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Патент USA US2113569

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April 12, 193-8.
E. G. BAILEY ET AL
2,113,569
RETAINING MEANS FOR FURNACE WALL BLOCKS
Original Filed Oct. 20, 1927
_ INVENTQRS
5. V117
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Fa]p11 M
5%‘ El R
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‘
Hardyrolre
ORNEY
m.
2,113,569
Patented Apr. '12, 1938
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,113,569
RETAINING MEANS FOR FURNACE WALL
BLOCKS
Ervin G. Bailey, Easton, Pa., and Ralph M. Hard
grove, West?eld, N. 3., assignors, by mesne
assignments, to The Babcock & Wilcox Com
pany, Newark, N. 1., a corporation of New J er
sey
Original application October 20, 1927, Serial No.
227,456. Divided and this application July 17,
1931, Serial No. 551,337
34 Claims. (Cl. 122-6)
Our invention relates to furnace temperature
control, especially furnace walls adapted to facili
tate furnace temperature control, and more par
ticularly furnace wall blocks and means for re
taining said blocks in ?rm contact with spaced
elements of the wall.
The present application is a division of our
copending application, Serial No. 227,456, for
Devices for retaining furnace wall blocks against
tubes. ?led October 20, 1927.
Oneobject of the invention is to provide means
which will retain the tile orblocks composing the
inner surface or a part of the inner surface of a
furnace wall, ?rmly in contact with spaced ele
ments, for instance—water tubes, in the wall.
Another object is to provide an attachment for
such tile or blocks which will enable an effective
heat contact to be maintained between the tile
and the tubes. ‘A further object is the provision
of such means in a form which will permit broken
or injured tile to be removed and replaced by new
Other objects will appear upon further
' ones.
consideration of the present speci?cation.
The invention is shown by way of illustration
in the accompanying drawing in which—
H has a portion l2 extending between two tubes.
The tile extend over the inner portions of the
tubes l0 and provide the inner surface of the
\furnace wall. Thus a refractory wall may be
provided which is cooled by means of water tubes
to which the tile or refractory elements are at
tached. The portions l2 of the tile H which ex
tend between two tubes l0 may extend beyond
the plane through the axes of the tubes.
_Means are provided bearing against the pro 10
jection I2 on each tile I l to press the tile against
the tube. In the form illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2,
the tile is L-shaped and two tile H, II bear
against each other, (although, of course, they
need not bear directly upon each other)‘ each 15
having a portion l2 extending between adjacent
tubes. It will be observed that in Figure 1 in the
plan view shown, the two tile II’, I I contact with
one another‘ in a line perpendicular to the plane
through the axes of the tubes, and equally spaced 20
from each tube. It will also be seen that the ad
jacent faces of the two contacting tile are formed
with an arc-shaped curve near the faces on the
furnace side, and that these curves are tangent
to planes which are divergent in two adjacent tile 25
Figure 1 is a horizontal section through a part ‘on the outer side wall. When in position, the
of a furnace wall constructed in accordance with 'two contacting tile bear upon each other with
their arc-shaped faces so that line contact be
the invention,
,
'
tween the blocks is established.
Fig. 2 is an elevation of the furnace wall il
Each of the tile ll thus provides a fulcrum 30
lustrated in Figure 1, as viewed from the left in
about which the other rocks, and when in place
the drawing,
Fig. 3 is a horizontal section through a part of the tile therefore rock about a common fulcrum,
which is their line of contact with one another.
another type of furnace wall constructed in ac
Clearly, a separate physical common fulcrum
cordance with the invention,
'
35
Fig. 4 is an elevation of Fig. 3 as viewed from might be provided.
The contiguous faces of the tile are so shaped
the left in the drawing, and
Fig. 5 is a horizontal section through a part of that they leave an opening or recess l3 between
still another type of furnace wall constructed in their ends, and into this opening or recess is
forced a member for retaining the two tile ?rmly
accordance with the invention.
in contact with the water tubes. As here shown, 40.
