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Патент USA US2113762

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April 12, 1938. >
s. F. JAMES
VIBRATIQR TRANSFORMER AND RECTIFIER
Filed April 3, 1953
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AprillZ, 1938.
2,113,762
‘ s. F. JAMES
VIBRATOR TRANSFORMER~ AND RECTIFIER
Filed April 5, 1953
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Patented Apr. 12, 1938
I 2,113,762“
UNITED‘ STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,113,702
vmna'ron TRANSFORMER AND momma
Stephen F. James, 0mm, m.
‘
Application April 3, 1933, Serial No. mm
19 Claims. (Cl. 171-97)
My invention relates to vibrator transformers mally there shall be opposite polarity at opposite
and recti?ers and particularly to an arrangement
designed for me primarily for supplying plate
current for an automobile radio, preferably from
5 the regular starting and ignition battery of the
car. It is the object of my invention to provide
a new and improved form and arrangement of
parts by which ‘ an armature member may be
given a more positive movement for effecting the
10
desired making and breakingvof the primary cir
cuit of the transformer and whereby there shall
be an increased effectiveness of such make and
break mechanism and a» correspondingly in
creased eifectiveness of the transformer action.
15 To this end, it is one of the objects of my inven
tion to provide an arrangement in which oscilla
tion may be suppressed in the primary for cutting
down the peaks of the potential at the times when
the primary circuit is broken. It is another object -.
20 of my invention to provide a device of this type
in which the vibrator shall operate smoothly and
at such high frequency as to prevent a change
in the polarity of the armature from that ‘initially
set up in the armature.
It is one of the objects of my invention to pro
25
vide an improved construction of this type in
which the‘movement of the armature oi the
vibrator is effected either principally or entirely
by auxiliary ?elds set up by the use of auxiliary
coils mounted either on portions of the core of
the transformer or on other core parts in opera
tive relation to the armature. It is one of the
objects of my invention to provide an improved
arrangement of cooperating coils for producing
' the operating ?eld within the core of the trans
former and for producing an auxiliary field or
?elds whereby the desired energization of the
transformer and the desired movement of the
armature may be effected, the arrangement pref
4 erably comprising make and break contact mech
anism or other switching means controlled by the
movement of the armature for making the neces
sary changes in the circuit connections for bring
45 ing about the desired transformer action and
concurrent recti?cation in cases where recti?ca
tion is desired.
It is 'one of the objects of my invention to pro
vide an arrangement of this type in which the
50 armature is pivoted at an intermediate point and
is given its swinging movement by the joint ef~
fect of magnetically operating parts at both ends,
the end portions of the armature being formed
of magnetic material and having preferably a
55 magnetic connection with each other so that nor
ends of the armature, the arrangement prefer
ably being such that the armature may be
vibrated at sufficiently high frequency to prevent
a change of polarity in the armature from that
initially set up therein, the end portions of the
armature being adapted normally to stand yield
ingly in such position as to insure that the de
sired initial polarity shall be established in the
armature at the start of operation.
10
It is another object of my invention to improve
devices of this type in sundry details hereinafter
pointed out. The preferred means by which I
have accomplished 'my several objects are illus
trated in the accompanying drawings and are 15
hereinafter speci?cally described. That which I
believe to be new and desire to cover by Letters
Patent is set forth in the claims.
‘
In the drawings,
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic view of one preferred 0
form of my improved arrangement in which the‘
auxiliary ?elds for effecting the movements of
the armature are produced in the core of the
transformer and in which the coils by which such
auxiliary ?elds are produced are connected in
series with the coils by which the principal ?eld
is produced in the transformer core;
Fig. 2 is a ditic view of another ar
rangement in which the ?elds by which the arma
ture is moved are produced in core pieces separate
from'the core of the transformer;
Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic view of an arrange
ment similar to that shown in Fig. 2 but involving
the use of a double vibrator mechanism which
‘serves to ‘effect both a transformer action and a
recti?cation of the secondary current from the
transformer without the use of thermionic valves;
Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic view of an arrange
ment similar to that shown in Fig. 1 but having
the auxiliary coils connected in parallel relation
to the primary coils of the transformer;
Fig. 5 is a diagrammatic view of an arrange
ment similar to that shown in Fig. 1 but having
the auxiliary coils connected in a different co
operating relation to the primary coils of the 45
transformer; and
Fig. 6 is a top plan view of the armature and
the parts carried thereby as shown in Fig. 1.
Referring now to Fig. 1 of the drawings, in in
dicatm a shell type of transformer core having
primary coils i i and I2 mounted upon the central
leg of the core and wound in reverse directions
with respect to the lead 13 by‘which said coils are
connected to a battery It. In its upper edge, the
core It is provided with notches I5 and l5a pro 55
2'.
2,118,762
viding upwardly projecting arm portions l6 and.
l1 respectively upon which are mounted coils l8
and I8 respectively.
'
Upon the upper face of the core I0, I have piv
otally mounted an armature 20 formed of mag~
netic material and arranged to swing toward the
arm portions I6 and I1 alternatively. Upon the
armature 20, I have provided resilient bars 2|
and 2|a preferably of brass, forming a support
10 for resilient bars 22 and 22a also preferably
formed of brass, bars 23 and 23a being mounted
above the bars 22 and 22a, said boss 23 and 2311
being preferably formed of commercial tin plate.
