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Патент USA US2113628

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April 12, 1938.
‘o. c. PILLAR
2,113,628 '
RINGLESS PISTON
Filed Sept. 9, 1956
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INVENTOR
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April 12, 1938.
2,113,628 I
o. c. PILLAR
Filed Sept’. v9, 1956
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ATTORNEY“ '
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Patented vApr. 12, 1938
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2,113,628,
omen ' STATE 5 PATENT ‘ oar-‘ice \ “
2.113328 "
i - amomss ‘rrs'ron ‘ ‘7 Oscar‘
mic-i118" to.
Valleyyl’ag
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Application momma,‘ 1192s,.- smegma
is
T ‘14, (am; ‘Jinan-o 1 ‘ ‘
ll-k-lloiwmg; 9;.‘~‘l"ig."11 represents asection ‘on
in[The
reciprocating
present invention
engines relates
andimore‘particularly‘
to pistons" used i-. line‘v lid-Ito! Fig.1; "Fig;“12 representra :per
,
tspective‘
of "onerparti of another? modi?cation of
I
the: invention; prior to assembly with Ian associ
ated part; Fig.13 represents aiperspective'of the 5
“ a continuation 'in' "partv 01 ‘application, Ser; » No.7» :t:
‘ toa piston in which the usual sealingirings are
‘ - dispensed with. w This application 1 for . patent is
'
'
‘
partwtdbe assembled with the part shown in‘
'
of pisto‘nsofthe typeatojwhich this" ;Fig."-12 to'iorm a-complete unitary seiinzexpand
in: piston; Fig. 14 represents a section-on line
i » ‘invention relates‘ it has vheretofore been‘ consid
ered‘ impractical, it‘ not'impossible, to'f‘obtain» ilk-M of‘ Fig-.12 with‘ thepart norm," 13 in '
110 "emcient ‘ results without'employingr spring expan-r" 1 assembled positionwFim. 15 represents a‘ section 10
‘fsion rings'to maintain compression and Yprevent" on 1ine~ii-li-oivFis.~12; 1'13; 16 represents a
~ In the
‘1 ‘leakage. ~ "Such'rings‘have always‘ been'a source “ ' sectional : elevation ot the assembled-piston; E ‘and
wofitroubleidue vto failure to vstand up‘under "hard v *I‘ig. PTA-"represents awperspeotive' of one‘ ' of ‘the
use, wear with incident leakage,‘ scoring ' of ‘ c‘yline ‘'
fastening pins."~“1
-
'
-~
"
'
"
>1
~
. iReferringitoi.ther‘drawings- one' iorm‘qoi'l‘i the '15
“ders, and ‘the like; yrAlso'thelcost-yof rings and'l
replacement charges add‘ to’ the i disadvantages of; "I present-invention consists .of“ a piston ll‘ formed
‘
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‘
‘
‘
e
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‘ Some of the objects of thepr'esent invention
are tov provide an improved ‘piston ‘for use in
(in two longitudinal sections" and“ whichsare
z-iormed‘fastwo, separate segmental castings.» de- ‘
signed toxbe'united toiorm anunitary; substan- '
‘ reciprocating engines‘; toprovide ainovelvm'ethodw tialiy-.,cylindrical, piston ‘body. ~1The. section I!
