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Патент USA US2113445

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April 5,. 1938.
Filed July 21, 1937
ARTHUR 6- £575?’
Patented Apr. ‘5, 1938
r 2,113,445
‘UNITED ‘STATES PAT VENT: “oi-"rice; '
anaus _
Arthur C. Estep, Waynesbuu,
The Whita cre- Greer Firepr Ohio,
_' Waynesbur
oo?ng Company, -
, Ohio, at I corporation - of
Application July 21, 1937, Serial ‘No. 154,801
7 Claims. (01.‘ 22-139)
This invention relates to improvements in in
more particularly to a‘ com
mold plug in which the, me
tal portion provides
a ‘blow receiving protecti ve cap'qfor
the clay por
tion of the plug to faci litate the driving vof the
plug into the ingot mo
id plug, opening. mother
objects relating to simplicityof
construction and 5
economies of m'anufa
cture and other advantages
of non-metal-I will appear from 'th
lics getting into the ingot. eArisk
further object'is the appended drawing following description and ’
to provide a mold plug havi ng yielding qualities
in which:—
'‘ ,
Figure 1.-is a t
of my
,an 10
10 whereby to seat securely inv the bottom hole of ingot ‘mold plug rans'verse
the ingot, which, withal, may be readily removed
therefrom when the ingot is stripped from the
mold, and which will satisfactorily prevent leak-
age of molten metal'past all or any substantial
15 portion of the plug. A further object is to pro_,-_
vide a plug resistant to the “wash” of the molten
steeland impervious to deleterious action ‘of, the
_, _
v' _
~ .
‘Figure 2 is'a sectional/view taken online 2-2
of Figurel;
Figure 3 is a; transverse ‘sectional ‘view.’ with
parts broken away showing an, ingot mold plug 1!
of my inventionypositioned in an
ingot mold with
the ingot cast ther
Figure _4' is a. transve
modified form of ‘mo rsesectional view of a
idv plug. embodying-my in
Figure 5 is'a sectional
illustrating a-fur
ther modi?cation ' of ,. the view
mold plug ofmy in
v vention.
adapted to carry
out those functions and to coa ct with the other
related elements in-an adva ntageous way. A
further object is to provide a
coaction between
the mold and the
tuent parts of the
As will be up
out various of the '
by those skilled in the
is employed to seal'the
nd of an’ ingot mold I
of the big~end-up type and‘
that ‘such plugs are
ly driven into‘ the opening H prior to the
pouring of the ingot I. The opening “the bot
structed‘that thenon_
will not ?oat u p
into the ingot.
parts of vthe plug ' ‘
According to the preferred embodiment of my- 35
invention illustrate
Figure 1 the'body por
tion '6 oi’ the plug Pd isinmade
of burned clay and
is pre
made by extrusion in therdirection ‘
of its ferably
axis and thereafter pressed or molded too.
truncated, conical fam complementary to and 40
- substantially coextensive with the conical aur
face of the mid-p0
oi’ the conical hole' H in
the ingot mold.’ A. rtion
erably about 1'," metallic plate or disk LI'preI-Y .