At opposite end portions of the armature 20, I
have provided thin collars 20a of copper about
the armature opposite the notches l5 and l5a.
The arrangement is such that the bars 2|, 22
and 23 and the bars 2|a, 22a, and 23a are
adapted to vibrate with the armature 20, the
20 device as a whole being balanced so as to per—
mit ready movement of the device in oppo
site directions.
A light spring 24 carried by
the armature 20 holds the armature and its
connected parts normally in the position as
25 shown in the drawings, the effective strength of
thespring 24 being adjustable by the use of a
set screw 24a adjustably mounted in a stand
ard 24b.
The brass bars 22 and 22a carry at their ends
contact members 25 and 26 respectively prefer
ably of silver, such contacts 25 and 26 being
adapted to engage set screws 21 and 28 respec
tively upon the vibration of the armature 20, such
set screws 21 and 28 being adjustably mounted
35 in standards 29 and 30 and being provided with
contact portions at their ends formed of tungsten:
In the arrangement shown, the coils I I and Hi
are connected together by a lead 3|; the coil
I8 is connected with the standard 29 and the set
40 screw 2'! by a lead 32; and the bars 22 and 22a
are connected with the battery l4 by a lead 33,
having a switch 34 interposed therein. At the
opposite side, the coil _I2 is connected with the
coil l9 by a lead 35 and said coil !9 is connected
45 with the standard 3|] and the set screw 28 by a
lead 36. A by-pass condenser 31 is connected
across the switch comprising the contacts 25 and
21 at the left, and a bypass condenser 38 is con
nected across the switch comprising the contacts
50 25 and 28 at the right.
With the parts in the condition as shown in
Fig. 1, when the switch 34 is closed, a current
from the battery I4 is sent through the coil l2
and the coil IS, the arrangement of the parts
being such that said coils by the effect of the U]
current therethrough tend to produce the same
polarity in the arm portion ll of the core. The
current through the coil l2 at the same time
produces the same polarity in the arm portion l6,
but the ?eld conditions in the arm H are con 10
siderably stronger by the in?uence of the two
coils than those in the arm "5 through the in
?uence of the coil |2 alone. The bar 20 is there
fore magnetized, producing a pole opposite the
arm ll of reverse polarity as compared with that
of the adjacent end of the arm I‘! and producing
a polarity opposite the army I6 corresponding to
that of the adjacent and of said arm IS. The
armature 20 is, therefore, attracted by the strong
?eld in the arm I‘! and repulsed by the ?eld in _
the arm l6, causing the armature to swing in
clockwise direction in said Fig. 1 so as to open
the circuit at the contact 26 and to close the
circuit at the contact 25. In view of the pro
vision of the condenser 38 across the contacts 26
and 28, the polarity of the core I0 as a whole
is quickly changed by reason of the reverse in
duced current through the coil l2, supplemented
by the battery current through the coil II when
the circuit is closed at the contact 25. Such re
versed polarity in. the arm portion I6 is reen
forced by the action of the coil l8 which is con
nected in cooperative relation with the coil l.|. .
The result is that a strong ?eld is very quickly
established in the arm portion I6 serving very
effectively to attract the end of the armature 20
at the left, such action being effective before the
magnetic ?eld has had time to change in the
armature 20. The attraction between the arms
l6 and the‘ armature at the left is opposed by a 40
repulsion effect between the arm I‘! and the end
of the armature at the right, but since the mag
netic field is much stronger in the arm I 6 than
it is in the arm H, the armature 20 is swung
quickly in counter-clockwise direction so as to 45
return the armature to the position as shown in
the drawings. The following action is the same
as that above described upon the initial stroke
of the armature 20, except that upon strokes
The set screws 21 and > subsequent to said initial stroke the ?eld condi
28 are further connected by a by-pass condenser
39. In the arrangement shown, the condensers
31 and 38 are of approximately one-tenth of a
microfarad capacity each, while the condenser
55 39 is of approximately one-half of a microfarad
capacity.
Upon the central leg of the core I0, I have pro
vided secondary coils 40 and 4| reversely wound
with respect to the lead 42 to which said coils are
tions in the arm l6 are substantially strengthened
by the action of the reverse induced current
through the coil l8 due to the breakage of the
battery circuit between the contacts 25 and 21
serving more strongly to repel the armature at
the left.
nected by means of leads 43 and 44 with the
It is believed to be unnecessary to describe in
detail the effect of the circuit comprising the
secondary coils 40 and 4|. As will be readily un
derstood, when the ?eld conditions in the core 60
plates of thermionic valves 45 and 46 respectively.
the armature 20, secondary induced currents are
60 connected. The coils 40 and 4| are further con
III as a whole are reversed upon the vibration of
The ?laments of the valves 45 and 46 are con ‘ set up alternately in the coils 40 and 4|, which
nected by means of leads 41 with coils 48 and 49 currents flow through the output leads 42 and 50
65 respectively wound upon the central leg of the
in the same direction so as to be suitable for
transformer in reverse direction with respect to
the common lead 41. A lead 50 connected with
the ?lament circuit 41 is connected with the lead
42 by means of condensers 5| and 52, the lead
70 42 between the points of connection of the con
densers 5| and 52 therewith comprising a choke
",coil 53, the condensers BI and 52 and the choke
coil 53 constituting an eifective ?lter for smooth
use in connection with the plates of the tubes of
ing the current through the output leads 42
and 50.
-
a radio device.
