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Патент USA US2113717

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April 12, 1938'.
Filed May 29,- 1935
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
' -April 12, 1938;
» ì
Filed May, 29, 1955
April l2, 1938.
Filed May 29. 1955
5 sheets-sheet 5
Àpril 12, 1938.
' 2,113,71 7
Filed May 29, 1935 »
5 Sheets-Sheet 4
, Filed May 29, 1935
5 Sheets-.Sheet 5
p . 12, 193@
“ .raV I
Davis Brown, lLos Angeles, C.
Application May 29, 1935, Serial No. 24,069
9 Claims.
sectional area of the shingle adjacent the butt an
adjacent the small end. Then when longer
shingles are desired, the peripheral speed- of the
My invention relates to a -clay shingle having
_ new and improved characteristics, and broadly
by the term shingle I mean any type of' plastic
rolls is reduced so that the extrusion press causes
product which may be hardened, which has the
characteristic of a shingle of being' thicker at the
5 buttlthan at the opposite or small end, and >thus
having a taper.
a distinct slippage ofthe clay through the bite 5
of the rolls and thus develops the desired elon- .
gation and slightly alters the upper surface pat
tern. The operation of the cutting. knives is so
» My invention also includes a new method of
working clay or similar plastic to develop a _ regulated and timed with the rolls as to form a
shingle and in the machine with the cutters used main or primary cutat the butt end anda sec- m
ondary cut adjacent the small end, thereby de
1 in the manufacture of the shingle. My present
veloping a slight wastage piece between the small
invention has a number of new features as tothe
shingle, the method and the machine over mY , end of one shingle and the butt end of the next
proceeding shingle. By forming a thick trans'
prior mtent for a Shingle
chine, No. 1,894,394, verse
bead or rib I may develop a shingle having 15
patented January 17,1933.
of an unusuallythick end which is
In regard to the shingle, an object and _feature
of my invention is forming a light, corripactlyv highly desirable as being ornamentalA when the
pressed and strong shingle having a pronounced shingles are laid.
feature oi my invention as to the meth-y
thick butt and tapered to the small end, in which odAnother
and machine involves supporting the leading
the taper is ‘provided by longitudinal ribs ex
end of the clay ribbon on a moving conveyor, 20
20 tending from a thick transverse bead or butt and
towards the small end; the ribs being on the- operating at a surface speed slightly higher than `
the peripheral speed at the bite oi the rolls,
underside. The'web [of the shingle is compara
tively thin and substantially of the same‘general whereby a .slight tension or pull is .developed on
ribbon, thus preventing the extrusion pressN 25?’
thickness' throughout. The upper surface of the the
and the rolls from bringing compressive stresses
2 shingle is characterized by having a more or less
the thin die pressed ribbon which might cause
deeply _grooved` and _ribbed upper surface, the aonbuckling.
However, in .order to avoid too great
grooves and ribs being slightly irregular to simu- '
a tension, the upper surface of the conveyor `is
late hand hewn shakes. Also li' desired, the up
per surface may have a plurality of designs, such lubricated.
Another object and feature of my invention
30 as the roof or grooved surface simulating tl'ìer`
relates to the method off cutting the extruded
shakes, a criss-cross design .or a smooth surface. clay to form the’s'eparate shingles. This involves
All of these may be on the same shingle and they
forming a ñrst cut at the butt end of the shingle
may be varied' in position in accordance with immediately »_as it _leaves the' extrusion die rollers,
the design it is desired to expose when laying out this cut being made through preferably a thick 35
ened flange or butt end bead. This cut is made
A further characteristic of the upper surface while the leading end `of the succeeding shingle
design- of the shingle is that the surface finish 4is being fed towards the endless belt conveyor
may be produced in part by the configuration of and hence _the severed shingle may be iedawayV
extrusion die rolls and in part by the slippage j from the succeeding shingle beingextruded` and
or extrusion ‘under pressure oi the plastic through thereby avoid any end pressure on such succeed-a
the rolls at a higher lineal speed than the periph
eral speed of the periphery or pattern surface of ing shingle. I
the roll. This gives a slight elongation -to the involves maintaining the cutting knivesinvention
both for 45
45 design, causing it to diiïerf in the shingle when so
making the butt and the small -end cut always
- desired, from the design formed when the lineal
to the extruded shingle, that is being
speed of the shingle and the peripheral surface of . transverse
at right angles to the upper surfaçe of 'the shingle.
the die roll are the same.