to 1/4" thick, where the-whole
plug‘ is about;3"
deep, is secured to the tenor ‘5
diameter surface of thebody portion‘jo'i
the plug by such meansv as a bolt 1.‘ The plate
l is preferably shaped at
its periphery I to con- >
the plug ‘in its entirety comprises a unitary struc
ture having a‘ metal top face and a burned clay
body in which both elements coast with the con- 66
ical surface of the hole H in the same way and
offer mutual support and protection to each
I recognize that in commercial practice the
conical exterior surface of the clay body portion
‘ will not be a true geometrical cone, nor will the
conical wall of the hole H be a perfect geometrical
cone, particularly after the mold has been in use
for some time. One of the advantages of a re
10 fractory or burned clay mold ,plugis that it may
be driven into thebottom hole'of the mold, and‘
with a reasonable force may fracture a little
the lower peripheral edge of the plate 1, that is
the edge adjacent the top surface of the clay body
portion 6, very nearly to the maximum diameter
of the top surface of the body portion or a little
smaller than that diameter in the order of about
1,64 of an inch. In this manner, when the whole
plug is rammed into the bottom hole of the mold,
and the surface of the clay portion gives or is
scratched away somewhat, then the lower edge of
the periphery of the plate 1 contacts or ap 10
proaches intimate contact with the wall oi; the
hole H. The contact between the disk and the
about its exterior conical surface whereby to wall of the hole tending first to bev a circular
conform more perfectly to the adjacent wall of .line, the metal of the disk tends to give a little
16 the hole and thereby more securely bear the under the impact with which the whole plug is
weight of the whole ingot. Where the mold plug driven into the hole, and because of the limited
is entirely made of refractory material, the plug area of contact and the give of the metal, the
must be stout enough to'withstand the impact disk per se does not tend to take all or any sub
of being driven into the bottom hole, whereby to stantially great portion of the load to be sup;
prevent bodily rupture thereof or spalling from ported, nor does it interfere with an ample load 20
the top surface thereof. These characteristics, bearing engagement between the plug and the,
wall of, the hole. Even where the periphery of ,
however, are necessarily antagonistic to obtain
ing a desirable though limited fracture or yielding the plate 1 has no actual or complete contact with
in the conical surface of the plug, and are thus ' the wall of the hole, still the whole area of the
antagonistic to obtaining a full bearing between
the conical surfaces of the plug andthe wall
of the bottom hole. One of‘ the advantages of
my invention is that I‘may use a relatively soft
clay portion adapted to yield enough to obtain a
good or full bearing along its conical surface with
the hole in the mold, because the impact of driv
ing the plug into' place is widely distributed
through the top plate 1, which is tightly secured
Those skilled in the art will understand how
non-metallic portion of the plug with which
molten steel may contact is so small and so
screened from the wash of the molten steel that
the possible entrance of non-metallics into the
ingot is substantially eliminated.
It will also be noted that the disk ‘I is pref 30
erably secured tothe clay body- 6 of the plug in
its central portion, whereby to permit a limited
yield or give between its peripheral portion and
g the peripheral part of the top surface of the clay‘
body of the plug, whereby‘ to permit the periph
eral edge of the disk to more effectively carry out
burned clay product in its manufacture, and I its sealing‘ function without‘ impairing the func
note only by way of example that for similar tionof the clay body portion to seat in the hole
burning times and temperatures the hardness is of the mold and bear the burden of the weight
40 measurably increased when the plastic mass is v .of the ingot. '_
During the formation of the clay body of the
well deaerated in the course of extrusion on the
one hand, and that softness, as I employ the plug ‘an aperture 4 is provided centrally thereof
term, is materially increased where deaeration is to receive the bolt 8 and the lower end of the bolt
receiving aperture. is preferably enlarged as at
reduced or‘eliminated, and also where finely di
9 and is preferably given a square con?guration
45 vided carbonaceous material such as powdered
~coal is mixed with the clay prior to extrusion. to prevent the nut Ill from turning within the
and is burned out during the burning whereby to _ body I. The shank of the bolt immediately ad
jacent the head is preferably square according to
measurably increase the porosity of the ware.
Since, as I have indicated, I desire that the carriage bolt construction and thus rotation of
the disk ‘I and bolt 8 relative to the nut III, while
metal plate ‘or. disk 1 carry out all or substantially all of the hydraulic scaling function in the latter is held in the non-circular hole 0, per
closing the bottom opening in the mold, I prefer mits ready assembly of the parts and a firm union
that its peripheral edge have a sealing contact between ‘them. The squared aperture 9 in addi
with the adjacent conical wall' of the hole H, but tion to housing the nut lli provides a re-entrant
’ portion to‘ receive the head ll of a bolt of an
56 I also desire that the plate ‘I be supported by the adjacent plug upon stacking a series of mold plugs
body portion i, whereby its mechanical function
of supporting the-weightof the ingot will be in shipping and storage.
During the pouring of the ingot the plate .1 re
substantially limited to compression'within its
own thickness. In other words, I desire to avoid ceives the thermal shockaof the molten metal
and said plate 1 is preferably proportioned with
having the plate ‘I take a load bearing‘ engage
ment along its periphery whereby to tend to sus- - regard to its thickness so that the heat of the
pend the plug in the hole. ' One reason for the molten metal will effecta welding as at W (in
latter being that did the plate tend to suspend Fig. 3) of the plug to the ingot 3. As a specific
the plug,- then a much thicker and stronger plate example I have found that a plate ‘I having a
would have to be provided, and one would thus thickness of about ?ths of an inch operates satis
factorily to effect a welding of the plug to the
revert back to a solid metallic plug with its dis
advantages of cost and its relative incapacity ingot and yet maintain its identity as a steel
plate throughout thepour so as to keep the metal
to obtain a‘ tight sealing fit in the hole.