In the operation of the device, the copper col
lars 20a about the armature 20 serve to short
circuit any current set up in the armature by 70
reason of its oscillating movement in the mag
netic ?elds opposite the arms l6 and I1. With
out such control, stray currents would be likely
to cause arcing at the axis of the armature or
at some other unprotected point so as to cause 75
ansaea
damage and ultimately interfere with proper op
‘eration oi.’ the vibrator unit.
In the arrangement shown in 18g. 2. a core Ila
is employed in lieu of the, core 18, the central
leg of which is provided with coils II and II
as above described and with coils 48 and 4|.
Coils 54 and 55 are employed in lieu of coils
II and H, such coils 54 and 55- being mounted
upon pole pieces 55 and 51 respectively formed
separately from the core‘lla. In the arrange
ment shown in Fig. 2, the ?laments of the valves
45 and 48 are heated by current from a separate
battery 58 through leads 58a in lieu of being
heated through the medium’ of secondary coils
15 on the core of the transformer, the output lead
58 being connected with one of said leads 580.
Contact pieces 25a and 28a of tungsten are
substituted in lieu of the contacts 25 and 26 of
Fig. 1, and the set screws 21a and 280. are pro
3
88 mounted in standards 84 and 88 respectively
are adapted to engage the contacts 58 and 88
alternatively for breaking the circuits through
such cooperating contacts in the same timed rela
tion as that of the breaking of the circuits
through the contacts 25 and 21 and the contacts
28 and 28.
In the arrangement shown in said Fig. 3, the
secondary coil 48 is connected by a lead 56 with
the standard 84 and the set screw 82, and the
contacts 58 and" are connected together by a
lead 81 which is extended to serve with the lead
42 as one of the output'leads oi’ the transformer.
In this device, the armature 20 ‘is provided with
short-circuiting collars 28a of copper opposite
the ends of the pole-pieces 58 and 51 correspond
ing to the collars 20a as shown in Fig. 1.
When the switch 34 of the mechanism as shown
in Fig. 3 is closed, the armature 28 is vibrated
20 vided with contact points of molybdenum in
in the same manner as is above described in con
lieu of tungsten as shown in Fig. 1. In
rangement as shown the copper collars
omitted, but such collars can be used if
Bars 21b, 22b and 28b are substituted
25 two sets of bars as used in Fig. 1, the
nection with Fig. 2. The arrangement of the
circuits and the contacts is such in said Fig. 3
that when the circuit is complete through the
coils II and 54 through the medium of the con
tacts 21a and 25a, the secondary circuit is com 25
plete through the coil 48 and the contacts 59 and
62; and such that when the circuit is complete
through the primary coil l2 and the coil 55
through the medium of the contacts 28a and
25a the secondary circuit is complete through 30
the coil 4| and the contacts 88 and 60. when the
circuit is broken at the left through the primary
circuit comprising the coil II, a high tension sec
ondary current is sent through-the coil 40 in one
direction. When the circuit through the pri
mary coil 12 is broken, a high tension secondary
current is sent through the coil 41 in the oppo
site direction. Thus a' unidirectional ?ow is estab
lished in the output leads 42 and 61 as is desired
the ar
28a are
desired.
for the
contact
pieces 25a and 28a. being mounted on opposite
end portions of the bar 22b.
In the operation of the device as shown in
Fig. 2, the' armature 28 is actuated entirely by
30 the ?elds set up in the core parts 56 and 51 ‘in
dependently of the ?eld conditions in the core
5811. When the switch 84 of the arrangement
in Fig. 2 is closed, a ?eld is set up in the corel
part 51 serving to polarize the armature 28 and
35 to move the armature in clockwise direction for
opening the circuit at the contacts 28a and 28a
and to close the circuit at thecontacts 25a and
21a. Upon the opening of the circuit between the
contacts 260 and 28a, a reverse induced current
40 through the coil 55 serves quickly to reverse the
?eld in the core part 51 so 'as to cause a repulsion
between the core part 51 and the armature 20. At
the same time the battery current through the
coil 54 serves to attract the armature at the left,
45 the ?elds in the core parts 56 and 51 thus coop
erating for moving the armature 28 in counter
clockwise direction into the position as shown in
said Fig. 2. The frequency of movement of the
balanced armature 20 is such that the polarity
50 of the armature 20 remains the same throughout
the operation, in contrast to the quickly chang
ing magnetic conditions within the core ‘parts 56
and 51 by the action of the condensers 31 and 38.
I have found in practice that when my inven
55 tion is used for producing fairly heavy currents,
such as are used in connection with neon signs,
the tungsten and molybdenum contacts work to
better advantage than the silver and tungsten
contacts as employed in the Fig. 1 construction.
60 The silver and tungsten contacts are however
preferable for producing plate current for radio
use.
In the‘arrangement shown in Fig. 3, the con
struction is substantially the same as that shown
65 in Fig. 2, except that the valves 45 and 46 are
eliminated in Fig. 3 and additional switch means
is provided for taking the place of the valves for
effecting the desired rectification. In the ar
rangement shown in Fig. 3, the parts are given
70 the same reference characters as are used in Fig.
2 so far as such parts correspond. In the device
of Fig. 3, additionalcontacts 59 and 68 are mount
ed upon opposite end portions‘ of the bar 22b,
each of such contacts being insulated from the
~75 bar 22b by means of blocks 61. Set screws 82 and
20
for use in connection with the plates of a radio. 40
The collars 28a have the same short-circuiting
eiIect as above described in connection with Fig. 1.