The invention may be said to comprise a fur
nace wall formed by spaced elements and tile there is provided a resilient U-shaped member M.
having a portion extending between the spaced The U-shaped member, because of its resiliency,
elements, together with means acting to press the tends to straighten, and thus to force apart the
tile against the spaced elements. It is to be extending portions l2 of the tile. Thus, means
understood that where the word “tile” is used in are provided which tend to rotate each tile about 45
the speci?cation and claims, it is used in'the the center line of the adjacent water tube._ It
broadest and most inclusive sense, and embraces may be here remarked that the construction is
among other constructions, blocks which may be such that temperature changes do not affect the
composed entirely of refractory or entirely of resiliency of the contact. The tile, contacting as
at l5‘, tend to ?t the ‘tubes I0 snugly and to be
metal, .or which may be of’ composite construc
held against them by reason of the force exerted
tion, being made of metal and refractory.
by the U-shaped member l4. Each tile contacts
In the drawing there is shown a part of a fur
nace wall in which spaced elements in the form with thev adjacent tube in an arc which is greater
of vertical water tubes ID form the skeleton of than 90° of the tube circumference, and thereby
the wall, and are covered with tile ll. Each tile provides improved heat conducting area between
2
2,113,669
the 'tile and the tube. Although the tile illus
10
forces against oblique tile surfaces forming the
trated in Figure 15 are shown as contacting with
the tubes in an are only slightly greater than 90°,
it must be apparent that this are of contact may
spring seats. These forces may be considered as
exerted in an oblique (with reference to the fur
be increased if the angle between the tile ends
forming the recess 13 is increased. Furthermore,
ponents normal to the furnace face, representing ,
we may add a heat conducting binder between
the tile and the tubes in a manner well known to
those skilled in the art.
against the tubes directly behind them. >
nace face) direction, and such forces have com
the force of the furnace face parts of the tile
Other forms of the invention varying in detail
but not in principle from those here illustrated
In order to remove the tile from the wall, that ' by way of example will readily suggest themselves
1
is to say, from its position between the tubes, the
U-shaped member [4 must ?rst be withdrawn
from its position between two adjacent tile. The
tile to be removed is then rotated through a small
15 are about the tube until it does not contact with
the tube outside of the plane through the axes
of the tubes. Such rotation is made possible by
the shape of the adjacent faces of two contacting
tile which has already been described. The tile
to be removed may then be withdrawn by pulling
it into the furnace.
'
The embodiment illustrated in Figs. 3 and 4
shows but a single tile IiB which lies between
adjacent tubes l0, l0, and the portion l2a ex
25 tending between the tubes is narrowed as at i6
and expanded again as at H, in order that a re
silient member l8 may ?t over the extension and
bear upon this part of the tile IIS‘ and also upon
the two water tubes l0, Hi. The resiliency of
30 the member l8 causes it to bear upon the tubes
and the tile, thus forcing the tile closely against
the tubes. It will be seen that both the U-shaped
member l4 and the resilient member l8 shown in
Figs. 3 and 4 exert a force on the extending por
35 tion of the tile to keep the latter in contact with
the tubes.
The form illustrated in Fig. 5 is a construction
in which the portion of the tile llb between the
tubes, does not extend beyond the center line of
40 the tubes. The means l9 bearing against the pro
jection l2b to press the tile against the tube, is
shown as being resilient in character and of a
somewhat different form from the corresponding
elements illustrated in Figs. 1 to 4, inclusive.