It is convenient and economical to make of the ingot 3 ,out of contact with the refractory
-the plates 1 by punching or shearing them from material of the plug. Subsequent to the stripping 70
strip stock, whereby the peripheral edge of the of the ingot from the mold the mold plug serves
plate tends to be cylindrical instead ‘of conical as a stool or support for the ingot when the same
and slightly rough rather than of pure geometric is placed in the soaking pit. A mold plug con
configuration. In carrying out the objects of structed according to my invention thus not only
eifectively prevents the ‘loss of molten metal
75 my invention I preferably hold the diameter 01’
relative hardness or softness can be obtained in a
during the pouring and prevents the, ?oating of
non-metallic particles within the ingot, but also more particularly to be disposed below the ad
maintains the finished ingot free of contact with "Jacent interior bottom walls 2 of the _'mold I,
the soaking pit liquid or other impurities on or ‘ whereby to have its peripheral edges protected
adjacent the floor thereof.
from the washof molten steel, and the plate is
Although as indicated above it is preferred to thus freed from the" tendency'of. the wash of the
secure the plate ‘I to the body of the plug 6 by steel to separate it from the plug.
From the foregoing it will be seen that I have
_ a bolt I as shown vin connection with the embodi
provided ‘a plug having many advantages to be
ent of Figure 1 I appreciate that other fas
tening means maybe employed and in Figure 4 obtained in its operation and use; vthat the plug
is simple in construction and lends itself to the
I have shown an alternative form of plug con
economy of manufacture; that it guarantees a
struction. In Figure 4 I have illustrated'a modi
?cation in that the head of the fastening bolt
I! is ?at and the steel plate 20 is counter-sunk
to accommodate the same. The clay body of the
satisfactory seal of the bottom .hole of the ingot
plug 2i may be formed like the clay body 6 of '
the preferred form. Among the advantages of
this is that the head of the bolt i9 is less sub
iected to the wash of the molten metal during
the pouring of the ingot.
In Figure 5 I have shown a further modifica ' in a novel and advantageous way, and otherwise
tion, which is particularly feasible when the body
facilitates and expedites the casting of ingots and
portion l8 of the plug is made of relatively soft
and workable refractory material such as porous
burned clay in which powdered coal has been
advances the art thereby.
While I have indicated a perference for burned
clay as the material for the bodyportion of my
added to the wet mix (25% powdered coal to 75% ' ‘improved plugs, it should be understood that my
invention may be advantageously practiced with
powdered clay by weight‘being a workable per
centage) and burned out during ?ring of the other refractory or semi-refractory, materials
ware, whereby to leave the ware relatively soft such as a mixture of slag and cement ordry
and porous. Such ware is capable of receiving pressed clay in the body portion of the plug.
Although I have illustrated and described cer
and holdinga lag screw IS without injury to the
refractory poi'tion l6, particularly where a small tain specific forms in which my invention may
tapered hole is formed in the refractory body be practiced, various changes and modificationsv
when the same is pressed into its conical form, will occur to those skilled in the art, all within
the tapered hole preferably being about the shape the precepts of my invention, and I’ do not care '
of the cone defined by the base of the threads
in the lag screw. In this form of my invention
the plate or disk I‘! coacts with the clay body
portion ii in substantially the way hereinabove
described with reference to the other forms of
my invention.v In this particular modi?cation I
prefer that the mid-portion of the disk I] be
may be entitled in view of the prior‘art.
I claim:
drawn downwardly as at i8, whereby to receive
the head of the lag screw, keeping the top of it
about flush with the top of the surface of the tallic cap secured together, the whole of said plug
" disk. The top surface of the clay body portion being disposed within the tapered wall of said
i6 is similarly indented to receive the depression hole and the peripheral surfaces of both the body ,
or dimple i8 of the disk. In this manner the and cap portions of said plug having operative
head of the screw is kept downwardly out of engagement therewith.