The arrangement shown in Fig. 4 is of the same,
type as that shown in Fig. 1. Coils 68 and 89 are
substituted on the arm portions 16 and 11 in lieu 45
of the coils I 8 and I8 of said Fig. 1 arrangement.
Said coils l8 and I8 are made of a comparatively
small number of turns, being connected in series
with the primary coils II and .12 of the trans
former. The coils 68 and 58 of the Fig. 4 con 50
struction are formed of a considerably greater
number of turns than the number of turns in the
coils II and I2, and such coils 88 and 89 are con
.nected in parallel with the coils II and I2 respec
tively rather than in series therewith. In the ar
rangement as shown in Fig. 4, the coils Ii and I2
are connected with the battery 14 by means of a
lead 10; the coil It is connected with the stand
ard 28 and the contact 21 by a lead 1|; the coil
88 is connected between the lead 10 and the lead
11 in parallel with the coil H by leads 12 and 13;
the coil I2 is connected to the standard 30 and the
contact 28 by a lead 14; the coil 69 is connected
between the leads 18 and'14 in parallel with the
coil 12 by leads 15; and the bars 22 and 22a are 65
connected with the battery l4 by means of a lead
16, such lead 18 comprising a switch 11.
In the device of Fig. 4, the recti?cation is
effected by the use of an auxiliary armature 81
formed of magnetic material and pivotally 70
mounted at an intermediate point therealong at
the end of the core Illa opposite to that at which
the armature 28 is mounted. Such core I00. is
provided with notches 88 and 88 in addition to
the notches l5 and I5a, such notches 88 and 88 75
4
2,113,702
being located opposite the end portions of the
in
rent through the coil I I, brought about by the
'a plate 90 of magnetic material on its upper face
' adjacent to the notch 89, serving to bring the
closing of the primary circuit ‘at the contacts 25
and 21,, produces a changed polarity in the core
I0a and in the core arms I6 and I1, serving to
swing the polarized armature 20 in counter
clockwise direction again to the position as shown
in' said Fig. 4. At the same time, such changed
right~hand end of the armature including said
plate 98 into somewhat closer relation to the core
Illa than that of the left-hand end of the arma
ture in'the position of the parts as shown in said
Fig. 4. Collars 9| of thin sheet copper are se
cured about the end portions of the armature 81
opposite the notches 88 and 89. Bars 92, 93. and
94 corresponding to the bars 2Ib, 22b and 23b of
the arrangement as shown in Fig. 2 are provided,
the bar 93 being provided with contact pieces 95
and 88 at its end portions adapted to engage set
screws 91 and 98 adjustably mounted in stand
ards 99 and I00 respectively. In the arrange
ment shown in said Fig. 4, the armature 81 is held
at the limit of its movement in clockwise direc
20 tion by a light spring IOI engaging a set screw I02
adjustably mounted in a standard I03. The
parts are so arranged that the armature and its
connected parts are substantially balanced with
‘respect to the axis about which the armature is
25
impulse through the coil I2 and the battery cur
Said armature 8'! is provided with
I
‘ ‘armature 81.
adapted to swing.
In this arrangement of Fig. 4, the standard 99
and the set screw 91 are electrically connected
with the secondary coil 40 by a lead I04; the
standard I00 and the set screw 98 are electrically
connected with the secondary coil 4| by a lead
105; and leads I06 and IN are connected respec
tively with the bar 93 and the coils 40 and ‘I,
said leads I06 and I0'I serving as the output leads
for the high tension induced current impulses.
35
When the switch ‘II of the Fig. 4 construction is
closed, coils I2 and 69 are connected in parallel
with each other with respect to the battery
through the contacts 28 and 28, while coils II and
88 are connected in series with each other, with
40 the coil II in transformer relationship to the coil
I2. The coil 89 is connected so as to reenforce
the ?eld produced in the arm portion II by the
coil I2. At the same time an induced current
through the coil I\I acting through the medium of
45 the coil I 6 opposes the ?eld in’ the arm portion
I6 as set up by said coil I2. The ?eld set up by
polarity in the core I0a serves to repulse the ar
mature 81 at the right opposite the notch 89 and 10
to attract said armature 81 at the left opposite
the notch 88 for swinging such armature 81 back
to the position as-shown in said Fig. 4, such reac
tion upon the armature 81 being dependent upon
the easy and quick change of the magnetic condi
tions in the core I0a and the comparatively much
slower change in the magnetic conditions in the
armature, this result being attained or at least
greatly facilitated by the provision of the con
densers 31, 88 and 39 in the battery circuits.
20
With the armatures 20 and 81 oscillating in
unison but at all times in opposite directions, the
circuits through the secondary coils 40 and 4|
are alternately made and broken at precisely the
same time that the circuits through the primary 25
coils I I and I2 respectively are made and broken.
The result is that the induced current impulses
pass in one direction through the secondary coil
40 and in the opposite direction through the sec
ondary coil 4 I, all of such impulses passing in the 30
same direction through the output leads I08
and M1.
.
By the use of an auxiliary armature 81 as shown
in Fig. 4, with the contacts for the secondary cir
cuits on the auxiliary armature, as contrasted
with the arrangement shown in Fig. 3, in which
the contacts for both the primary and the sec
ondary circuits are all on a single armature 20,
I have provided for a more easy and a more cer
tain adjustment of the parts to the desired work
ing condition. In the arrangement shown in Fig.