Another feature of my invention relates to
50 forming the-extrusion -rolls to'make' the circum
ference slightly less than the shortest shingle the
machine is designed to make, plus a necessary
waste piece at .the small end. Thus, _there is a
I .This feature involves bringing the cutting knives `
into contact with the shingle while being extruded
from the press and the die rollers and having the
leading or small end supported on the relatively ‘
high speed conveyor belt. These knives are given
a combined motion transverse to the shingle ‘to>
slight elongation of the .clay ribbon from the` make
square cuts at both ends of the shingle and
55 extrusion press due to the difference ‘of the cross _
at the same time the knives travel longitudinally
at the same speed as the progressive movementl of
the shingle so that the cut is gradually made
numeral Il may be of -the conventional type
which is illustrated as having an outer cylindrical
casing or housing l2 with a hopper structure
while the clay forming the shingle is traveling _I3 for the feed of the clay. -This cylinder -has
after being extruded and die pressed to the de
sired shape on the upper and lower surfaces.
Another feature of my invention Arelates to
_associating with the cutting knives, a plurality of
punches, these being spaced from the knife cut
10 ting the small end. These punches operate in the
same manner as the knives to form perforations
a ñange I4 at one end to which is attached the
converging flanged head I5; this tapering or
converging „to' a rectangular mouth I6.
mouth has horizontal upper' and lower edges i1'
and lateral edges I 8. (Note Figs. 2 and4). Se
cured to the mouth is the extrusion die I9 which 10
has short vertical side edges 20 and upper and
lower edges 2l. These upper and lower edges
in the small end of the shingle to provide nail
holes. The punches are manipulated to have the ' converge towards the center so that the measure
combination transverse and longitudinal move-' . ment at the center as indicated bythe measure
15 ment in order that the clay of the shingle be not `» _ment line 22 is slightly less' than the marginal 15
distorted where the holes are punched.
vedge measurement 20. This gives a. die voriiice
My invention is illustrated in' connection with which is much longer on its horizontal measure
the accompanying drawings, in which, ~
ment than on its vertical measurement. Secured
Fig. 1 is a side elevation of my invention taken to the side edges of the extrusion die and prefer
20 on the- section line I_I of Fig'. 2 in the direction ably formed integral therewith, there are tri 20
_ of the arrows or in the -direction of the arrow
angular shaped end projections 23 to conñne the
I of Fig. 3.
clay at the margins of the extrusion die.~ 'I’he
Fig. 1a is an enlarged elevation of the cam
guide and associated parts of Fig. 1.
clay is pressed outwardly through the die by any
Fig. 2 is va, vertical section on the line 2_2 of screw and the shaft may be of the conventional~
Fig. 1 in the direction of the arrows, the extrusion - type and the shaft driven by any suitable mecha
screw being omittedl from the extrusion press and nism at the end 26 remote from the extrusion die.
the remote parts of the machine being omitted.
Fig. 3 is an opposite end elevation taken in the
30 .direction of the arrow 3 of Fig.v 1, the remote
extrusion screw 24 mounted on a shaft 25.
'I'he main kportion of my machine utilizes a
frame 30 which may be of any suitable type and
has upper and lower extrusion die rollers 3| and 30
end portions of the machine being omitted.
Fig. 4 is a partial longitudinal section on the
line 4_4 of Fig. 2 in the direction of the arrows,
cutting mechanism"` being shown in an elevated
iianges, the flanges preferably contacting and the'
rollers ' are
mounted on shafts 33 and 34 respectively and
suitably journaled in the frame 3l).v Each of
showing a portion of the extrusion press in- sec- . these die rollers has a marginal ñange 35, the tri
35 tion and the cutting mechanism in elevation, the
angular projections 23 being aligned with these
- projections thus preventing clay being forced out
Fig. 5 is partial section similar to Fig. 4, but
illustrating the cutting mechanism in cutting
Fig. 6 is a partial transversesection on the line-
6_6 of Fig. 1 in the direction of the arrows, on a
»wardlyat the margins of the die rolls. The con
figuration of the surface of these rolls is such as
to form the particular design on the upper and
on the undersurface of the shingle.
_'I‘he upper 'die is illustrated as having some
larger scale than Fig. 6, to illustrate mainly the
what irregular longitudinal grooves 36 and be
tween these grooves there are irregular ridges, the
general direction of'the ridges and the grooves 45
of the arrow ‘i of the adjusting timing gear, the - being circumferential of the die. Another sec
other parts of the mechanism being omitted.
tion of the upper die has criss-cross intersect
-Fig. 8 is a vertical section on the line 8_8 of ing ridges and grooves 31, the remainder of the
Fig. '7 in the direction of the arrows.
die having a smooth surface 38. In this upper die
Fig. 9 is a partial section similar to Fig. 4, show
the outermost measurement of the longitudinal
ing part of the extrusion press and the die rollers -ridges of the portion 3S, the criss-cross ridges of '
on a larger scale, to illustrate the conñguration the portion _31 and the smooth surface 38 are sub
of such rollers.
