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Патент USA US2113932

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April 12, 1938.
D. M. cRooKs
2,113,932
MICROTOME AND ATTACHMENT. THEREFOR
Filed April 25, 193e
///////
ATTORNEYS
Patented Apr. 12, 1938
2,113,932
UNITED smTEsl2,113,932PATENT
ÜFFiCEY
MlCRO-TOME AND` ATTACHMENT THEREFOR
Donald M. Crooks, Tucson, Ariz.
Application April 23, 1936, Serial No. '75,990
7 Claims; (Cl. 88-40)
This invention relates to improvements in mi~
crotomes and attachments therefor.
An object of the invention is to provide means
by which a microtome may be made to cut a series
‘5 of sections from two planes of the same specimen
in alternate
.
U
succession.
.
Y
accurately defining the two cutting positions, the`
arc of swing in the device as shown comprisin
ninety degrees.
-Y
A latching plunger 22, Figs. 3 and 4, is slidable
'
5
Another object is to provide a device of »the Y in a hole 23 in the shank I 0. A spring 24, backed
above character which may be rreadily attached by a retaining plug 25, urges the plunger »22 for
ward to engage notches`26 and 2l inthe segment
to a standard microtome.
I9, by which means the platen holder is retained
Another object is to provide a device of the
above character in which the shift from one plane in either cutting position.> A cross pin 22*l span
to the other may be readily accomplished by hand. ning a flat 22h on the plunger 22 retains the latter
Another purpose is to provide means by which
the device may be retained accurately in each cut
15 ting position.
. ation of the microtorne.
'
Figure 1 is a bottom Vview of the specimen
`
’
Figure 2 is an end view of the same;
«Figure 3 is a view partly in section showing the
device in position for cutting inone plane;
1
y
`
30 Ying the platen mounting shifted for cutting in the
second plane;
1
Figure 5 shows a typical specimen embedded in
a suitable matrix or holding block;
Y
Figure 6 shows a succession of sections out from
35 the specimen, Figure >5, in one plane;
Figure? illustrates a series of sections cut from
, .the same specimen alternately in two planes by
means of the present invention;
and forms a convenient handle by which to move
the holder I6 from either position to the other.
The pin 28 obviously may be located on the other ,
‘
each side.
A platen 29, adjustably‘secured to ways £911 on
the holder I6, by means of screws 'I4 in> slots l5,
Fig. 2, has a scored surface 30 adapted to receive
and hold a block 3l of paraffin or the like in which
is embedded a specimen 32 from which it is de
sired to cut sections, a typical block and specimen
being shown in perspective in Fig. 5.
5
`
Referring to Fig. 8, the microtome I5 comprises
a base 33 to which is secured a pair of vertical slide
Figure 4 is a view similar to Figure 3, but show~
f
sembled from the yokeIO.
side of the segmentor a pin may be provided on ,
v
Other objects and advantages of the invention
will become apparent during the Vcourse of the
following description, in connection with the ac
companying drawing, in which
mounting device;
in the shank I l in case the'holder I6 is disas
A pin.28 extends ¿laterally from the segment i3
>
A further object is to provide means by which
the shift from each cutting position to the other
may be accomplished automatically by the oper
.
yoke I0 when the holder is swung into the posi
tions shown -in Figs. 3 and 4 respectively, thus
rails 3,4. A carriage 35, vertically slidable on rails CIO
34, has secured thereto horizontal guides 36 and
31 between which is disposed a horizontally slid~
ablerblock 38. A drive shaft 39, rotatably mount
ed in an upright support 40 on the base 33, ter
inmates in a crank 4I having a crank-pin 42 jour
nalled in the block 38.
f- . `The head i4 is slidable horizontally in the car~
Vriage 35, and is adapted to be fed to the left by
any suitable mechanism 48 which may include a
feed screw shaft 43 provided with a ratchet wheel 40
’ Figure 9 illustrates means by which the shifts « 44. As such feed mechanisms are well known in
the art and as their speciñc details have no bear
v from one cutting position to the other may be
Figure 8 shows the devicelclamped in the head
l40 of a typical microtome; and
f
_
made automatically by the operation of the mi
ing on the present invention, no further descrip
crotome.
tion of their structure is necessary herein.