4, the action of the auxiliary armature 81 is tuned
with respect to a separate spring IOI from that
effective in connection with the armature 20, giv
ing a certain leeway with respect to the adjust
ment which‘is not attained in the use of the con
the cooperating forces in the arm portion I1 is struction of Fig. 3. Moreover, by the use of the
stronger than the ?eld set up by the opposing two armatures, the pressure between the contacts
forces in the arm portion IS, with the result that is distributed to better advantage for obtaining
the armature-20 is polarized and is swung in the desired results.
clockwise direction in said Fig. 4. At the same
In the arrangement shown in Fig. 5, the con
time, a ?eld is, set up in the core Illa at the struction is similar to that shown in Fig. 4 except
notches 88 and 89 and of the same polarity at for the connection of the cooperating parts and
both of said notches. This ?eld in the core I0a the omission of the rectifying means. In the
sets up a ?eld in the armature 81 whereby the arrangement shown in said Fig. 5, the coil II
armature is moved in counter-clockwise direction is connected by a lead ‘I8 with the standard 29
in said Fig. 4 by reason of the fact that the cou
and contact 21; the bar 22 is connected with the
pling is closer opposite the notch 89 than it is op battery It by a lead ‘I9 including a switch 80;
posite the notch 88. As the armature 81 starts the battery I4 is connected with the coil II in
60 to swing in counter-clockwise direction, the in?u
turn by a lead 8I. The coil I2 is connected by 60
ence of the ?eld at the right is increased and means oi.‘ a lead 82 with the standard 30 and the
the in?uence of the ?eld at the left is decreased, contact 28. The coil 68 upon the arm portion
with the result that by the time the circuit is I8 is connected at one end by a lead 83 to the
broken between the contacts 96 and 98 at the ‘battery lead 19 and is connected at its opposite
right and a'new contact is effected between the end by a lead 84 with the standard 30 and con
parts 95 and 91 at the left the magnetic ?eld is tact 28. The coil 69 upon the arm portion I1
fully established in the armature 81 with opposite is connected at one end by a lead 85 to the bat
polarity at its end portions. This movement of tery lead ‘I9 and is connected at its opposite end
the armature 81 takes place at precisely the same by a lead 88 to the standard 29 and contact 21.
instant as that at which the movement of the
In the arrangement as shown in said Fig. 5, 70
armature 20 occurs in clockwise direction as above when the switch 80 is closed, the coil I2 is con
described.
Upon the opening of the circuit between the
contacts 26 and 28 due to the clockwise movement
75 of the armature 20, the reverse induced current
nected with the battery I4 through the lead 82,
the contacts 28 and' 26 and the lead ‘I9. Under
such circumstances the coil 68 is thrown out of
effective operation since it is substantially short- 75
2,113,702
5
circuited by the metallic connection through the
ing changing magnetic ?eld conditions involving
contacts 28 and 26: At the same time, the coil
H and the coil 69 are connected through the
changing polarity in said core parts adjacent to
the end pieces of the armature for causing said
leads 18, 86, 85, ‘I9 and 8| with each other and
with the battery l4. Inasmuch as the coil 69
parts, said ?eld producing means comprising coils
has a very considerable number of turns, sub
on said core parts respectively, circuit means .ior
stantially all of the battery current will pass
through the circuit comprising the coil l2 which
is of very much lower resistance. The two prin
10 cipal forces effective under such circumstances
are the primary current through the coil i2 and
the induced current through the coils ii and 59,
the coil 69 being connected in such relation that
the induced current therethrough causes it to co
15 operate with the coil l2 in the establishment of
strong magnetic ?eld conditions in the arm por
tion l1. Under such circumstances, the armature
20 is polarized and is moved in clockwise direc
tion in said Fig. 5, serving to open the circuit be
20 tween the contacts 26 and 28 and to close the
_ circuit between the contacts 25 and 2?.
Upon
the breaking of the circuit between the contacts
26 and 28, the reverse induced current through
the coil I2 very quickly changes the direction of
25 the ?ux in the core l0. When the circuit is closed
between the contacts 25 and 2'1, the coil 69 is in
effect short-circuited, and the coils i2 and 58
_ by the effect of the induced current therein serve
to reenforce the effect of the battery current in
30 the coil II for the establishment of a strong mag
netic ?eld in the arm portion IS. The result is
that the armature 20 is quickly moved in coun
ten-clockwise direction again to the position as
shown in said Fig. 5, this result being effected so
35 quickly that the polarity of the armature 253 is
not changed.
In the operation of the deviceas shown in Fig.
