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Патент USA US2113347

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April 5, 1938.
F. A. HOSCHKE
2,113,347
MUS ICAL INSTRUMENT
‘Filed April 14, 1956
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
April 5, 1938.
F.IA. HOSCHKE '
2,113,347
MUS I CAL INSTRUMENT
Filed April 14, 1936
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Patented Apr.
1938
2,113,347 ’
UNITED vSTATES.
PATENT OFFICE .
2,113,347
“
MUSICAL INSTRUMENT
Frederick A. Hoschke, South Haven, Mich; Wil
-
helmina Hoschke, execntrlx of Frederick, A.
Hoschke, deceased, assignor to Wilhelmina
Hoschke, South Haven, Mich.
Application April 14, 1938, Serial No. 74,376
‘50laims. (Cl- 84-1)
My invention relates to improvements in musi
cal instruments of the electronic type, and it con
sists in the combination, constructions, and ar
rangements herein described and claimed.
5
An object of my invention is to provide an im
provement over that set forth in my prior Patent
No. 2,015,014, dated September 1'7, 1935. In said
prior patent an electronic musical instrument
was disclosed in which a reed in vibration formed
10 a portion. of one plate of a microphone con
denser, the other plate having means for adjust
ment with respect to the reed for varyingthe
capacitance of the condenser.
The present invention relates to an improve
15 ment in which the reeds themselves do not form
a portion of the plate of the microphone con
denser but in which diaphragms are provided,
these diaphragms forming portions of one plate
_ of the microphone
condenser and in which
‘)0 means is provided for adjusting the other plate
inductively with respect to the diaphragms.
An object of the invention is to provide a con
struction which is particularly adapted to the
“picking up" of all of the harmonics that are
35 caused by the shape or the bending (prevoicing)
of a reed particularly of the higher harmonics.
A further object of the invention is to pro
vide a simple device by means of which con
denser microphone diaphragms are provided
Figure 8 is a sectional view of a portion of an
other modiiied form of the device.
In carrying out the invention I make use of
structure which is to be found in the ordinary
reed organ. Referring particularly to Figure 4 5
I have shown therein a wind chest I, a reservoir
or wind pressure regulator 2 having openings 3
for a suitable suction wind supply. The top part
ofthe wind chest is formed by a pallet board 5
(see Fig. 1). On the underside of the pallet 10
board are pallets or valves 6 which are provided
with a felt covering 1. It will be understood
that there is a pallet for each key. Each pallet
is normally held in the position shown in Figure
l by means of a spring 8 carried by the pallet 15
board and is guided by pins 3 which extend
through slots Ill at each end thereof. In Fig. 1
I have shown a single key ll, of the keyboard
of the instrument, which is arranged to bear
on a dowel I2 that passes through an opening
I3 in the pallet board 5 for depressing the pallet x20
or valve.
7
-
Mounted on the pallet board 5 is a cell sec
tion ll having a series of partitions l5 for form
ing cells. As will be seen from Figure 4 the
walls of the partitions are slotted to receive the 25
frames l6 which bear the reeds H, the latter
being secured in any suitable manner such as
by rivets, as shown in Figure 1, each reed being
disposed over a slot l8 in the frame. The pallet 30
board 5 has slots is which register with the slots
pulses in strict pneumatic fashion.
Other objects and advantages will appear in ‘ l3 and the bottoms of these slots i3 are normally
~
'
the following speci?cation and the novel features closed by the pallets 6.
The top H“ of the cell section H is provided
of the invention will be particularly pointed out
with openings 2|] above each cell. An insulating
35 in the appended claims.
30 which respond to compressed and rari?ed air im
My invention is illustrated in the accompany
ing drawings, in which:
Figure l is a transverse sectional view through
a portion of the instrument along the line i-—l
40 of Figure 2,~the amplifying circuit being shown
in diagram,
>
'
Figure 2 is a plan view of the device along
the line 2--2 of Figure 1, the amplifying circuit
being omitted,
,
Figure 3 is an enlarged sectional view along
the line 3—3 of Figure 1,
Figure 4 is a vertical sectional view along the
line 4—4 of Figure 1,
50
-
Figure 5 is a sectional view showing a modi
fied form,
-
Figure 6 is an enlarged sectional view along
the line 3-60! Figure 5,
Figure’! is a sectional view of a portion of a
55 modi?ed form of the device, and
block 2| (see Fig. 1) is provided for each reed
or cell, that form of the block shown in Fig. 1
having a recess 22 into which the end of a screw
23 extends, the screw being threaded into the
block. » A nut 24 is carried by the screw for lock- , 40
ing the latter in its adjusted position. The block
2| is held to the top ll“ of the cell section it in
any suitable manner such as by screws 25.
