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Патент USA US2113578

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April 12, 1938,
' 2,113,573
Filed‘ Nov. 14, 1935
3 Sheets-‘Sheet 1
April 12, 1938.
Filed Nov. 14, 1955
3 Sheets-Sheet 2 _
Hyper?’ H Draeyeh
April 12, 1938. ‘
" R |-|_ DRAEGER
Filed Nov‘. 14, 1935
s Sheets-Sheet s
Patented Apr. 12, 1938
, 2,113,578
"res ‘Artur orrics"
Rupert H. Draeger, ‘United States Navy '
Application November it, 1935, Serial No. 49,757.
11 Claims.
(Cl. 88-—24)
' ‘Granted under the act oi‘ March 3, 1883, as
amended'iipril 3t), 1928; 37th 0. G. 757)
This invention relates to reading machines and freedom from physical‘ harm as to leave the ?lm
more particularly to reading machines of the type in practically new condition after many inser
adapted to the use of photographic strip ?lm as
the medium containing the reading matter.
5 Heretofore reading matter on film has been
chie?y for use in moving picture theatres, using
a projection on large screens to be viewed by
large audiences, or merely for a record, used oc
casionally as a reference with little attention he
10 ing paid to high de?nition of the image. Some
few attempts have been'made to design a read
ing machine ‘for use with books on ?lm; but these
are neither compact designs capable oi being
carried from oihce to home, or to great distances
15 on vacations, or on speech making tours, as are
portable typewriters, nor are they capable of pro
ducing an image on a translucent screen of such
quality as to be as easy on the eyes as good print
on good paper under the proper lighting.
The object of this invention is to overcome the
above objections, and at the same time produce
a neat and compact, light weight, precision in
strument at a moderate cost. The advantages
of this new machine are such as to overcome any
prejudices which may exist against reading from
anything other than a printed book or a type
written manuscript and yet be within the reach
of all who will have occasion to take advantage
or" the new sources of knowledge opened‘ up and
30 readily accessible to everyone through this com
paratively new method of publication. The dis
semination of scienti?c knowledge, old and new,
will be invaluable to scientists working in such
specialised ?elds that those interested in the _
:‘5 details are so limited in number as to leave or
dinary publishing costs prohibitive. Small librar
ies have neither space nor money to offer endless
material to readers, but with all of the large
libraries co-operating on a supply of film copies
lo of anything printed, typewritten or in long-hand
and with ample facilities for reading the ?lm
copies in every library and many homes, the
availability of all literature will be increased
many times.
Special objects of this invention are to provide
a machine which may be set upon a desk or table
and of such design that the pages of a book on
?lm may be made to appear before the reader
clearly in daylight or in a lighted room and be
so made to turn forward or backward with a mini
'mum of e?ort, and also be made to appear right
side up on the screen regardless of their posi
tion or positions on the ?lm.
A further object is to provide a reading ma
,,,, chine which handles the ?lm with such case and
tions in the machine.
In the accompanying drawings, which illus
trate a preferred embodiment‘of the invention:
Fig. l is a plan view of the novel machine;
Fig. 2 is a side elevation with part, of the side
panel cut away;
Fig. 3 is a plan view of the head of the machine
below line 3-4] of Fig. 2.
Fig. 4 is a sectional view of a part of the ro
tatable head; and
Fig. 5 is a plan view of ?lm crank and ?lm gate
opening mechanisms.
There is shown at I a housing forming a light- is
tight projection chamber and having r'otatably
mounted thereon a head 2 carrying ‘the light
source 18, optical projection system, ?lm spool
spindles Ml, ?lm guides 23, ?lm indexing mecha
nism and means for holding the head in any de
sired orientation. The optical system consists 20
of re?ector 3, projection lamp i5, condenser lenses
5, transparent heat absorbing medium 6, trans-'
parent ?lm gate 7, internal reflecting prism 8,
objective lens combination 9, front surface mirror 25
it, and translucent. projection screen It.
This optical system ‘may be permanently ad
justed at the time of manufacture to obviate‘ the
necessity for one unacquainted with such systems.
having to attempt getting the best image on the
The parts of this system may be of any
of the ‘usual designs though ibis necessary for
best results to have a high quality photographic
lens for the objective and a screen which is both
very fine in grain and high in dispersion.