5, the battery current through one of the primary
coils H and I2 in opposition to the induced cur
40 rent through said primary coil serves to suppress
oscillation so as to cut down the peaks of the
current when the primary circuit is broken at
the contacts. The result is that I have attained
a smoother and more even current which is more
45 fully serviceable for radio purposes.
armature to move alternately toward said core
connecting said coils with a source of electrical
energy, and switch means controlled'by the move-»
ments of the armature for producing‘ the re=
quired changes in said circuit connections for 10
causing said armature to be magnetically actu
ated successively in opposite directions, the ar
rangement being such that said end pieces of the
armature have the same polarity throughout the
operation of the device for insuring effective at
traction and repulsion alternatively between the
end pieces and the core parts. ,
2. In a mechanism of the type described, the
combination oi’ an armature member pivotally
mounted at an intermediate point and having end
pieces of magnetic material at opposite ends,
magnetic core parts adjacent to said end pieces
toward which said armature is‘ adapted to swing
alternatively, yielding means adapted normally
to hold said armature swung to the limit of its
movement toward one of said core parts, and
means for producing changing magnetic iield
conditions involving changing polarity in said
core parts adjacent to the end pieces of said
armature for causing said armature to swing
alternately toward said core parts in such rapid
succession as to prevent a change in the polarity
of the end pieces of said armature from that set
up by the initial magnetization thereof, said
?eld producing means comprising cells on said 35
core‘ parts respectively, circuit means for connect
ing said coils with a source of electrical energy,
and switch means controlled by the swinging
movement of said armature for producing the re
quired changes in said circuit connections for
causing said armature to be magnetically actuated
successively in opposite directions.
3. In a mechanism of the type described, the
combination of an armature member pivotally
mounted at an intermediate point and having 45
pole pieces 01’ magnetic material at opposite ends
magnetically connected together for obtaining
normally opposite polarityv at the ends of the
armature, magnetic core parts adjacent to said
pole pieces of the armature toward which said 50
factory results when provided with 12 to 20 turns . armature is adapted to swing alternatively, yield
I have found in practice in connection with
devices of the several types shown in the drawings
that satisfactory results are attained by the use
of primary coils H and I2 of about 60 or '70 turns
50 each; that coils I8, I 9, 54 and 55 produce satis
each; and that satisfactory results are attained ing means adapted normally to hold said arma
by the provision of 1500 to 2000 turns in each of ture swung to the limit of its movement toward
the coils 68 and 69. In practice. I have attained one of said core parts, coils on said core parts
55 satisfactory results by the provision of a straight respectively, and circuit means for feeding elec
bar armature made of silicon steel. Inasmuch as trical energy alternately to said coils for causing
said armature to vibrate and comprising switch
the armature in each instance is designed to re
means controlled by the movement of the arma
tain its initial polarity, and since means is pro
vided for insuring that this polarity shall be the ture for producing the required changes in said
same for succeeding periods of operation, it will circuit means for bringing about the vibratory
be appreciated that each of the armatures may (movement of the armature.
4. In a mechanism of the type described, the
“be in the form of a permanent magnet if such
combination of an armature member pivotally
arrangement is desired.
While I prefer to employ the arrangement as mounted at an intermediate point and having
65 shown in my drawings and as above described. end pieces of magnetic material at opposite ends,
it is to be understood that my invention is not magnetic core parts adjacent to said end pieces
to be limited thereto except so far as the claims toward which said armature is adapted to swing
alternatively, yielding means adapted normally
may be so limited by the prior art.
to hold said armature swung to the limit of its
I claim:—
movement toward one of said core parts, two
1.
In
a
mechanism
of
the
type
described,
the
70
combination of an armature member having end coils on said core parts respectively, two other
coils, circuit means connecting said second named
pieces of magnetic material which are magneti
cally connected to each other, magnetic core parts two coils with said first named two coils respec
adjacent to said end pieces toward which said tively for feeding electrical energy alternately to
75 end‘pieces are movable, and means for produc
55
60
65
70
said coils for causing" said armature to vibrate 75
6
2,113,762
and comprising switch means controlled by the
movement of the armature for producing the
required changes in said circuit means for bring
ing about the vibratory movement of the arma
ture, two other coils in transformer relationship
to said second named two coils respectively, and
circuit means connecting said third named two
coils for permitting the ?ow of secondary cur
rents by induction therethrough.
5. In a mechanism of the type described, the
combination of an armature member pivotally
mounted at an intermediate point and having
end pieces of magnetic material at opposite ends,
magnetic core parts adjacent to said end pieces
toward which said armature is adapted to swing
alternatively, yielding means adapted normally
to hold said armature swung to the limit of its
movement toward one of said core parts, con
tact pieces carried by said armature at its opposite
20 end portions, other contact members mounted in
position to engage said ?rst named contact pieces
alternatively as said armature is swung between
the limits of its movements, coils on said core
parts respectively, and circuit means connected
25 with said contacts and with said coils for feeding
electrical energy alternately to said coils and ar
ranged whereby the magnetic ?elds set up suc
cessively in said core parts serve by magnetic
action to swing said armature alternately in op
30 posite directions.
>
6. In a mechanism of the type described, the
combination of an armature member pivotally
mounted at an intermediate point and having pole
pieces of magnetic material at opposite ends mag
35 netically connected together for obtaining nor
mally opposite polarity at the ends of the arma
ture, magnetic core parts adjacent to said pole
pieces of the armature toward which said arma
ture is adapted to swing‘ alternatively. yielding
40 means adapted normally to hold said armature
swung to the limit of its movement toward one
of said core parts, two coils on said core parts
respectively, two other coils, circuit means con
necting said second named two coils with said
45 ?rst named two coils respectively for feeding
electrical energy alternately to said coils for caus
ing said armature to, vibrate and comprising
'switch means controlled by the movement of the
the armature whereby said coils by their coop
eration produce a high frequency vibration of said
armature.