has a'w'head ' l 3 formed integral’ therewith of , cir- 20
20 of making a- rin'gless-piston; 'to‘provide‘a piston “ icular contour. and ihavingia diameter-‘suitable to
wherein piston rings have been eliminated; to
provide: a‘ringless piston‘ ‘wherein: provision is
I i made‘ for ‘ proper?‘ lubrication of‘ the relatively-‘II
fitsnugly within the cylinder in‘ which the piston
isto: be u‘sed.pAs willwbe seen ;from_Flg..@2;the
1‘ * moving parts’; to¥provide a‘ringles's piston‘whe're-i ‘' head‘ l3 ' projects -. laterally beyond the, two. edges
or, the‘ sectionv “in order torclose theupper end 25
25 ‘in friction in‘use ,is'reduced toa minimum; to ~ ‘ of the section‘ I i and provide aleakt-prooif" closure
i‘ provide a novel joint ‘in ‘a selfeexpanding‘ipiston; '(
d to provide‘ 3a- 'oneipiece‘ pist on having‘ a' ?xedpart for the upper end 0! both sections. > {The section
- and a movablefp‘art,‘ thel'atter servingto ‘main; Ill I v"is shorter‘ than "the ‘section 12, by‘ an amount
su?icient to‘ properly ‘?tthe‘head li‘into‘place, 30
tain
pistona leak
and‘ proof
the" cylinder
‘joint between
in’ which
thethe
walls
‘piston
'of‘the
is'v _One edge I! o! the~section IZ‘Yis preferably a
30
straight edge designed tOr?bllt alike edgeof; the
' usedptolprovide a self-expanding 'piston‘having
‘section ilswith ‘these ‘two edges‘in abutting
wrist pin‘: bosses so arrangedrthat' the assembled > i~relation a step in ' the methodconsists inwelding
‘ . wrist‘ pin is not subjected tolateral-strains due‘
abutting partsetogetherin: a Joint-'28. 31 Pref‘
to the action of‘the expanding! element; and to ' the‘
erably ‘at thewtime iotl‘weldingttheinternal‘wall
"
at“ to provide a vsuitable reinforce
" In theaccompanying‘drawings Fig; 1 -'repre4‘l {indicated
ment. This ' welding» operation" serves also to give
'sents' a side eievationof alpiston' embodyingone '
required setting .for spring action.
form of the presentinvention; Fig.2 represents 1 ‘- the
~In'order-topermit.‘ the desired springzexpansion
40
35 provide " other improvements as" vwill hereinafter = ‘
of the'lpistcn bodyalong the Joint isbuilt; up as
appear.
'
’
‘
>
'
4° a side elevation 01 the‘ parts or the‘piston before
r
ot'the section II‘ ‘with airespect to; the vsection, I2,
‘ "assembly; Fi'g.‘3'represents‘a-transverse section "-thev'other two:opposed edges I! and" ILOIAthe
" o! the parts’oi the piston-in position for carrying
sections“ and 12 ‘are not connected
"out lon'e'st‘ep'in the method" of makin‘gyFi‘g. 4‘ ‘wrespective
1 together but are ‘ complementaily - cut so that slcn-r
‘ represents'a" section‘on line
of
5; Fig. 5
part isvo?setgwith re
represents a longitudinali-section iofthe asseme ‘v gitudinally consider'edone
remainingpartgto form; an overlap
bledpiston'; Fig.2 6~represents aliperspec'tive of "spectto the.- That
portion oftheaedges Hand l5
ping ‘joint.
"one part of aimodiiiediorm'of the invention prior" : whichzmeetsthe
head‘ i3 \isprovided‘ withiop
‘ ‘ to ‘assembly withthe" associated parts;>"Fig. 7“ posedlengthwise grooves; l6 and H for therecepf 50
‘ representsa-perspective of‘the part to be‘assem- \
tionoi *aisealing» tongue ‘l8.
in assembled
5°‘ bledl with'the part‘ showniinv Fig; stororm a" *condition
with
the
tongue
Iii-"in
place
oil is pre
' complete‘unitarv‘seli expanding piston: Fig. 8 ventedi'rom escaping alongthejoint.
represents‘ a‘ bottom ~'plan of the assembled pis-s'‘ vwIn order to‘reduce friction theworkinglend‘ of
immune representsal'section ‘on line 8-! off each section islformednwith a 'lpluralitysoftiace “
‘5’ Fig; 10; ‘Fig.3 10 *representsi‘a'i section on'line"
2,118,828
grooves 2i so that the area of the bearing face
of the piston is materially reduced without in
any way lowering the e?lcient working of the pis
ton. Oil holes “serve as return passages for
any oil collecting in the grooves 2|. The skirt
portion of the piston likewise has its outer face
cut away by a circumferential groove 25 to re
duce’ friction.
Wrist pin bosses 25 are provided in the ?xed
wall of the assembled piston for the usual pur
pose of mounting the connecting rods, as will be
the wrist pin,‘this boss 38 being cast or formed
integral with the extension 32. A rib 31 extends
from the boss 36 to the head 30 and has its ends
respectively integral with these parts. It should
be noted, however, that the rib 31 is spaced from
the inner wall of the extension 32 to provide a
clearance 38 so that the movable or expansible
part (presently to be described) is free to move
without contacting the aforesaid rib 31.