.
The
Referring to Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4, the numeral
clamping members I2 and~|3 of the head i4 `are
I0 indicates a yoke member having a shank Il
adapted to be secured between upper and lower
clamping members I2 and I3 Vof the head `~I4 of
a microtome I5 such as that shown in Fig. 8. A
platen.holder 'I5 is mounted on tapered pivots Il
and IB adjustably threaded into the arms of the
provided with a clamping >screw 45 in order to
grip the shank Il as previously described.
An upwardly directedrknife 46 isclamped in Aa
support 41 mounted on the base'33.
The operation of the device is as follows: The
supporting block or matrix 3l is mounted on the
yokeilû.
scored surface '30 of the platen 29, the paraffin
’ Formed on theholder I6 is a segment I 9 having , being softened to'cause itAto adhere firmly there- .
at'the extremities of its‘arcuate‘surface _radially
55 extending -stops 23 Yand T2 I adaptedA to engage Àthe
to. The block 3| is so «placed >that the corner
containing »the 'specimen 32 projects beyond‘the
2
2,113,932
edge of platen 29 and the shank I I is gripped in
the jaws I2 and I3 so as to bring the block 3| ad
jacent the edge of the knife 46, the platen holder
29 first being swung to the downward position
shown in Fig. 4. The shaft 39 is revolved by
ness of slice.
causing the crank 4I to reciprocate the carriage
35 vertically in the rails 34, the block 38 sliding
When it is desired to render the shifting of the
holder I6 automatic, the device shown in Fig. 9
is employed. A bracket 5I, secured to the head
I4, carries at its extremity a pin 52. A claw 53,
pivotally mounted on the pin 52, is adapted to
horizontally between guides 35 and 3l. By this
means the specimen block 3i is carried upward
engage the outer side of pin 28 in the segment
I9 when the holder I6 is swung upward as shown.
and downward past the knife 46. The feed mech
anism 48 advances the head i4 to the left until
A vertical link 54 connects an extension 55 of
the claw 53 with a lever 56 pivoted to an upright
51 forming part of a bracket 58 secured to the
means of a crank or hand wheel (not shown),
on a downward stroke of the carriage the knife
46 cuts a slice 49 from the bottom of the block
3 I, as shown in Fig. 4. When the carriage 35 has
returned to the top of its stroke, the holder I5 is
swung into its upper position, thus revolving the
block 3| so as to present its end plane in line with
the knife. A revolution of the microtome then
microtome base 33. A second claw 59, also piv
otally mounted on the pin 52, is adapted to engage 15
the pin 28 in segment I9 when the holder I5 is
swung into downward position. A second link
causes a slice 59 to be cut from the end of the
on the lower bracket 5B.
block, as shown in Fig. 3.
By repeated shifts of the holder I 6 between
cutting strokes, it is evident that a series of sec
69 connects an extension 6I of claw 59 with a
second lever 62 pivoted to> a second upright §53
20
A rod 64, pivotally attached to the pin 28, is
slidable in a sleeve 65 pivoted on the pin 52 of
bracket 5I. A spring 66 urges the rod 64 out
tions may be cut from the block 3l and specimen
ward, thus forming a toggle combination which
32 alternately in two planes.
tends to force the holder I6 into either upper or 25
'
When a series of slices is cut from a paraffin
block in the manner described, each completed
slice adheres to the outer edge of the knife 46.
The next successive slice moving downward from
30 the cutting edge pushes the previous slice ahead
of it, and during this action the edges of the
slices cohere or stick together, so that a series
,of slices comes off the microtome in the form
of a continuous ribbon. .Figure 6 illustrates such
a ribbon comprising sections 59a., 59h, 59C, 59d,
from a specimen such as 32 when out in one
plane in the ordinary manner. The sections 50a,
59h, 50C, etc., are all similar to slice 59, and ob
viously present the aspect of the specimen only
in the single plane.