8. In a mechanism of the type described, the
combination of a shell type of core having a
notch in its outer face at one end portion pro
viding an outwardly directed arm portion, coil
means for producing an effective ?eld in said
core as a whole, an armature having a pole piece
of magnetic material movable yieldingly toward 10
and from the core by magnetic action, a coil
mounted on said‘ outwardly directed arm por
tion of the core tending when energized to pro- ‘
duce a magnetic flux in said outwardly directed
arm portion independently of said ?rst named
coil means, and means for feeding current to the
several coils comprising switch means controlled
by the swinging movement‘ of the armature
whereby said coils by their cooperation produce
a high frequency vibration of said armature.
9. In a mechanism of the type described, the
combination of a shell type of core having a
notch at each side of the core in its outer face
at one end portion providing an outwardly di—
rected arm portion at each point, coil means
for producing an effective ?eld in said core as a
whole, an armature member having end pieces
of magnetic material which are magnetically
connected to each other and which are located
adjacent to said arm portions and are yield 30
ingly movable toward and from the arm por
tions opposite said notches for decreasing the
resistance to the flux across the notches, coils
mounted on said arm portions respectively tend
ing when energized to produce a magnetic ?ux
in the arm portion independently of said ?rst
named coil means, and means for feeding cur
rent to the several coils comprising switch means
controlled by the movements of the armature
whereby said coils by their cooperation produce 40
a vibration of said armature of such high fre
quency as to prevent a change in the polarity of
the armature from that initially established
therein.
'
10. In a mechanism of the type described, the 45
combination of a. core, a coil on said core, an
armature comprising an end piece of magnetic
material movable yieldingly toward and from
armature for producing the required changes in‘ said core, means for feeding electrical energy
50 said circuit means for bringing about the vibra—' intermittently to said coil for magnetizing the 50
tory movement of the armature, two other coils core and causing the armature to move toward
in transformer relationship to said second named and from the core, and circuit means of non-,
two coils respectively, and circuit means con
magnetic material about said armature‘provid
meeting said third named two coils for permitting ing a closed circuit for the currents induced in
the flow of secondary currents by induction there
the ‘armature by reason of its movement through
through.
the magnetic ?eld of said core,
'7. In a mechanism of the type, described, the
11. In a mechanism of the type described. the
combination of a shell type of core having a por
tion at one side at one and within which the
60 density‘of the ?eld is considerably increased as
compared with the remainder of the core when
the normal magnetic field is set up in said core,
coil means for producing an effective ?eld in said
core, an armature mounted at the end of said
65 core and having a pole piece of magnetic material
movable alternatively toward and from the core
by magnetic action for e?‘ectively cutting down
the resistance to the flux at said point of increased
density, an auxiliary coil mounted on said core
70 adjacent to said portion of increased density
tending when energized to produce a magnetic
?ux in said core adjacent to the coil independ
ently of said ?rst named coil means, and means
for feeding current to said coils comprising switch
75 means controlled by the swinging movements of
combination of a core, coils on said core, an
armature pivotally mounted vat an intermediate
point therealong so as to swing toward and from 60
the core, bars mounted on said armature at op~ ,
posite side portions thereof and extending in
opposite directions therealong, contact pieces
carried by said bars respectively adJacent to the
ends of said armature, other ‘contact members
in position to be engaged alternatively by said
contact pieces as said armature oscillates be
tween the limits of its movement, and means for
feeding electrical energy alternately to said coils
through the alternately engaging contacts.
12. In a mechanism of the type described, the
70
combination of a core, coil means on said core,
an armature pivotally mounted adjacent to said
core so as to swing yieldingly toward the core,
a resilient bar mounted on said armature adja-r 75
$3,118,762
cent to the pivotal axis of the armature, a sec
ond resilient bar mounted on said first named
bar but extending toward the end of the anna
ture beyond the end of the ?rst named bar, a
?exible bar mounted on said second resilient bar
and extending toward the end 0! the armature
but terminating short of the end of said second
bar, a contact piece carried by said second re
silient bar at a point beyond the ends of the
10 other two bars, a contact member in position
to be engaged by said contact piece when said
second bar swings with said armature to the
limit or" its movement away from the core, and
means for feeding electrical energy to said coil
means through said contact parts whereby an,
intermittent magnetic ?eld in said core serves to
swing the armature toward the core for break
7
armature for causing said armature to move al
ternately toward said core parts‘, secondary coils
in transformer relation to said ?rst named coils
on said core parts, and means for feeding cur
rent to said ?rst named coils and for connect
ing said secondary coils in closed circuits in such
arrangement as to cause said armature to move
alternately toward said core parts at such high
frequency as to prevent the end pieces of the
armature from changing polarity from that first 10
established therein, and comprising switch means
for the primary circuits and other switch means
for the secondary circuits controlled by "the
movements of the armature for producing the re- '
quired changes in the primary circuit connec
tions for causing said armature to be magneticah
ally actuated successively in opposite directions
and the required changes in the secondary cir
ing the engagement between said contact parts. '
cuit connections for insuring that the induced
13. In a mechanism of the type described, the currents from said secondary coils shall flow in
combination of a core, coil means on said core,
two armatures pivotally mounted adjacent to
said core so as to swing yieldingly toward the
core, switch means controlled by the movement
of one of said armatures, means for feeding
25 current to said coil means through said switch
means whereby an intermittent magnetic field
is set up in said core for swinging both of said
armatures toward the core at intervals and serv
ing to open the circuit through said switch means,
secondary coil means on said core in trans
former relationship to said first named coil
means, other switch. means controlled by the
movement of the other one of said armatures.
and means comprising connections between said
secondary coil means and said other switch
means whereby a unidirectional current is fed
the same direction through the output leads oi‘
the secondary circuit means.