stantiallyk all at the same radial distance from
' Fig. 10 is a plan showing the assembly of the the center of the axis of the die as indicated by
clay working machine and a drive for the various the radial measurement 39 in Fig. 9. This is de 55
parts of the clay working extrusion machine and. signed so that the upper surface of the extruded
the shingle forming machine.
shingles as to the tops of the ridges and the
Fig. 11 is a transverse section through a modi
ysmooth section will be in a horizontal plane.
fied construction of extrusion rolls having con-_ '
The lower die roller 32 has a transverse depres
iining’plates at each edge instead of flanges _ sion 40 (note Figs. 6 and 9) and from this ex
formed integral with the rolls.
tends circumferential grooves 4I spaced apart by
Fig. 12 is a perspective view of the shingle illus
circumferential ribs 42. 'I'he circumferential
trating the upper surface.
grooves gradually decrease from their commence'
Fig. 1_3 is a perspective view ofthe shingle of , ment adjacent the transverse depression 40 and
Fig. 12, showing the undersurface.
merge at 43 to the smooth cylindrical surface 44. 65
Fig. 14-is a transverse section of the shingle -on ' The cylindrical section is at the same radius indi
the line |4--l4 'of Fig. 13` in the direction of the cated at 45 as the outer periphery of the ribs 42.
extrusion die rollers.
Fig. 7 is a side elevation taken in the direction
Fig. 15 is a transverse section of Fig. 12 on the
_ line iä-lä of Fig. 13.
Fig. 16 is la perspective‘view of the upper sur
face of 'a modiíied shingle construction having the
’ same design- from the butt to the small- end.
AThe extrusion press designated generally by' the
Thus as these dies are driven in rotation at a
constant speed, the direction of rotation is indi
catedby the arrows 46 and 41 of Fig. 9.
The‘type of shingle` illustrated is designated
generally by the numeral 50 and is illustrated in
detail in Figs. 12, 13, 14, and 15. In this con
struction the upper orßexposed face 5l of the
shingle is formed 'by the section 35 of the upper
' amarre
die roller 3|. The section having the criss-cross
the upper run er or the ,endless bea 15. v'rms telt
ribs 52 is formed by the cross ribbed section till of d5 is usually much longer than the belt 'l5 in order
this upper die and the smooth surfaced end sec ' to develop aconsiderable spacing of the succeed
tion 53 is formed by Jthe smooth or cylindrical ing ` shingles and allow suiilcient time for their
surface w of the upper die. The lower die forms - transfer by :dat shovels to trays or the like for sub
a transverse somewhat semi-cylindrical bead 5d sequent transference to the kilns for the burning
(note Figs. ‘i and 5). At this bead a base cut is treatment and also to allow time for the removal
i I made in the manner hereinunder described, giv
of the severed waste sections 65.
ing a cut edge 55 thus'forming two semi-beads '55 _ ' A bridging plate `95 is located between the lower
10 and lil. The semi-bead 56 is at the base or lower . die roll 32 and the pulley ‘i6 (note Figs. 4 and 5)
end of the grooves 58 (noteFlg. 13) formed by
the ribs di. The grooves 8| of the lower Í.roller
32 form the longitudinal ribs 5d. The die rollers
are so shaped that the ribs decrease in‘height ory ì
15 thickness while the ribs ß‘l on the lower die roll
are of such shape that the thickness of the shin
gle on the measurement t@ is substantially con
stant from adjacent' the bead 5d to the thin end
5| ofthe _shingle (note Figs. 1i and 5).
Due to the fact that thereis a greater quan
tity of clay passing between the die rolls adjacent
` the butt end than at the small end @l of each
shingle, and the die'rolls operate at the same or
constant surface speed, there is a slight slippage
between the extruded clay and the die rolls, caus
ing an .elongated deformation oi the' design 5t» on
the upper surface of the shingle indicated by the
numeral @it (note Fig. `12). Also the criss-cross
~ ribs are deformed slightly at 'the portion tit ad
jacent the smooth surfaced section 5t. In the
operation of the machine, a secondary cut is
given at the position tél (note Fig. 5) spaced from
the first cut 55 through the bead 5d. This forms
a waste section d5 (note Fig. l). _ The waste sec-s
35 tion may be changed in length in order to change
the overall length of the shingle. The shingle
thus has a verticalbase end forming the exposed
lower edge indicated at t5 in Figs. 12 and 13, two
parallel side edges di and the small upper edge
th; the edges 5d and @t being parallel. During
the severing of the shingle to make the cut at
the base and to trim ed the waste end, perfora»
tions t@ are also formed in the shingle adjacent
the small end dd. These form nail holes for se
curing the shingle to a roof or similar structure.
in order to form this type oi’ shingle I employe.
