned above, threads and the like with a composition which combined fatty acids of the type oxy-fatty acids may be employed such as acetyl ricinoleic fatty will reduce the frictional contact on the thread 50 - A further_'object of the invention is to treat to a ' The invention further contemplates the'utiliza-r 45 acids which contain esteri?ed hydroxyl groups. Other oxy-fatty. acids. adaptable for use are 50 tion of an improved and novel composition for,‘ estoliden fatty acids, fatty acids: of blown oils, imparting- to the threads the desired properties. polymerized fatty acids, and fatty acids with sev-. Other objects and advantages willbe apparent . by referring to the following detailed descrip 55 tion- " ' " eral carboxyl groups. , ' All of the materials mentioned above may be used in ‘emulsion form or dissolved in the proper 55 2,113,325 solvents. They can also be used in various coin binations with the fats, waxes, mineral oils, soaps, sulphonated products, et cetera. _ Example 1.—Natural or arti?cial ?bers con 155. If desired, a catalyzer ‘may be\ employed. . The yarn, having been dressed, is centrifuged and dried in the usual manner. The above examples are given merely to specify sisting essentially of cellulose are immersed in an improved compositions to be employed in the aqueous emulsion which contains 5% glycerine ‘ present process and it is to be understood that mono-oleate. After complete impregnation the they do not limit the spirit and scope of the pres ?bers are taken out of the bath and the excess ent invention. ?uid is removed by hydro-extraction and ?nally 10 dried'by any suitable means. ‘ Example 2.—A yarn consisting of a mixture of cotton and arti?cial silk staple ?bers is dressed with 'a solution containing 3% oil dissolved in a mixture of acetone' ~and su?icient water to pro15 duce a homogeneous solution. The oil is pre pared by heating 100 parts olive oil and 22 parts glycerine in a vacuum to 175° C. until the product has a. saponi?cation member of approximately ' What I claim is: 1. A process for softening and ?nishing cellu 10 lose ?bers comprising treating said, ?bers with a dilute aqueous acetone solution of glycerine mono-palmitate mono-oleate. ‘ 2. A process for softening and ?nishing cellu lose ?bers comprising treating said ?bers with a 3% aqueous acetone solution of glycerine mono palmitate mono-oleate. ' " ‘ THEODOOR KOCH.