Figure '7 shows a ribbon comprising successive
sections 49a, 59a, 49h, 50h, etc., the sections being
cut in two planes by means of the present inven
tion. Each cross section, such as 59a, is imme
diately preceded by and joined to a corresponding
longitudinal section 49a. For example, if a plant
stem be used as a specimen, the result is a ribbon
comprising alternate longitudinal and cross sec
tions of the stem arranged in continuous order.
By the use of the invention as described, it is
obviously made possible to perform interpreta~
lower position whenever the pin 28 is to the left
or right respectively of the line of centers be»
tween the pin 52 and the tapered pivots I 'i and I8.
A cam shaft 67, journalled in a pedestal 68 on
the bracket 58, is adapted to be driven at one 30
half the speed of the microtome shaft 39 by any
suitable means such as a chain 69 and the sprock~
ets ‘I9 and 1I. A cam ‘I2 on the shaft 6'! over
lies the free end of the lever 56, while a second
cam 'I3 arranged at 180 degrees with cam 'i2 and ..
offset therefrom along the shaft 91, overlies the
free end of lever 62.
The operation of the automatic shifting means
is as follows: Assuming the holder I6 .to be in
upper cutting position, as shown in Fig. 9, during 40
the cutting stroke and during the upward stroke
of the head I4 the lever 55 swings freely below
the cam 'I2 until the block 32 has cleared the
knife 46. Thereafter, as the upward movement
of the head I4 continues, the lever 56 encounters 45
the lobe of cam ‘E2 which restrains further up
ward motion of the lever and link 54. As the
pivot pin 52 continues to move upward, the stop~
ping of link 54 causes the claw 53 to be swung
counter-clockwise, moving the pin 28 past dead 50
ting devices. For example, in the case of a mi
croscopic tissue examination of a duct or a bundle
of blood vessels, the technician is enabled to ex
center as shown in dot-and-dash lines, Fig. 9,
and at the same time compressing the toggle
spring 66. After the pin 28 has been forced over
dead center, the spring 66 re-eXpands to continue
the movement of the pin 28 until the holder I8 55
is swung completely into its lower cutting posi~
amine the duct or bundle in successive cross sec
tion.
tions of specimen structures with greater accu
racy and completeness than with previous cut
tions as it encounters the cutting ’edge and then
to observe the same duct or bundle in longitudinal
60 section between its nearest cross sections in the
same ribbon. The advantage of the above abil
ity to examine a single specimen in successive
and directly related cross and longitudinal sec
tions is of especial importance in histological
analysis in large hospitals and the like, since tis
sue is often pathic only in localized areas and no
accurate interpretation could be made from sec`
tions taken from separate blocks.
A further advantage of the device is the fact
70 that from a knowledge of the number of sections
taken and their thickness as determined by the
feed of the microtome, the dimensions of a speci~
men or any part thereof may be accurately de-V
termined in two directions.
75
plane at every second revolution, the feed of the
microtome`is set at one-half the desired thick
It is obvious that as a_section is cut from each
.
'
The following downward stroke of the head I4
causes a section to be cut from the bottom of the
block 3| as previously described. After the block 60
has cleared the knife 46 on the next upward
stroke the lever (i2> encounters the lobe of cam
13, the camshaft 5'IV having revolved 180 degrees
since the previous engagement of lever 56 with
cam 12. The upward movement of lever 62 and 65
link 69 is thereby restrained, causing the record
claw 59 to move the pin 28 upwardly and to the
left past its dead center, after which the toggle
spring 66 operates in the manner described to
return the holder I6 to its initial cutting position
as shown.
As the levers 56 and 62 are operable by sep
arate cams set at 180 degrees, each lever is free
` to idle while the other is in operation, while both
levers idle during the cutting strokes and during
3
2,113,932
the return strokes until the block 3| has been
carried above the knife 46, so that no interfer
ence between the claws or improper shifting of
the holder I6 can occur.
mining the limits of said angle.