ñrst endless belt conveyor ‘l5 which operates over
pulleys ‘it on the pulley shaft 'il and a comple->
mentary pulley 'le on the pulley shaft it. (Note
50 Figs. l and 4.) The upper run 8d of this con
veyor is driven 'at a higher surface speed in the
direction of the arrow Bithan the peripheral die
face of/,the pulleys. Thus there is a slight pull on
the portion of the clay forming the shingle after
55 its extrusion through the die rollers. This pull
or tension is sufiicient so that the die rollers do
not have to force-the shingle along the upper
run of the endless belt and such slight pull tendsto facilitate the slight slippage of the clay when ,
60 extruded between the die rolls in order to form
the slight deformation on the upper side of the
shingle. Moreover, this slight increase in speed
causes a slight separation or gap indicated at t2
vbetween two contiguous shingles, this gap being
65 formed at the cut 55 through the full bead dd
(note Figs. 4 and 5).
The shingles'after being cut during their travel
and extends transversely at least-the full length
of the -die rolls to support the extruded shingle on
its transfer from the die rolls to the upper run 8|!
of the belt ‘li-i. This also forms an abutment for
the initial cut which forms the out 55 through the
whole bead 5d. The mechanism for making this
cutis hereinunder detailed. There is also a sec
ond bridging plate d5 between thedischarge end
of the upper run t@ of the endless belt 'l5 and
the uppervrun @t of the second endless belt 85;
this plate being located between the pulleys 'i8
over which the belt l5 operates and the pulley
t@ over which the belt‘tä operates.
This brldg.
ing lplate is supported in the frame ofthe ma
chine and extends at least the i‘ull width of the 25
conveyor belts. This bridging plate t5 supports
the .shingle in its transfer from the upper run
iid of the first belt 'l5 to the upper run 9U of the
second belt dii.
‘When it is desired to split the shingles longitu
dinally to make these narrower than the stand
ard width, l2 employ a splitting mechanism imi'
which employs a rotary splitting knife itl made
in the form of a disk suitably weighted mounted
on a cutter knife shaft HD2; the shaft being jour 35
naled in arms itt hinged or pivoted at ltd to the -
frame of the machine. This splitting knife or
disk is located to operate above the bridging
plate @t and it will be obvious that if desired one
or more of these rotary splitting knives may be 40
utilized if it is desired to split the shingle longi
tudinally in two parts or more. However, as
above mentioned the `use of this splitting knife is
optional and is not used where the full width
shingle is desired. The splitting knives also split
the waste segments t5.
The cutting mechanism- for giving the trans
verse cuts is designated generally by the assembly
numeral il@ (note Figs. l, 3, 4 and 5). This
mechanism employs a blade holding frame Hl.
This may be formed of angle-shaped members i l2
having pivot pins i iti extending therethrough.
These pins each have a lower swivel head iid
mounted thereon between the angles. the swivel
headhaving a hub M5 through which the pivot 55
pins extend and a boss H5 (note Figs. 1 and 3).
To each boss is secured a link li'l (note Figs. l
and3): these being preferably threaded in the
boss H5 and secured by lock nuts iiß.
The upper ends of the links H1 are mounted in 60
an upper swivel head §20, eachlof which has 'a
transverse or horizontal hub l2i fitting on a
crank pin i252 which crank pin is 'secured to a
counter-balanced crank arm |23. Each crank
arm is attached to a crank shaft |24 and hasa 65
counter-weight mi» (note Figs. 1 and 3). The
crank pins have a head |26 and are secured by
on the endless conveyor 75 to the desired'length
nuts i271. Extending downwardly from each hub
by the mechanism hereinunder detailed, are
cured integral therewith, in fact, the hub arms. 70
70 transferred to a second endless belt >conveyor 85.
This operates over a ñrst set of pulleys 86 on a
pulley shaft 81 (note Fig. l) and an end pulley
88 having a pulley shaft 89. . This belt'is driven
with its upper run 90 operating at a hlgh‘er sur- '
75 face speed in the direction of the arrow 9| than
lill there is an arm izßrhaving a sleeve |29 se
and sleeve are preferably formed integral and
through each sleevè extends the linkl H1 secured
by nuts |30 at their upper end. Adjusting nuts
|3| forming collars are threaded on each link l I1
and between the sleeve' |29 and the collar formed 75
` by the nuts |3| there is' a compression spring |32
on each link, thus giving a resilient and downwar
pressure to the blade carryingA frame |||.