45
From the foregoing it will be obvious that
means has been provided which will retain the
tile or blocks composing the inner surface or
part of the inner surface of the furnace wall,
?rmly in contact with spaced elements which
50 form the skeleton of the wall. The resilient
members l4, l8 and I9 illustrate attachments
which are provided by the invention which en
able an effective heat contact to be maintained
between the tile and the tubes. It will also be
55 evident that in .he event of a tile being broken
it may be removed and replaced by a new one
with convenience and ease.
v
In the illustrated embodiments of the inven
tion the force pressing the tile or blocks against
the tubes is maintained or actually increased as
furnace temperatures rise. With reference to
the embodiment shown in Figures 1 and 2, the
tile II will so expand that they will have, a ro
tating or pivotal action about the tubes and this
65 action will compress the springs II. The latter
therefore will cause the tile to exert greater forces
against the tubes.
With reference to the operation of the embodi
ments shown in Figures 3, 4 and 5 a similar change
to those dealing with the problem of retaining
furnace wall blocks in place. With this under
standing, therefore,
We claim:
1. In a furnace wall, spaced elements, tile hav
ing portions extending between said elements,
the facing surfaces of adjoining tile between suc
cessive elements being non-parallel, and springs
resiliently gripping said extending portions and
exerting a force to keep said tile in contact with
said elements, said springs forming substantially
V-shaped parts with their apical portions in
serted in correspondingly shaped and outwardly
opening recesses in the wall by movement in a
direction normal to the face of the wall after
the co-acting tile are in their operative positions,
the springs being held under stress and in tem
porarily deformed condition while they are po
sitioned within the recesses.
2. In a furnace wall, spaced elements, tile each
having a portion between said elements extend
ing beyond the center line thereof, and resilient
means embracing said portion and exerting a
force to keep said tile in contact with said ele
ments.
3. In a furnace wall, water tubes, tile having
portions between said tubes extending beyond
the center line thereof and arranged so ‘as to
cause wedge-shaped recesses to be presented
opening toward the outer face of the wall, and
wedge-shaped resilient means with their apical -
portions extending into said recesses and exert
ing a force on said extending portions to keep
said tile in contact with said tubes, the resilient
means being applicable to the wall after the tile
are all placed in their operative positions.
4. In a furnace wall, water tubes, tile each hav
ing a portion extending between said tubes, and
U-shaped resilient means exerting a force par
allel to the plane of the wall on said extending
portions to keep said tile in contact with said
tubes, the resilient means being held in opera
tive relation to said extending portions by reason
of pressure exerted by said means.
5. In a furnace wall, spaced elements forming 55
the skeleton structure of the wall, tile providing
a wall surface on the furnace interior side of
said spaced elements, said tile having projections
extending between said spaced elements and ar
ranged to present spring receiving recesses open 60
ing toward the outer face of the wall, and spring .
members bearing against and frictionally grip
ping the projections on said tile to press said tile
against said elements, said members being held
in their operative positions by their gripping ac 65
tion.
1
6. In a furnace wall, spaced elements forming
the skeleton structure of the wall, tile providing ‘a wall surface on the furnace interior side of
70 takes place as the furnace is brought to a. normal
operating condition. The tile and the'tubes ex
pand in such a way that the wedge-shaped spring
said spaced elements, said tile having projections
extending between said spaced elements, and
spreaders bearing against the projections on said
parts are compressed and this compression causes
tile to press said tile against the spaced elements.
7. In a furnace wall, spaced elements forming
the skeleton structure of the wall, pairs of tile
the springs to exert greater forces pressing the
75 tile against the tubes. The springs then exert
2,113,569
3
providing a wall surface on the furnace interior
block members mounted thereon and therebe
side of said spaced elements, said tile having pro
jections extending between said spaced elements
and beyond the plane of their center lines, and
a spreader acting upon the projections and tend
ing to rotate the tile about the center line of the
adjacent spaced elements, the spreader being po
tween having curved tube recesses and curved
contacting surfaces opposite said recesses and
sitioned on the side of said plane opposite the
wall surface.
8. In a furnace wall, water tubes forming the
10
skeleton structure of the wall, pairs of tile pro
viding a wall surface on the furnace interior side
of said water tubes, said tile having projections
extending between said water tubes and beyond
15 the plane of their center lines, and spreaders re
acting against the projections and tending to ro
’ tate each tile about the center line of the adja
cent water tube, said spreaders being also located
beyond said plane.