In loading the machine with ?lm, knob i2 is
turned to the “open’.' position, as indicated by
“O” on the drawings, which refers to the position
of the film gate l7. Knob 82 through shaft iii
turns cam M which through hell crank lever it‘; _
pivoted on the frame of head 2 on shaft 36
moves link“ ill which is engaged with hinged
frame is containing the glass gate la and by
swinging frame it about axis l9 opens the ?lm
gate ‘l. ‘When the pointerknob i2 is at the 45
F‘closed” position, “C”, ?lm gate 7 is closed and
the ?at portion of cam it is brought flush with
the extension on bell crank 35 upon which it
acts, by means of spring 20 one end of which is
attached by a pin to cam M with the other end
secured to the head frame. With ?lm gate 1
open, ?lm spool 2| is placed upon one of the
spindles 44 and the ?lm is placed around guide
roller 23 through ?lm gate 1, around the other
guide roller 23, and vsecured to an empty ?lm spool 55
or “take-up” spool II which may beidentical
the housing I.- It is thus possible to rotate the
with and interchangeable with the loaded ?lm
spool. Projection 28 on the cover of the in
ternally reflecting prism 8 extends over the top
edge‘of the stationary ?lm gate compressor glass
head about the housing so- as to change the posi
tion of the image on the viewing screen II to
make the same most convenient for observation
‘la'_which prevents the ?lm from slipping be
tween the outside of this glass and the prism and
yet leaves this space open suflciently that the
gins surfaces may be cleaned.
by the operator.
It is also possible to remove thehead 2 from
the housing I and place it on another housing
of a different size having a larger or mailer re
?ecting mirror and viewing screen.
The mirror It is provided witha three-point 10
suspension means 48 so that the angle of the
The ?lm indexing mechanism consists of
crank-handle 28 mounted on knurled-‘hand wheel
21 secured on shaft 28 rotatably mounted in the - mirror may be adjusted when necessary to
side of head 2, said shaft having near its'inner. properly adjust the re?ected image on to the
end a collar 28 secured thereto by a set screw 80.
Said shaft has its innermost end beveled ‘to an
edge with included angle of approximately ninety
Guide rollers 28 are so placed that when the 15
?lm gate is open and the ?lm is inmotion, the
degrees which engages with shouldered sliding
plunger 8i, the shaft engaging end of which is
?lm travels between the plates without touching
either plate.
formed to an angular groove 32 cut across its
20 end to match the beveled end of shaft 28. This
mechanism is in duplicate, one on each side of
the head 2. When the shaft 28 is rotated in
either. direction, plunger 8| is forced longitudi
nally away from shaft 28 until it is stopped
by the bearing of its shoulder against the end
of the bore in shell 88 and because of torsional
resistance o?ered through pin 84 in said plunger,
said plunger may not rotate until it has reached
The invention described herein may be manu
factured and used by or for the Government of 20’
the United States of America for governmental
purposes without payment of any royalties there
on or therefor.
What I claim and desire to secure by Letters
Patent is:
1. In‘ a reading. machine a ?lm advancing
means, a ?lm gate, said ‘?lm gate including a
?xed ?lm gate portion and a movable ?lm gate
portion operable transversely to the ?xed ?lm
gate portion, a rotatable crank adapted to ad 30
vance the ?lm, a plunger operable by said crank,
the limit of its longitudinal motion. This longi
tudinal thrust of plunger 8| through contact of
said plunger with one arm of bell crank- lever 85
rotates said bell crank lever 85 about its pivot 86 a bell crank, one arm of said bell crank operably
and in turn pulls link i‘! causing the previously connected with the movable ?lm gate portion
mentioned compressor glass frame It to'swing and the other arm of the bell crank adapted to
about hinge axis I! relieving the pressure between be moved by said plunger when operated by said 35
and separating the transparent compressor crank, and a cam contacting with said bell crank
glasses ‘la and la" of the ?lm gate, the pres ' and adapted to operate the same independently
- sure having been produced by tension spring 81 of the rotatable crank.
2. In a reading machine a ?lm advancing
secured at one end to the head frame 2 and at‘
the other ‘end to one of the bell crank levers ’ means, a ?lm gate, said ?lm gate including a
to restore the plungers to their normal positions. ?xed ?lm gate portion and a movable ?lm gate
portion operable transversely to the ?xed ?lm
During the above mentioned operations no ten
sion has been placed upon the ?lm,’ but ‘at the gate portion, a crank adapted to advance the
time that plunger 8! has moved as far away ?lm, a plunger operable by said crank, a bell
from shaft 28 as possible, the shaft commences crank, one arm of said bell crank operably con
to transmit a torque to the groove in the end of nected with the movable ?lm gate portion and
plunger 8i so long as the crank‘ handle 28 is the other arm of the bell crank adapted to be
turned, which torque is transmited through the
pin 84 to the shell 88 which is secured to the
grooved pulley wheel 88 which rides unsecured
on shaft 28. Pulley wheel 88 is connected by
endless belt 88 over the one-way clutch pulleys
48 to another identical pulley wheel ‘88. The
clutch 82 is of a type which permits torque to be
transmitted in one direction only, and-with clutch
bodies 88 designed to engage in such a manner
and secured to ?lm spindle shafts 44 that one
or the other only of the shaft isturned for one
direction cranking, the other shaft being idle,
and the previomly idle ?lm reel' spindle‘ shaft
84 becoming the driving spindle when the direc
moved by said plunger when operated by said
crank, and a cam contacting with said bell crank
and adapted to operate the same independently 50
of the crank, and a spring adapted to return the
cam into non-operative position.