’ _
The blade carrying frarne~ has a first ñxed knife
|35, this preferably being in the form of an angle
. and having a horizontal cutting edge |36.
blade is positioned adjacent the die rollers and
forms the base cut in a manner hereinunderde
tailed. A'secondary adjustable blade |31 has a
cutting edge similar to the first blade and is ad
justable on the blade carrying frame ||| so that
the points |69 and |10 and the lowermost point
|12 occupied by the pin |65. Thisdevelops a.
vertical movement indicated by the measurement
|13 which is sumcient to cut through the clay of
the shingles and form the cut 55 at the full bead
54 and also to make the secondary end cut 64.
The speed of. rotation of the cranksl |23 and
hence of the cuttingv assembly during its lcutting
stroke is synchronized so that the guide pin |65
travels between the points |69 and |10 on the
circle |61 at the same rate as the clay shingle
the distance between .the blades |35 and »| 31 may advances from theextrusion press and on the
be adjusted to form the cut 64 which severs ~the upper run' 80 of the first conveyor 15. Thus as
small end 6B oi' the shingle at variable distances the guide pin moves at this rate the cutting blades
from the base cut 55 in order to vary the length manifestly must move at the same speed rela
of the shingles. This blade also varies the length ‘tive to the extruded clay forming the shingles.
of the waste piece 65. In order to form the nail The pin |65 is g'uided vertically prior to the
holes 69 a pair of punches |38 are secured to the blades entering the clay by the vertical chan
blade carrying frame I I I preferably to the angles nel |44. ` After the blades are withdrawn at the
20 ||-2. These punches are tubular and may be- point of travel indicaiedat |10, the pin follows 20
adjusted at variable distances from the blade |35 the, path indicated by the dotted lines |14 and en
and also from the blade |31 so that 'the nail holes gages the horizontal iiange |5| of the restraining
69 may be the desired distance from the small end plate |49. This plate if desired is guided by a
68 of the finished shingle. The material perfo
pin |15 operating in an arcuate slot |16 in the .
25 rated from the clay by these punches is pressed ñxed frame structure.> If the pin |65 rises too 25
upwardly through the tubular punches'and dis--
high and engages the inwardly curved surface
charged on the top of the shingles as they pass
|59, it is guided into the channelA |55. At the top
of the stroke oi’ this channel |55 it contacts the
guiderlatch |6| and is lifted and the pin is
guided into the downwardly sloping channel |4’I,
through the cutting mechanism.
~The mechanism for guiding the cutting assem
30 bly employs a cam guide designated by the as
sembly numeral |40 (note Figs. 1 and 1a). This
cam guide employs a rigidly mounted vertical
frame at one side of the machine and has a down~
Wardly sloping cam path |4| defined by the guide
structures |42 and |43, and a vertical guide path
|44 defined by the vertical surfaces |45 and |46.
'I'here is a longitudinal cam path |41, this being
open at the bottom |48 andl deñned at the'top
by the tilting restraining plate |49. 'I'his is
40 pivoted at |50 and has a normal horizontalilange
|5I, an arcuate end |52, a stop shoulder |53,
adapted to contact the stop |54 attached to the
structure |43. A cam channel |55 for upward
movement is defined by the'concentrlc guide sur
faces |56 and |51, the surface |56'having a ver
tical guide Wall |58 and the surface |51 having
an inwardly turned end |59. 'I'he guide walls
this latch preventing >the " pin from again en
tering the channel |55 and being lowered in a re
verse direction. During the downward travel
in the 'channel |4I, 'as this is vdisplaced from the
circle >vof rotation |61, the links | I1 are inclined 35
from their pivotsto the cranks |23. towards the
discharge‘end of the machine, but during this
part of the travel the cutting blade supporting
frame _is elevated high above thebelt and the
shingles being extruded. It will thus be seen thaty 40
when the machine as to the extrusion and to the
movement of the cutting frame are properly
synchronized, that the ilrst cutting blade |35
always cuts through the butt end of the shingle
to be formed, forming the main severing cut 55 45
at the exact center of theA enlarged or whole bead
54 (note Figs. 4 and 5).
` _
|43 and |51 join at the top in a curved connection
end |60. A guide latch |6| pivoted at`|62 has ’a
In order to lubricate the upper surface of the
iirst conveyor, I.provide a friction driven lubri
l normal horizontal flange |63 and a vertical flange
cating roll |30 (note Figure 1)- which dips into
a lubricating tank IBI and'depositsthe lubricant
The cam guide' channel having the various com
on the lower run of the first conveyor belt 15.
ponents above described is for guiding a guide This lubrication of the belt thereby facilitates the
- pin |65 which is rigidly secured to the blade hold- _ slippage of the strip forming the 'shingle as it is
ing .frame ||| being attached to the vertical passed through the extrusion press. The extru
A iiange of the angles ||2. The end of this pin ex
sion rolls are also lubricated by lubricant jets |82
tends into the cam channels above detailed.