9. In a furnace wall, spaced elements forming
20
the skeleton structure of the wall, two L-shaped
tile between each pair of spaced elements provid
ing a wall surface on the furnace interior side
of said spaced elements, each of said tile having.
a projection extending between said spaced ele
' ments, the two tile contacting in a line equally
distant from each tube and positioned outwardly
of the wall from said surface, and a spreader
bearing against the projections on adjacent tile
to press said tile against the spaced elements.
10. In a furnace wall, water tubes forming the
skeleton structure of the wall, two L—shaped tile
between adjacent tubes providing a wall surface
on the furnace interior side of said water tubes,
35 each of said tile having a projection extending
between said tubes and beyond the plane of their
center lines, the two tile exerting a force upon
eccentric with respect thereto, and said block
members having projections, - and spreading
means acting on said members in groups and
against the projections thereto to wedge the
members by cam action of the eccentric contact
ing surfaces.
15. A structure of the character set forth com
10
prising a two-part block unit, each part having a
lateral curved tube engaging surface and an op
posite surface eccentric with respect to said tube ~
engaging surface and adapted to contact the
eccentric surface of the other part and means
for mounting the block unit operative to produce
pressure between the eccentric surfaces.
16. The combination with spaced tubes, of a
block unit mounted thereon and therebetween
comprising two block members, said members 20
having curved tube recesses and non-parallel
contacting surfaces opposite said recesses, pro
jections on the block members, and a spreader
acting against said projections to wedge the block
unit by cam action of the contacting surfaces, the
wedging action causing- the block members to be
pressed against the tubes.
17. The combination with spaced tubes, of
block members mounted thereon and therebe
tween having curved tube recesses and non-par
allel contacting surfaces opposite said recesses,
proj ecticns on said block members and a spreader
acting on said members in groups and against
the projections thereto to wedge the members by
cam action of the contacting surfaces, the Wedg
ing action causing the block members to be
pressed tightly against the tubes.
each other on the furnace side of the center line
18, A structure of the character set forth com—
of the water tubes, and a spring interposed rela
40 tive to the projections on adjacent tile between
prising, spaced tubes, a two-part block unit, each
part having a lateral curved tube receiving recess
the same tubes and bearing against those projec- ‘ and an opposite surface of different character
tions at a position beyond said plane to press the
tile against the tubes.“
of abutting L-shaped tile between adjacent tubes,
istics adapted to contact the similar surface of
the other part, and a spreader for mounting the
block unit operative to produce pressure between
the block parts and the tubes.
19. In a furnace wall, spaced cooling tubes, wall
blocks presenting inner parts forming a furnace
face and having extensions positioned between
the tubes, tube receiving portions formed as re
cesses in the blocks, wedging portions opposite
the recesses in the blocks, and pressure apply
ing means reacting against the extensions to set
up a wedging action involving said wedging por
tions and causing the blocks to be pressed against
the tubes.
each tile having a portion extending between
said tubes to a position beyond the plane of their
center lines and contacting with the adjacent
blocks presenting inner parts forming a furnace
face and having extensions positioned between
tube along an are which is greater than 90° of
the tubes, tube receiving portions formed as re
11. In a furnace wall, spaced water tubes, pairs
45 of abutting L-shaped tile between adjacent tubes,
each tile having a portion extending between
sai tubes to a position beyond the plane of their
center lines and contacting with the adjacent
tube in an are which is greater than 90° of the
50 tube circumference, and resilient means exerting
a force on said extending portions also at a posi
tion beyond said plane to keep said tile in contact
with said tubes.
12. In a furnace wall, spaced water tubes, pairs
60 the tube circumference, and resilient spreaders
exerting a force tending to separate the ends of
the tile portions extending between two tubes to
keep said tile in contact with said tubes, sub
stantially as described.