3. In a reading machine a ?lm advancing
means including a shaft having a beveled end,
a hand‘ wheel ?xedly mounted on said shaft, a
pulley freely rotatable on said shaft, a shell
rigidly connected with said pulley and provided
with a slot in its free end, a plunger having a
slot in one of its ends, the beveled end of the
shaft being adapted to engage said slot, said 60
plunger being arranged slidably in said shell, a.
tion of cranking is‘reversed.
pin extending through the ‘plunger near the end
Thehead! isrotatablyandremovablysup away from the shaft and being located inside
xportedonthehousinglasshownindetailin the slot of the shell, a‘?lm gate having a movable
Hg. 4. Theobjective'lens liscarried in alens portion, a bell crank, a connecting link between
said bell crank and the movable ?lm gate por- .
88 proiectirn' upwardly from the‘top of. the ‘ tion, the free arm of the bell crank being located
houslngl. 'I‘hishollowboss?actsasasup in the-path‘of travel of- the plunger when the
'portingspindleforthehead8,thehead2be same is forcedinto sliding motion by the rotating
in: provided with a hollow shaft-way into which shaft before the pin engages the walls of the 70
shaft-way eoincidingwith the beam transmitted
slot in the shell.
4. A ?lm reading machine comprising a hous
throinhgthe prism 8'tofthe mirror II. A set ing, a head rotatably mounted thereon, a ?lm
screw l‘lproiecting through the end of the head ' carrying means and a ?lm illuminating means in
'II ‘8 serves to'hold the head ?ned at any angle on 'said head,‘ means for projecting an illuminated
image of the ?lm into said housing, a stationary ?xed member and a second member movable
mirror and a stationary viewing screen in said ‘ transversely with respect to said ?xed member
housing, said mirror being so positioned with re
for pressing the ?lm against the ?xed member,
spect to the illuminated image on the ?lm as to means for advancing the ?lm through said gate,
direct it when the head is rotated to said screen a plunger and a bell crank connecting said sec
irrespective of the angular position that said head ond member with said ?lm advancing means,
may occupy on the housing, said head being ro
tatable about an axis substantially parallel to
the axis of the projection beam, whereby the
10 projected image may be oriented-on said screen _
independently of the position of the ?lm in said
?lm-carrying means.
5. A ?lm reading machine according to claim ‘
4 and in which the means for projecting, com
15 prises a re?ector in said head for directing the
?lm illuminating beam ,i'rom the head to said
mirror in said housing in all angular positions
of said head. '
6. A ?lm reading machine according to claim
20 4 and in which said head is mounted on a hollow
bearing provided on said housing, theilluminated
image being directed through the bearing into
said housing.
7. In a ?lm reading machine, a ?lm gate hav
means controlled by said ?lm advancing means
and including said plunger and bell crank for
transversely moving the movable member of the
?lm gate away from the ?xed member prior to 10
the movement 'ofthe ?lm therethrough, whereby
said ?lm gate is automatically opened in response
to the motion of - said ?lm advancing means.
\ 9. In a ?lm reading machine according to claim
8 and in which a pivoted'member is connected 15
to the movable ‘?lm gate member and is con
nected to said crank by said plunger.
10. In a ?lm reading machine according to‘
claim 8 and in which ‘means normally urge said
movable member to close, a rotatable crank 20
adapted to operate the ?lm advancing means and
said plunger, a connecting rod securedito the
movable ?lm gate member and to one arm of
said bell crank, said plunger being adapted to op
25 ing a vmovable portion and adapted to hold the '
erate the other arm or said bell crank.
?lm in a ?xed plane while said ?lm is at rest and
to release said ?lm from said plane while the ?lm
is in motion, a ?lm advancing means, a ?lm gate
opening means comprising a bell- crank connected
30 to the movable ?lm gate portion, a ?rst means
controlled by said ?lm advancing means for-‘ac
tuating said bell crank, a manually controllable
cam for operating said bell crank to move the
movable ?lm gate portion to open position in
dependently of said ?rst means, whereby said
gate may be kept open for the insertion and re
moval of ?lm without continuously manually
holding it open.
8. In a ?lm reading machine, a ?lm gate
40 adapted to hold the ?lm in a ?xed position while
the ?lm is at rest, said ?lm gate including a ~
11. In a ?lm reading machine, ‘a ‘housing, a
stationary projection screen and a stationary re
?ecting means'in said housing, a projection head,
a source of light and a light projection system in
said head, a mounting for said housing per 30
mitting its rotation about an axis substantially
parallel to the optical axis of the projection sys- ,
tem, a ?lm supporting means mounted on said ‘
projection head, a second re?ecting means
mounted on said projection head and vforming 35
part of said projection system and rotatable with
said head to re?ect the illuminated ?lm image
to said stationary re?ecting means regardless
oi the orientation of the ?lm.
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