it were not for this guide channel and the guide '
and |83 (note Figs. 6 and 9). '
'I'he drive mechanism I have developed for the
rolls and the conveyors, employs a belt pulley |05
pin, on account of the links ||1 being suspended
by the pivot hub |2| from the rotating crank 'indicated 'as driven by the belt |66., lThis drives
arms |23, these- links would always depend in a
parallel and vertically from their pivots to the
the shaft |81 oi.' a variable speed belt drive |90
which may be of a standard character.- thus
The two cranks |23 rotate at the sameV
speed in the direction of the arrow |66, hence the
guide pin`|65, were it not confined by
channels would follow the circular path indicated
driving the shaft |89. This has a pinion`
meshing with a largegear |9| (note Fig. 2)
cured to the shaft |92 of the upper extrusion
3|. The lower roll is driven by a gear drive
tation being indicated by the ’center point |68.
of the lower extrusion roll 32.
roll 65
in dotted lines at |61 (Fig. 1a) , the center of ro- ' on the shaft |92 to the gear |94 on the shaft |95
The equivalent circle |61 is indicated dotted on
Fig. l. It is desired that when the links reach
« the point |69 -that the cuts be made by the blades
|35 and |31 that these bladesl have a >vertical
movement during their travel to the point |10 on
their circle of rotation. 'I‘his causes them to cut
76 to a depth measured by the cord line |1| betweenn
The timing of the cutters in reference to the
-rolls is by the driveconnection designated by the 70
assembly numeral |96. On the' shaft |92 there is
a iixed or keyed sleeve |91 (Figs. ’I and 8)' having
a. iìange |90 and secured to the flange there is
a sprocket wheel |99 having slots 200 through
which'extend the clamping bolts 20|, thus al- 76
lowing a
considerable , displacement
oi the . tive lineal speedA through the extrusion rolls, the
speed of the auger could be varied somewhatin
the manner set forth in my patent application
sprocket wheel itâ in reference to the sleeve `Ili'l
and hence the shaft |92. A sprocket chain 202
operates two sprockets 2cd and 2W, operating the
crank shafts IM. The sprocket chain also passes
over an idler sprocket 2te.
' above mentioned.
Another manner to increase the lineal speed oi
the material extruded -through the oriñcelt is
by varying the opening of the gate uit oi the
Thus it may be seen that the timing of the
hopper 2id. ‘Thus‘i provide a considerable nex
ibility in the operation of my present entire mech
anism, by either varying the speed of 'the err 10
trusion rolls, the speed of the auger or the quan
tity of material fed tothe auger. I may7 supply
actuation of the cranksl for thev cutter may be
-properly synchronized with the extrusion ci' the
clay for it is essential that the main or primary
10 cut Eli be made exactly through the center of
the full bead or rib Eid. The circumference of
-the die surface of the extrusion rolls is slightly \ 'and work the clay prior to its reaching the ex
less than the 'lineal length of the shortest shingle , trusion press in accordance with my prior Patent 15'
between the successive full beads 5t. There is No. 1,907,731, Clay tempering machine, patented
a slight elongation of the small end portion of the `~May 9, 1933, or in accordance with thepatent
shingle in reference to the butt end, due to the to J. C. Schaden No. l,dl9,9a6, patented June
'butt end having much thicker ribs and hence a ’ _20, 1922, for Feeder. There are .also a number oí
larger cross sectional area, even when the types of feeding machines on the'marlret which
peripheral speed of the _extrusion rolls is the may be used with my shingle forming machine. sol
same as the lineal speed or the ribbon oi’ clay.' , In. Fig. ll I illustrate a. vertical transverse sec
With my present construction it is desired to tion through a modified construction of extru
sion rolls. In this li have an upper roll ‘dit and
maintain the speed ci the extrusion screw con
a lower roll 22d; these may have the desired con.
stant and thus maintaining a substantially con
stant pressure on the extruded ribbon of clay figuration on their surfaces. At each side of
through the die it and the bite of the extrusion
To iorm longer shingles the speed of the whole
mechanism may be retarded by the variable speed
drive ltd.
so 'to
have a
This cames the extrusion die rolls
connecting with the mouth or lined extrusion die
of the extrusion press to confine the ribbon of
plastic material at- the marginal edges of the
rolls. These plates therefore are a substitute for 30
the ñanges 3b on the rolls as shown. in Fig. d.
lin Fig. 16 I illustrate a modiiiecl type ci upper
face for the shingles, the shingle as a whole being
slower peripheral speed in reference
to the lineal extrusion speed ci' the ribbon oi clay.