13. The combination with spaced tubes, of a
block unit mounted thereon and therebetween
comprising two block members, said members
having curved tube recesses and curved contact
ing surfaces opposite said recesses and eccentric
with respect thereto and said block members
having projections, and spreading means acting
against said projections to wedge the block unit
by cam action of the eccentric contacting sur
faces.
'
20. In a furnace wall, spaced cooling tubes, wall '
cessesv in the blocks, wedging, portions opposite 60
the recesses in the blocks, and pressure applying
means reacting ‘against the extensions to set up
a wedging action involving said wedging portions
and causing the blocks to be pressed against the
tubes, each of said tubes having a row of blocks
on each of two sides thereof.
21. In ?uid heat exchange apparatus, spaced
cooling tubes, wall blocks presenting furnace face
portions at their inner ends and having exten
sions positioned between the tubes, said blocks 70
being formed with recesses constituting tube re
ceiving portions, each block having opposite its
recess a surface which has' contour characteris
tics different from those of the recess, and means
14. The combination with spaced tubes, of‘ acting upon the blocks to cause the individual 75
4
2,113,669
blocks of pairs to mutually exert pressure on each
other at positions forwardly of the center lines
of the tubes.
22. In ?uid heat exchange apparatus, spaced
cooling tubes, wall blocks presenting furnace face
portions at their inner ends and having exten
sions positioned between the tubes, said blocks
being formed with tube receiving portions, each
block having opposite its tube receiving portion
10 a surface different in contour characteristics
from that of the recess, and pressure means act
ing upon the blocks to cause them to have oppo- .
site pivotal actions relative to each other to
press them into their operative positions against
-15 the tubes.
23. In fluid heat exchange apparatus, spaced
cooling tubes, wall blocks presenting furnace face
'20
portions at their inner ends and having exten
sions positioned between the tubes, said blocks
being formed with recesses constituting tube re
ceiving .portions, each block having opposite its
recess a surface which has characteristics dif
ferent from that of the recess, each block having _
good thermal relation-to a tube over a tube sur
face bounded by two radial planes at an angle to
each other of less than 180°, and means acting
upon pairs of said blocks to cause them to exert
pressure on the tubes in the directions of said
planes and toward the centers of the adjacent
tubes while still maintaining the blocks in such
positions that their inner ends form a substan
tially ?at furnace face.
\
24. In fluid heat exchange apparatus, spaced
cooling tubes, wall blocks presenting furnace face
portions at their inner ends and having exten
sions positioned between the tubes, said blocks
being formed with recesses constituting tube re
parallel.
'
28. In ?uid heat exchange apparatus, spaced
cooling tubes, wall blocks presenting ?at-furnace
face portions at their inner ends and having ex
tensions positioned between the tubes, said blocks 10
being formed with recesses constituting tube re
ceiving portions, each block also having a pres
sure surface opposite its recess side, and means
acting upon the blocks to cause pairs of them
to mutually exert pressure toward each other at 15
said pressure surfaces to cause the blocks to be
pressed tightly against the tubes.
29. In a furnace wall, spaced wall cooling tubes,
pairs of oppositely arranged coacting wedge
blocks positioned between the tubes and having 20
?at furnace face portions adjacent facing pres
sure transmitting portions, and means exerting
pressure on the blocks of a pair to cause the
blocks in turn to be pressed toward the adja
cent tubes, said blocks and means being so 25
' shaped and arranged that normal furnace opera
tion tends to increase the pressure exerted by the
blocks against the tubes.
_
30., In a furnace Wall, spaced wall cooling tubes,
pairs of co-acting and oppositely arranged clo
sure members mounted upon the tubes with the
opposite outer faces of each pair facing sepa
rate tubes and the opposing internal faces of
each pair being non-parallel, and resilient com-'
pression devices exerting forces on the blocks 35
along the wall to cause the closure members to
recess asurface which has characteristics differ
ent from that of the recess, and means acting
upon the-outer ends of each of the blocks of a
furnace face portions at their inner ends and
pair to tend to cause rotation of the blocks around
the tubes in such a way as to'press the blocks
toward the tubes.