As shown in Fig. 7 the part B consists of a wall 10
segment ll! having an arc length oi‘ approximate‘
understood.
1y one hundred and six degrees which is integral
In carrying out the method of forming the with and depends from a segmental band ‘I.
piston of the present invention, the two sections This band ll is of a width to ?t snugly in the
15 are cast'or otherwise shaped .to the required di
arcuate space 33, and is of a length and radius
mension and machined as necessary. The two
(when compressed to the arc of a circle) -to form
sections are then placed with the two edges I! with the part A a complete cylindrical piston
in abutting relation, while the opposite two edges body. The free end of the band 4| is provided
are held apart by the interposition of a spacing with a bevel l2, and the juxtaposed portion of
20 block 21. In this position the section II is in its
the wall ii is formed with a complemental
maximum expanded position with respect to the bevel 43.
section It. The meeting edges ii are then welded - ~ In assembling the parts A and B the part B
together and the reinforcing rib 24 formed. This is ?tted into the spaces provided in part A and
heating serves to set the sections so that the mov
the two abutting edges D and E are welded to
able section II can expand ‘relative to the ?xed gether so that the completed piston becomes a
section II. The block 21 is now removed and one piece body. When so welded the wall ‘I
the piston ready for assembly with associated forms a continuation of the wall II in the space C
parts.
but the length of the wall I. is such as to leave
In connection with the grooves II it should be a clearance 44 so that part B can be fully com
noted that these stop short of the joint between pressed when placed in an engine cylinder. When
the edges l4 and II so that each has a closed end assembled the piston is heat treated so that the
to prevent leakage of oil. ' It will now be apparpart B is given elasticity and set eccentric to the
cut that a complete unitary piston structure has part A to resist any pressing tending to deform
been devised wherein a sectional structure is it to cylindrical shape.
formed into a one piece expansionable piston in
In order that the united parts can be ?rlshed
which the use of piston rings has been entirely to a true cylindrical shape the band ‘I is held
eliminated. Furthermore by the present con
by suitable means completely contacted into the
struction increased compression is obtained and .space 33 whereby the outer circumference can
since the forces acting on the piston are always be machined and ground to the proper dimen
40 in the nature of a push the parts are at all sions. When so ground'the band II is released,
times maintained in joint sealing position in so and springs to its expanded position as shown in 40
far as the head and the expansionable member Figs. 9, 10, and 11.
'
are concerned. It should also be noted that the
It should be noted that a transverse rib ll is
novel Joint sealing means formed-by the tongue
45 and groove construction I‘ and I8 will act to seal
against oil leakage and the coagulation of oil
on this tongue will gradually build up a solid
joint closing barrier against loss of oil.
In the form of the invention shown in Figs. 6
to 11 inclusive the piston is made up, like the
form heretofore described, of two separate and
distinct parts welded or otherwise secured to
gether so that one part is capable of movement
relative to the other and this part is so arranged
55 and constructed as to maintain a constant pres
sure in opposite directions from the axis of the
wrist pin. Fig. 6 illustrates the part A forming
in the assembled piston the ?xed part relative to
which the part B, shown in Fig.7, moves. As
shown in Fig. 6 the part A consists of a cylin
drical head 30 formed integral with a'segmental‘
depending side wall Ii having an arc length of
approximately seventy degrees. The lower por
tion of the wall Ii is provided with an extension
I! forming a true circle arc terminating at an
arcuate distance C from the end of the wall 3|.
This extension 32 therefore provides an arcuate
space 3| between its upper margin and the head
II to receive the expansible movable element as
70 will be described. The wall 3| has a boss 34 in
tegral therewith which is reinforced by a rib
35 extending upwardly along the face of the wall
II and terminating as an integral part of the
head 30. Diametrically opposite to the boss 34
is the other boss 36 for carrying the other end of
formed integral with the head ll onits inner
face and extends diametrically thereof as a part
of the two reinforcing ribs 35 and 31. Thus the
head 3| and bosses 34 and II are tied together
by a bridgelike construction well adapted to
withstand the thrust of the piston as transmitted
to the piston rod.