16. In a mechanism of the type described, the
combination of a shell type of core having a notch
at each side of the core in its outer face at one 25
end portion providing an outwardly directed arm
portion at each point, coil means for producing
an effective field in said core as a whole, on
armature member pivotally mounted at
in" ‘
mediate point and having end’ pieces; of
ge
notches
netic material
and magnetically
at opposite connected
ends opposite
to each
other, with each of said end pieces in position
to decrease the resistance to the has across one
of said notches when the armature swings toward 85
that notch, yielding means adapted normally to
hold said armature swung to the limit of its
movement toward one of said arm portions, coiis
14. In a mechanism of the type described, the . mounted on said arm portions respectively each
combination of a shell type of core, two primary tending when energized to produce a magnetic
coils on the central leg of said core, two arma
flux in the'arm portion independently of said.
tures adjacent to said core at opposite ends of ?rst named coil means, means for feeding cur~
the core respectively and each pivotally mounted rent to the several coils comprising switch means
at an intermediate point therealong so as to
controlled by the movement of the armature
swing toward and from the core, means for whereby said coils by their cooperation produce
45
45 holding each of said armatures yieldinglv at the
a vibration of said armature, condenser means
limit of its motion in one direction. notches in
connected across the switch means at each end
the core opposite the end portions of each of said of the armature, secondary coils in transformer
armatures, switch means controlled by the move
relationship to said ?rst named coils, and means
through said connections.
ment of one of said armatures. means for feed
50 ing current to said primary coils alternately
through said switch means whereby a magnetic
?ux is set up in said core in alternately opposite
directions serving to swing both of said arma—
tures toward the core at intervals against the
action of said yielding means. secondary coils on
said core in transformer relationship to said ?rst
named coils, other switch means controlled by
the movement of the other one of said armatures.
and means comprising connections between said
60 secondary coils and said other switch means
whereby said secondary coils are connected al
ternately in circuit for the ?ow of induced cur
rents therethrough and whereby the induced
for connecting said secondary coils in closed cir- '
cuits and comprising switch means controlled by a
the movement of the armature and operating for
shifting the connections in said secondary circuits
in such manner as to insure that the induced cur
rents from said secondary coils ?ow in the same
direction through the output leads of said secon
dary circuit means.
1'7. In a mechanism of the type described, the
combination voi.’ a core, a coil on said core, an
armature comprising an and piece of magnetic
material movable yieldingly toward and from
said core, and means for feeding electrical energy
intermittently to said coil for magnetizing the
core and causing the armature to move toward
current impulses through both of said coils flow . and ‘from the core, said feeding means compris
in the same direction through a portion of said ing a switch 'in the form of a contact piece of
circuit connections.
tungsten cooperating with a contact formed of
15. In a mechanism of the type described, the molybdenum, with one of said contact parts
combination of an armature member having end movable with the armature for making and
pieces of magnetic material which are mag
‘
70
70 netically connected to each other, magnetic core breaking the circuit.
18. In a mechanism of the type described, the
parts adjacent to said end pieces toward which
said end pieces are yieldingly movable, coils on combination of a core bar, coil means on said core
said core parts for producing changing magnetic bar, core means providing an all-metal retu'rn
?eld conditionsinvolving changing polarity in path for the flux threading said coil means,
said-core parts adjacent to the end pieces of the other return path means connecting the end por 75
8
2,113,762
tions of said core bar and providing greatly in
creased resistance to magnetic ?ux at one point
as compared with the principal remaining por
tions, an armature member comprising a pole
piece of magnetic metal movable toward and from
said second named return path means at said
point of increased resistance serving as an auxili
ary core part for bridging said portion of in
creased resistance, circuit means comprising
10 switch means operated by said armature mem
ber serving to connect said coil means periodically
with a source of electrical energy for establishing
a ?ux at intervals in said core for moving said
pole piece by magnetic attraction periodically
toward the core, and other coil means adjacent
to a magnetic metal portion of said armature
member connected by said circuit and switch
means alternatively with a source of electrical
energy serving after each movement of said
20 pole piece toward said core means to move the
' armature member by magnetic attraction in the
opposite direction for carrying said pole piece
away from the core.
19. In a mechanism of the type described, the
return path means connecting the end portions
01' said core bar and providing greatly increased
resistance to magnetic flux at one point as com
pared with the principal remaining portions, an
armature member comprising a pole piece of
magnetic metal movable toward and-from said
second named return path means at said point of
increased resistance serving as an auxiliary core
part for bridging said portion or increased re
sistance, circuit means comprising switch means 10
operated by said armature member serving to
connect said two coils alternatively with a. source
of electrical energy for establishing a ?ux al
ternately in opposite directions in said core serv
ing with the ?ux in one direction to move said 15
pole piece by magnetic attraction toward the core,
and other coil means adjacent to a magnetic
metal portion of said armature member con
nected by said circuit and switch means with a
source of electrical energy for energization con
currently with one oi' said ?rst named coils serv
ing after each movement or said pole piece toward
said core means to move the armature member
by magnetic attraction in the opposite direction
2% In combination of a core bar, two coils on said core
bar, core means providing an ail-metal return
:ior carrying said pole piece away from the core.
path for the flux threading said coils, other
STEPHEN F. JAIHES.
25
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