Therefore there is a slight elongation of the
patterns of the upper surface of the shingle.l designated by the numeral 225i having the butt
35 This gives a desirable eïect as this pattern may
thus be slightly varied without changing the up»
end 22d and the small _end 22T?. In this case the
design 22d on the upper surface .is preferably
per die roll. Maniiestly for shingles longer than formed of grooves and ridges similar to the de
the shortest for which the /rnachine is designed, _sign indicated at .5l in Fig'. 12. When these eri
the secondary cutting knife must berepositioned. `-tend from one end to the other face of the shingle
inthe assembly of Fig. llil I illustrate a suitable they give the appearance oi hand mad-e shakes.
40 driving connection between the clay working ma-4 in the construction of the surface ot `Fig. lo,
chine with. the extrusion press and the shingle whenA the ribbon of clay is extruded at a higher
lineal speed than the Aperipheral speed ci the
iorrnlng machine, to illustrate suitable mecha
nism for changing the lineal speed oi extrusion y extrusion rollers, there is a slippage which causes
ci the plastic ribbon from the extrusion press il. a'slight drawing out of the design on the> upper 45
45 In this illustration the extrusion press ils shown V surface, so this does not have absolutely true
as being supplied with clay >by a pugmill 2id markings corresponding with accuracy to the
hav-luga rotating shaft ill with cutting blades .design on the upper extrusion roll.
It will be noted that a characteristic `feature of
2li.’ therein. The pugmill is supplied with mate
rial by an endless conveyor belt 2id. This lat-_ the shingle formed by my machine and the meth--` 50
so ter is loaded by means of a hopper 2id having an ' od of operation is thaty it is quite light, the main
adjustable gate 2lb.
The drive mechanism is illustrated as having a
line shaft 2id, a ñrst belt drive itt to the pullerl
l lid which forms the main drive connection to the
body of the web portion betweenvthe ribs being ‘
of substantially constant thickness, except for
variations caused by the upper Iface design. The
ribs 'taper in thickness from the butt towards 55
the small end, the butt having the thickened bead
pressing, cutting and feeding the shingles. The but the vribs are preferably of the same width
from one end to the other. Therefore in causing
auger 25 of the extrusion press has a‘geared con
nection til to a belt drive 2 it from the line shaft ' an elongation in extrusion to develop longer
2id. The feeding belt 2li has anl operating shingles, the slippage of the clay through the 60
60 shaft il@ with a belt drive 22d from the same line v grooves of the lower extrusion roller forms'clear
shaft. They shaft @il of the pugmill has a geared
As above described, in the type of shingle of
connection 22H to the- belt drive 222 connecting to
the same line shaft. With this mechanism it is Fig. l2, the design at the butt and the small end
may be changed by varying the position of the 65
possible to maintain> a constant drive to the feed
55 extrusion rolls> and~ all of the mechanism.v for
ing belt 2li and thus _to the pugmill 2id whichv upper roll in reference to 'the lower roll so as. to
supplies material to the auger 25 ci' the extrusion
press ll. A. constant speed drive may thus be
given tb the pulley itt of the shingle forming
mechanism and this machine has'the variable
70 speed drive idd. Therefore the drive to the ex
i >trusion rolls may be retarded while the feed of the
ribbon-through the extrusion `orifice it is main
tained at a substantially constant lineal speed.
However, should it be desired to change the rela
produce shingles having a different exposed sur
face when laid on a roof.
l Various changes may be made in the details
of construction Without departing from the spirit 70
or scope of the _invention as defined by the ap
pended claims.
1. In a' clay working machine, lmeans to form
a moving strip of lplastic material combined with 75
a cutter mechanismhaving a biade holding frame,
7. A clay working machine having means for
a pair of blades mounted on said frame, a pair of extruding a ribbon of clay, a ilrst conveyor re-parallel links pivotally connected to the frame, . ceivlng the ribbon and> movable at the same lon«
a crank connected to each link,` means to rotate gitudinal speed as the ribbon, a cutter mech
the cranks in a circular motion, a fixed cam, a. anism having a iìrst and a second blade, said
guide pin on the blade holding frame, the said mechanism having a pivotal mounting forvthe
` guide pin and the cam guiding the blades in mak- ~
ing an incision and in being withdrawn from the
strip to be always at right angles tov the axis of
10 the strip, the said links and cranks permitting the
blade holding frame to move at the same lineal
-speed as the strip While making the incisions and
being 'withdrawn
2. In. a clay working ~machine as claimed in~
15 claim l, the cam having a cam path With-the pin
iltting therein and movable restraining means
mounted to obstruct the path of the pin, said re
blades, such pivotal mounting being‘transverse
to the direction of movement 'of the ribbon,
means to operate saidV mechanism to develop a
parallel motion. of» the blades to make incisions 11
in the ribbon, the blades while the incision is
being made, being movable at the same speed as
the ribbon of clay and forming the incisions at
right angles to the direction of movement of the
ribbon, the «cutter mechanism having means to
withdraw the blades at the end of the incision
while the blades are travelling at the same speed
straining means being moved by the pin and being as the ribbon and means to return the blades
operative to prevent the pin having a reverse »above the ribbon to their initial position for a
motion in the cam path.