As stated there is an adjustable screw for each
diaphragm. The insulating blocks are arranged 45
side by side as shown in Fig. 2 ‘and a conducting
strip 26 of tin foil or duraluminum foil is dis
posed over’the openings 20 and is held in taut
position by means of the insulating blocks 2|.
This provides a thin diaphragm of foil over each 50
opening 20 and underneath the enlarged end of
each screw 23.
The nuts, such as those shown at 24, not only
serve for locking the screws 23 in adjusted posi
tion, but they also serve to clamp a conducting 55
2
' 2,113,347
strip 21 (see Fig. 2) to the tops of the insulating
blocks 2|.
_
The conducting strip 21 is connected by means
01‘ a conductor 28 with the grid 29 of a suitable
; tube of a preampli?er. The foil plate 26 which
forms the diaphragms 26- is connected by means
of a conductor 30 with the battery B of the radio
circuit shown in Fig. 1. It will be understood
that this is simply a typical circuit and forms no
10 part of the present invention except as such
circuit is used in connection with the apparatus
for producing a tonal effect by the adjustment of
the apparatus as presently described.
.'
Consider now Figure 1. Let us assume that
the key II is depressed and that through the
medium of the dowel l2 and the pallet 6, com
munication is established between the cell sec
tion above the reed and the suction wind chest.
Air entering the front end of the cell cavity is
allowed to pass the reed which vibrates within
the cell according to the frequency (fundamental
and harmonics) of the reed. The constants of
such ?uctuation are determined by the nature
of the air puffs caused by the movement of the
25 reed, different shaped and “voiced” reeds caus
ing di?erent constants. The small diaphragm 26“
in the ceiling of the cell cavity is therefore re
sponsive to these ?uctuations. Now these small
diaphragms, which are all connected together,
30 form portions of one plate of the microphone
'
condenser and the screws which are electrically
connected ‘together form the opposite plate of
the microphone condenser. The impulses are
conveyed to a pre-ampli?er, then further am
pli?ed and converted into sound in the loud
speakers.
‘
and stretching the diaphragm tightly as shown
at 3|“. The block is then screwed to the top l4"
and the adjustment of the screw 23 is made as
before stated. In this instance, the diaphragm
3|’- is below the top l4“ as distinguished from
that form shown in Figure 1.
In Figure 7 I have shown a modi?ed formv in
which one diaphragm covers two cavity cells in
stead of one, thereby reducing the diaphragms
and tone screws to one-half their number. Thus
in the ?gure the cell section l4 and the cell cav
ities I48 are in direct communication by means
of a bore' 35 with the diaphragm 36 which spans
the recess 31 in the insulating cover 38. The
head of the tone screw 39 is disposed in the recess
and the screw is held in position by the lock
nut 40.
In this form of the device it will be observed
that the tone screw is spaced symmetrically with
respect to the reeds M and 42 so that the dia 20
phragm covering the recess 31 is directly af
fected by the puifs of air generated by the vibra
tion of both or either of the reeds 4| and 42.
In Figure 8, which is another modi?cation, a
block of wood 43 may besecured at any point in
the wind chest on a mounted base 44. Theblock
43 has a recess 45 which is open to the atmos»
phere within the wind chest. A diaphragm 46 is
stretched over this recess and over a recess 41
in an insulating block 48 having a tone screw 49.
Every time a pallet is opened by pressing a
key a reed goes into vibration. In swinging back
and forth the reed opens and closes the atmos
pheric current tending to pass the reed, thus cre
ating impulses, these impulses having an eiIect
upon the entire wind supply within the chest,
expanding and contracting its contents or dis
The entire control of tone quality rests in the
prevoicing of the reed. The reed itself is out of _ tributing the movement thereof to a degree suf
the electric or electronic circuit and acts merely ?cient to agitate a single diaphragm such as that
40 as a pneumatic valve. This arrangement differs
shown at 46.
40
from the conventional radio studio microphone
Such a simple diaphragm would not have the
in that the small diaphragms in the insulating amplitude of one with each cell or two cells but
units do not respond to sound waves like the this is compensated for by using additional ‘tone
conventional radio studio microphones do but screws over it, thereby increasing the pick-up.
rather to variations of the air ?ow or pressure The close proximity between the tone screw and
controlled by the reeds. It is not the reed that the diaphragm increases the tension of the elec
makes the tone; it is the air puffs.
trostatic charge so that additional tone screws
As stated above ‘the reed in most instances is swill increase the charge, as desired.