In the form of the invention shownin Figs. 12
to 17 inclusive a piston construction is illustrated
for use where the two parts of the piston are of
di?'erent metals and which cannot be welded
together as described heretofore for other forms
of the invention. In other words the form of
the invention here illustrated makes it possible
to provide a self expanding piston wherein such
metals as aluminum for one part and cast iron
for the other can be associated with the advan
tageous results heretofore speci?ed.
Y In Fig. 12 the part C consists of a cylindrical
head 50 which is cast or otherwise ‘formed in
tegral with a cylindrical side wall 5| by means of
two vertical ribs 52 and a reinforcing" bridge
piece 53. In this connection it should be noted
that the outer faces of the respective ribs 52 are
spaced from the inner wall of the wall SI in order
to provide a necessary clearance, the need for
which will later be explained. As will be seen 70
from Fig. 12 the head 50 is spaced vertically from
the wall ii to form an annular space for the re
ception of the expansible. associated part D
shown in Fig. 13. This part D consists of a band
54 having a width substantially that of the an 75
3
2,118,628
' 'nular space provided in the part c and within
means, for mounting a wrist pin‘ in the assembled
which it vhas a close snug fit against the ‘respec
piston.
tive abutting surfaces.
4. A self expanding piston consisting of two
segmental sections of material secured together
This band 54' is split or '
divided as shown at 55-the opposed edges of
'
"
along two meeting edges, and ‘the other meeting
‘band is clamped with these faces in {contact it edges having complemental offset portions, each
will form a substantially complete cylindrical ring. of'said sections comprising a pistonbody part
Adjacent the split“ one end of "the‘band' N is and a skirt part, a piston head on one of said
provided with-two axially disposed lugs I6, each sections projecting laterally to close an end of the
which are bevelled as indicated so that when the
10 of which is drilled to‘provide a through hole 51
for the receptionof a pin 58.
‘
’
In ‘order to assemble this band 54 it is opened
sumciently to be snapped around the ribs 52 and
then ‘is brought to a position where the lugs it
15 are aimed with like lugs Iii formed integral with
the wall II and provided with through openings
‘II to receive the. aforesaid pins 58. Also the
‘ head ‘I is provided withtwo holes 62 properly
other section while allowing relative movement 10
therebetween, each piston body part having cir
cumferentially arranged grooves, and means for
mounting a wrist pin in the assembled piston.
' 5. A self expanding piston consisting of two
segmental sections of material secured vtog/ether
along two meeting edges, and the other meeting
edges having complemental offset portions, each
' of said sections comprising a pistonbody part
‘ ‘ positioned to aline with the holes 51 and through having openings therethroug'h, and a skirt part,
which the fastening and assembling pins 58 can - a piston head on one of said sections projecting
be inserted to interlock the band 54 with the part
C.‘ The pins 58 are so dimensioned as to make a
laterally to close an end of the other section while
allowing relative movement therebetween, each
to all intents and purposes have the effect of a
piston body part having circumferentially ar
ranged grooves communicating with said open
complete integral joint between the band 54 and
ings, and means for mounting a wrist pin in the
driving fit with the receiving holes and thereby
nection with the other forms of the invention the -
assembled piston.
6. A self expanding piston consisting of two
band 54 is heat treated and set so that it has the
segmental sections of material secured together \
the head SI and wall II.
As explained in con
required'elasticity ,and tends to deform itself into
an eccentric shape to adequately grip the inner
wall of a cylinder to prevent leakage past the pis
ton. The lugs 60 as here shown are on oppo
site sides of one of the ribs 52 thus bringing the
?xed part of the band at a rigid portion of the
wall 5! and allowing the major portion of the
aforesaid band M to be free to‘be compressed or
expanded relative to the head BI and wall ii in
a manner well understood. As an integral part
of the ribs 52 wrist pin bosses 83 are respectively
provided in diametrically opposed relation on the
inner face of the wall ‘I.
It will here be noted
that the clearing 64 between the respective ribs
52 and the wall 5! allows for the unrestricted
along two meeting edges and the other meeting
edges having complemental offset portions, each
of said sections comprising a piston body part
and a skirt part, a piston head on one of said
sections projecting laterally to close an end of
the other section while allowing relative move
ment therebetween, means to prevent oil leakage
between the pistonlbodv parts, and means for
mounting a wrist pin in the assembled piston.