25. In fluid heat exchange apparatus, spaced
cooling tubes, wall blocks presenting furnace face
portions at their inner ends and having exten
sions positioned between the tubes, said blocks
being formed with recesses constituting tube re
ceiving portions, each block having opposite its
recess a surface which has characteristics dif
ferent from that of the recess, the block parts
having said surfaces opposite the recesses being
adapted to exert pressure towards each other to
55 limit rotation of the blocks around the tubes and
to cause the blocks to be pressed against the
tubes.
,
26. In- combination, spaced tubes, block mem
bers mounted on the tubes between them and
60 having curved tube recesses and non-parallel
wedging surfaces opposite said recesses, the in—
ner ends of the blocks being adapted to form the
?at face of a furnace wall, each tube receiving
recess part adapted to be in good thermal‘ re
65 lation to a tube over an extent of the tube sur
face of the order of 90° of the circumference of
the tube, and means operative on the blocks from
a position outwardly of the tubes to press the
blocks apart and toward the tubes.
70
forwardly of the center lines of the tubes, the
bearing surfaces of adjacent blocks being non
be resiliently clamped on and pressed toward the
tubes.
31. In fluid heat exchange apparatus, spaced
ceiving portions, each block having opposite its
50
recess side a bearing surface, and means acting
upon the blocks to cause pairs of them to mutual
ly exert pressure toward each other at positions
27. In v?uid heat exchange apparatus, spaced
cooling tubes, wall blocks presenting furnace
face portions at their inner ends and having ex
tensions positioned between the tubes, said blocks
cooling tubes, metallic wall blocks presenting?at 40
having extensions positioned between the tubes,
said blocks being formed with recesses constitut
ing tube receiving portions, each block having a
pressure surface opposite its recess side, each 45
block also having good thermal relationship to a
tube over a tube segment bounded by two radial
planes at an angle to each other of less than 180°,
and separate pressure means acting upon sepa
rate pairs of said blocks to cause ‘them to exert 50
pressure on the tubes in the directions of said
planes and toward the centers of the tubes while
still maintaining the blocks in such position that
their inner ends form a substantially ?at fur
nace face, the ?at furnace portions of the blocks 55
constituting the highest temperature metal dur
ing normal furnace operation and therefore ex
panding more than the remainder of the blocks
whereby furnace operation causes a further press
ing of the blocks towards the tubes to enhance 60
said thermal relationship.
32. A furnace wall structure, comprising a fluid
circulating conduit, a protective refractory coat
ing thereover, and means constantly forcing said
coating ‘and said conduit into intimate contact 65
with one another,’ wherein the said forcing is not
substantially diminished by thermal expansion
of the members comprising the wall, as the wall
is heated.
-
33. In the operation of furnaces having fluid 70
cooled walls composed of ?uid circulating con
duits and refractory blocks thereover, the method
of increasing the mechanical stability of said wall
being formed with recesses constituting tube re ' and improving the transmission of heat to said
75 ceiving portions, each block having opposite its conduits which comprises continuously urging
75
9,118,569
‘
5
means
constantly
forcing
said
coating
and
said
said blocks and conduits into closer juxtaposition conduit into intimate contact with one another
and maintaining the pressure of blocks against wherein the said forcing is not substantially di
conduits substantially undiminished as the wall minished by thermal expansion of the wall mem
is heated
.
34. A furnace wall structure, comprising, in bers as the wall is heated.
combination, a ?uid circulatingconduit, a pro- ,
ERVIN G. BAILEY.
tective‘ refractory coating in the form of tile
RALPH M. HARDGROVE.
positioned over the furnace side of the tube, and
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