?rst prevoiced. A reed which is not prevoiced " By setting or fastening such a unit at or to
50 gives a quality of tone which is characteristic of
the bottom, sides or top of the wind chest (inside
a ?at vibrating reed. The ends of the reed may of the latter) the diaphragm will pneumatically
be bent as shown in my prior Patent 2,015,014 to respond to air ?uctuations caused by the swing
alter the tone quality to produce such effects as ing reed or reeds. A conductor 50 ,connects the
?ute tones, clarinet tones, etc. In adjusting the tone screw 49 with the grid 28 (see Figure 1)
mechanism the nut 24 is loosened and the screw while a similarconductor 51 connects the dia
23 is'turned by means of pliers or any other suit
phragm to the B battery.
'
‘
able instrument
as to bring’the lower end of
In the use of the-*dev-ice- shown in Figure 8
the screw bearing the head into inductive rela
individual diaphragms may be dispensed with
tion with the diaphragm 26* until the desired although it will be understood that my preferred
amplitude is attained.‘ .‘
_
form is that in which individual diaphragms are
Figures 1 and 2- show one means of mounting
the metal foil plate 26. In these ?gures the plate
I claim:
~
vis cemented to the top I4 of the cell section.
1-. In- a musical instrument,. a plurality of
Those‘ portions .of the plate‘lwhich cover the reeds, each reed being disposed in an individual
used.
openings 20 in the top portion 8 constitute the
diaphragm.
'
.
' In Figure 5 I have shown a modi?ed form in
which the foil plate 3| is held in position by
an insulating block 32 of hard rubber or the like.
70 This block has a cylindrical boss 32m of slightly
smaller exterior diameter than the opening which
corresponds to 20 in the top H“ of the ‘cell sec
‘ tion. The foil diaphragm is placed on top of the
member it and the insulating block 32 is forced
downwardly, the boss 32" entering the opening
'
'
-
'
cell cavity, pneumaticmeans for selectively vi 65
brating said reeds, a diaphragm associated with
each cell cavity and adapted to beposcillate'd by
pulsations of air from its vibrating reed, an ad
justable conductor associated with each dia
phragm on the opposite side thereof from the
reed, said diaphragms belngin electrical connec~
tion'to form one_plate of the microphone con
denser, and said conducting members being in
electrical connection with one. another to form
the opposite plate of the condenser.
3
9,118,847
2. In a musical instrument, a plurality of pre- ' ing an opening opposite the reed, a thin metal
voiced reeds, each reed being disposed in an in
dividual cell cavity, pneumatic means for selec
tively vibrating said reeds, a diaphragm asso
ciated with each cell cavity and adapted to be
oscillated by pulsations of air from its vibrating
reed, ' an adjustable conductor associated with
each diaphragm on the opposite sldethereoi from
the reed, said diaphragms being in electrical con
10 nection to form one plate of the microphone
condenser, said conducting members being in
electrical connection with one another to form
the opposite plate of the condenser, and an am
plifying circuit working in conjunction with said
15 microphone circuit.
8. In a musical instrument, a cell section hav
ing individual reed cavities, a reed associated
withv each cavity, each of said cell sections hav
strip covering said openings, that portion of the
strip spanning the openings constituting 9. dia
phragm for its associated cavity, an insulating
block having recesses on the opposite side of the
diaphragm corresponding to the openings of the
cell cavities, thereby affording space for the
movement of the diaphragms away from the
reeds, and means for securing the block to the
cell section whereby the metal strip is clamped 10
in position.
'
5. In a musical instrument, a cell section hav
ing individual reed cavities, a reed associated
with each cavity, each of said cell sections hav
ing an opening opposite the reed, a thin metal 15
strip covering said openings, that portion of the
strip spanning the openings constituting a dia
phragm for its associated cavity, an insulating
ing an opening opposite the reed, a thin metal I block having recesses on the opposite side of
20
strip covering said openings, that portion of the
strip spanning the openings constituting a dia
phragm for its associated cavity, and an insulat
ing block having recesses on the opposite side of
the diaphragm corresponding to the openings of
the cell cavities, thereby a?fording space for the
'movement 'of the diaphragms away from the
reeds.
4. In a musical instrument, a cell section hav
ing individual reed cavities, a reed associated
with each cavity, each 0! said cell sections hav
the diaphragm corresponding to the openings of
the cell cavities, thereby affording space for the 2o.
movement of the diaphragms away from the
reeds, means for securing the block to ‘the cell
section whereby the metal strip is clamped in
position, and an adjustable conductor disposed 25
in each recess, said adjustable conductors being
in electrical connection and forming one plate of
a microphone condenser, and said metal strip
forming the other plate.
FREDERICK A. HOSCHKE.
30
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