”
'7. A self expanding piston consisting of two
segmental sections of material secured together
along two meeting edges and the other meeting
edges having complemental offset portions, each
of said sections comprising a piston body part
and a skirt part, a piston head on one of said
movement of the band it when in its proper as- ‘ sections projecting laterally to close an end of
the other section while allowing relative move
sembled condition.
,
While only three forms are shown in which this ment therebetween, means including a tongue to
invention may be embodied, it is to be understood
that the invention ‘is not limited to any speci?c
construction, but might be applied to various
forms without departing from the spirit of the
invention or the scope of the appended claims.
Having thus described my invention, Iclaimz
l. A self expanding piston consisting of two
segmental sections of material welded together
along two meeting edges, and the other meeting
edges being complemental and spaced apart, a
' piston head on one of said sections projecting
prevent oil leakage between the piston body parts,
and means for mounting ‘a wrist pin in the assem
bled piston.
‘
'
8. A self expanding piston consisting of a cy
lindrical head, a side wall integral with and de
pending from said head, a circumferentially dis
posed extension on said wall forming with said
head an arcuate space, a band arranged to fit
within said arcuate space, said band having elas
ticity and being normally set to maintain a pres
sure on an encompassing-cylinder, bosses on said
side wall, and means to attach one end of said
band to said side wall.
9. A self expanding piston consisting of a cy
piston.
2. A self expanding piston consisting of two lindrical head, a side wall integral with and de
laterally to close an end of the other section, and
means for mounting a wrist pin in the assembled
segmental sections of material secured together
along two meeting edges, and the other meeting
edges being complemental and spaced apart, a
piston head on one of said sections projecting
laterally to close an end of the other section, and
means for mounting a wrist pin in the assembled
pending from said head, a circumferentially dis
posed extension on said wall forming with said
head an arcuate space, a band arranged to fit
within said arcuate space, said band having elas
ticity and being normally'set to maintain a pres
sure on an encompassing cylinder, means to at- Y
tach one end of said band to said side wall, axially
3. A self expanding piston consisting of two arranged bosses formed respectively on said wall
and extension, and ribs respectively connecting 70
70 segmental sections of material welded together .said
bosses to said head for reinforcing purposes.
along two meeting edges, and the other meeting
10. A self expanding piston consisting of a
edges having complemental offset’ portions, a
piston head on one of said'sections projecting cylindrical head. a side wall integral with and
laterally to close an end of the other section while depending from said head, a circumferentially
7; allowing relative movement therebetween, and disposed extension on said wall forming with 1"
piston.
_
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4
2,113,020
said head an arcuate space, a band arranged to
depending from said head, a circumierentially
fit within said arcuate space, said band having
elasticity and being normally set to maintain a
disposed extension on said wall forming with said
head an arcuate space, a split band arranged to
?t within said arcuate space, said band having
pressure on an encompassing cylinder, means to
attach one end of said band to said side wall,
axially arranged bosses formed respectively on
said wall and extension, and ribs respectively
connecting said bosses to said head for reinforc
ing purposes, one of said ribs bridging said arcu
10 ate space to form a clearance tor the movement
of said band.
'
11. A self expanding piston consisting of a
cylindrical head, a side wall- integral with and
depending from said head, a circumferentially
16 disposed extension on said wall forming with said
head an arcuate space, a split band arranged to
, ?t within said arcuate space, said band having
elasticity and being normally set eccentric to said
extension, and means to attach one end of sai
band to said side wall.
,
.
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13. A self expanding piston consisting of a
cylindrical head, a side wall suspended from said
head and forming a circumferential space be 10
tween said head and said wall, a split band ar
ranged to tit within said space, said band having
elasticity and being normally set eccentric to the I
contour 01' said head and wall, and means to
rigidly fasten one end of said band to said side ll
wall.
14. As a new article of manufacture a unitaryv
elasticity and being normally set to maintain a
piston having a head, and depending side wall,
pressure on an encompassing cylinder, and means
to attach one end of said band to said side wall.
i'erentially disposed expansible eccentric portion '
12. A self expanding piston consisting of a
cylindrical head, a side wall integral with and
located between said head and said bosses.
OSCAR C. PILL-AR.
said wall ‘having wrist pin bosses and a circum
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