second setfof incisions,- an outieeding conveyor
3. in the method oí’ making plastic articles,
comprising extruding a strip of plastic material,
I supporting the extruded strip beyond the point
oi extrusion and exerting a slight tension while
25 supporting the strip to. prevent the strip buck
ling under the pressure of extrusion, during the
movement of the strip making a ñrst incision ad‘
jacent- the point of extrusion to sever the strip
movable at a higher speed than the speed of the "
ribbon and of the first conveyor, the blades be
ing adapted to cut the ribbon into' shingle lengths
and to also cut a small waste piece of ribbon, the
second conveyor being l.adapted to'separate the
successive shingle lengths and the waste pieces.
8. A clay working machine as claimed in claim
'1,_the extruding means including al pair of com
into a plurality of fixed lengths and ~at the same
plementary rollers through which the ribbon ex
time making a secondary incision spaced from tends having a configuration for forming aetrans
the ñrst incision to divide each ñxed length into verse Jib land longitudinal grooves extending
two portions, one portion forming the article to be, from the rib and a section adjacent the rib with
made and the other portion being fa waste. '
out longitudinal grooves, the blades including a
-4. In a clay working machine, means to form ñrst blade positioned to make an entering `in
a moving strip of plastic material combined with cision adjacent the rolls and a, second blade ad
a cutter mechanism having a blade holding justable longitudinally as to spacing from the
frame, a. pair of blades mounted in said frame, ñrst blade, means to time the incisions of >the
a pair of'parailel links >pivotally connected to the blades with the rolls whereby the ilrst blade al
frame adjacent' opposite ends thereof, means to -ways makes an incision through the rib of the'
develop a combined up and down and horizontal' shingle at one end of the grooves and the second
movement of the links, a ñxed cam, a guide pin blade always makes an incision through the por
on the blade holding the. frame, the said guide tion of the ribbon withoutÍ grooves adjacent a
pin and the cam guiding the'blades in making an ` leading ribwhereby the shingle 1ength 1s always ~
incision and in being withdrawn from the strip e provided with _grooves terminating in positions
to be always at right angles to the axis of the . spaced from the ends ci the4 shingle.
strip, the means for developing the motion of '
9. A' clay working machine having an extru
the links being operative whereby when the blade sion means for a ribbon of clay including apair
holding frame moves-in. thesame direction as oi' complementary rollers with their axis trans
the strip, the strip and the frame have the same verse to the direction of movement of the ribbon '
lineal speedY while the blades are making the in
said. rollers having a conñguration to form a se 50
cision and being withdrawn from the stri .
5. In a clay working machiney as_clalmed in
claim 4, the cam having a cam path with thepiri
ries of transverse ribs, a series of longitudinal
grooves, the grooves terminating spaced from a
transverse rib, a cutter mechanism having piv
ñtting therein when the blades are out of en
otally mounted cutters, the pivots being trans
gagement with the strip, a tilting restraining . verse to the direction of movement of the ribbon,
plate having a horizontal guide element, the pin the cutters including a iirst _and a second blade, ,
passing below said element when the blades en
gage the strip, the said element being adapted
means to move the cutter mechanism for theblades to make the initial movement of an inci
to be moved upwardly by the pin and the re
sion while ~closest to the rolls, the blades being`
straining plate being operative ~to prevent a re- . movable away lfrom the rolls at the same speed
verse motion of the. pin in the cam path.
as the movement oi' the ribbon, the cutter mech
6. In a clay working machine as claimed in anism and the rolls having a timing interconnec
claim 4, the cam having a cam path with the V»pin tion whereby the first blade always makes an in
ñtting -therein when the blades are. out of con
cision throughf the rib to form one end of the
65 tact with the` strip, said path having an upward
shingle a d the second blade always makes an in
curved» lead and a downward substantially cision thr ugh'the portion of the ribbon adjacent
straight sloping lead, there being a movable guide another rib and spaced from the termination of"
latch at thef‘point of junction at the top of the Athe grooves, therebyv :forming a shingle length
curved and the inclined straight leads, said guide with the grooves closed at both ends, thetwo in
70 latch being moved by the said’pin and the guide cision's also forming, a waste section oi.' the rib
latch being adapted to divert the pin _downward
ly into the sloping straight channel.
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