2. In interior
the wash of molten steel, and the finished’ and ."ourved
bottoman ingot mold having a
assembled plugs are readily stacked one upon an
surface merging into a
other during shipping and storing. Moreover, conical walled bottom hole, a metallic sealing
in this form of my invention the molding of the plate disposed transversely of said hole having its
wet extruded clay stock, in changing the initial peripheral edge in sealing relation to the conical
cylindrical shape of the plug to the form of a wall of the hole, a refractory plug in said hole
truncated cone, is facilitated somewhat by the having load bearing engagement with the said
displacement of clay from the upper and central conical wall of said hole directly below said seal
ing plate and supporting said plate and fixedly
portion thereof outwardly in the direction of ex
secured thereto.
pansion of the plastic mass from its initial cylin
3. An ingot mold plug having a- burned clay '
drical diameter to its enlarged diameter at the
body portion of truncated cone shape and a ?at
larger end of the truncated cone.
Referring particularly to Figure 3, it will be steel plate applied to the maximum diameter of
observed that in all forms of my invention the
plug P is_preferably proportioned to enter the
hole H, and be securely seated in that hole so of said body portion‘ whereby the body and plate
that the whole upper and lower limits of the plug as a unit may be driven into a tapered’opening at
lie- within the upper and lower. limits of the the base of an ingot mold and jointly coact
conical surface of the hole H. In this manner therewith.
4. An ingot mold plug having a burned clay
the plug lies somewhat above the bottom of the
ingot mold I, whereby the plug engages the walls body portion of truncated cone shape having a
of the hole to the exclusion of the stool or other bore extending axially of said body, a flat steel
means disposed below the bottom of the mold. plate arranged against the ?at surface of said
The top of the plug, including the metal disk, also body having the maximum diameter with its
edge within the surface of the cone, said plate
,lies within the conical wall of the hole, where
by to coact therewith as above described, and provided with a central non-circular aperture,
and means to secure said plate to said body com- 75 ,
prising a bolt having a non-circular shoulder be
neath the head thereof to ?t non-rotatively with
in said plate, and a nut disposed within said body
having a threaded engagement with the shank of
said bolt and held against rotation in said body.
5. The combination of an ingot mold having a
tapered bottom hole, and a tapered plug with its
tapered surface substantially coextensive with
' tapered surface of said hole, ‘said plug compris
ing a load bearing refractory body portion, the
points or limited areas on the tapered surface of
which that ?rst contact the adjacent wall of the
a portion with the edge of said plate lying substan
tially in'the surface of said cone, said plug being
adapted to coact with -a similarly conical surface
in the bottom hole of an ingot mold, the body of
the plug in load bearing engagement therewith
and the plate of the plug in fluid sealing relation
7. An ingot mold plug adapted to close a bot
tom tapered hole of an ingot mold comprising a
frustro-conical non-metallic body portion. the 10
conical surface ‘of which substantially corre
sponds to at least aportion of the conical surface
hole being deformable somewhat to broaden the, between the ends-of said bottom hole of said ingot
area of load bearing contact, and'said'plug also mold, and said plug also comprising a metallic
comprising a metal sealing plate supported by plate covering substantially the whole area of the 16
said refractory body and secured thereto and upper circular surface of said non-metallic body
‘spacing the ingot to be poured therefrom and portion and adapted to be contacted by the ingot
having its peripheral edge substantially in con
to be poured and fused thereto, and said plate
tact with the tapered wall of the hole immediate
being ?xedly secured to said non-metallic body
ly above the body portionof said plug, whereby portion and having its peripheral edge adjacent
said plate substantially seals said hole ‘against
to an extension‘of the conical surface de?ning
?uid out?ow and said refractory body substan- , the wall of said non-metallic body Portion, where
tially bears the weight of the ingot, ,
by the peripheral edge of said plate will lie ad
6. A mold plug having a truncated cone shaped
body portion of porous burned clay, the, exterior jacent to the conical wall of said bottom hole in
portion of which has a zone of increased porosity ‘ said ingot mold but will not engage the name in
formed by mixing coal with. the clay prior to‘ load bearinggrelationship before the non-metallic
burning, and having a steel plate covering the body portion of said plug is firmly seated in said
circular face of the body portion-having the maxi
mum diameter and fixedly secured to the body
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