The use of the toggle
4. In a microtome, in combination, a base, a
as described to complete the shifting movements
makes unnecessary any exact or delicate adjust
knife, means on said base to support said knife,
a mounting head movably supported on said
ment of the movements of the claws 53 and 59,
base adjacent said knife, means pivotally mount
and the length of links 54 and 60 is sufficiently
ed on said head to hold a specimen, feeding
means to advance said head and specimen to
ward said knife, means to move said head across 10
great that the ,horizontal movement of the head
10 I4 due to feed has no effective influence on the
automatic shifting action.
From the foregoing, it is evident that the con
tinued rotation of the microtome shaft 39 will
cause the device to be shifted automatically to
15 produce a series of sections cut alternately from
two planes of the specimen and forming a con
tinuousy ribbon as previously described.
'
While the invention has been described in pre
ferred form, it is not limited to the exact struc
20 tures illustrated, as various modifications may
be made without departing from the scope of the
appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. In a specimen holding device for use on a
25 microtome including a knife and a movable head
cooperative therewith, in combination, a yoke,
a shank on said yoke and adapted to be attached
, to said head, a holder pivotally mounted in said
yoke, a platen adjustably secured to said holder
30 and adapted to retain a specimen, whereby said
specimen may be presented to said knife by
motion of said head, means to rotate said holder
and specimen between two positions in said yoke,
stops onsaid holder adapted to engage said yoke
35 whereby said positions may be pre-determined,
f and means in said shank and engaging said hold
said knife whereby sections may be cut from
said specimen by said knife, means to rotate said
holding means between two predetermined cut
ting positions whereby two non-parallel planes
of said specimen may be alternately presented 15
to said knife, and resilient means to control said
rotating means including a spring-pressed latch
engaging said holding means and adapted to re
tain the same in each of said two positions.
5. In a specimen holding device for use on a
microtome including a stationary knife and a
movable head cooperative therewith, in combi
nation, a yoke, a shank on said yoke and adapt
ed to be attached to said head, a holder pivotally
mounted in said head, means on said holder to 25
retain a specimen whereby said specimen may
be presented to said knife, means to rotate said
holder and specimen between two positions in
said yoke, stops on said holder adapted to en
gage said yoke whereby said positions may be 30
pre-determined, and a spring-pressed latch in
said yoke engaging said holder to retain the
same in each of said two positions.
6. In a microtome adapted to cut successive
sections from a specimen pivotally held thereon, as
in combination, a stationary knife, feeding means
er to automatically latch said holder in each of
to advance said specimen toward said knife,
said positions.
means to move said specimen across said knife
to cut said sections, and means connected to
said moving means and operable thereby to ro 40
p
2. In a specimen holder for a microtome, in
40 combination, a support,V a holding member piv
otally mounted thereon and rotatable thereon
between two positions through an angle of sub
stantially ninety degrees, said member being
formed with an arcuate surface having terminal
45 notches therein, means to secure a specimen to
said holder, and latching means in said support
and adapted to automatically engage said notches
to retain said holding means in either of said
positions.
50
and resiliently controlled means to latch said
holding means in each of two positions deter
3. In a microtome having a base, in combina
tion, a knife, means on said base to support said
knife, a mounting head, means on said base to
movably support said head adjacent said knife,
means pivotally mounted on said head and
55 adapted to hold a specimen, feeding means to
advance said head and specimen toward said
knife, means to move said head across said knife
whereby sections may be cut from said specimen
by said knife, means to swing said holding means
60 back and forth through a pre-determined angle
whereby said sections may be alternatelyV cut
from said specimen in two non-parallel planes,
tate said specimen back and forth through -a
set angle of substantially ninety degrees where
by two substantially perpendicular planes of said
specimen may be alternately presented to said
knife.
,
7. In a microtome, in combination, a station
ary knife, a movabler mounting head adjacent
said knife and cooperative therewith, means on
said head to hold a specimen, said holding means
being pivotally mounted on said head, feeding
means to advance said head, holding means and
specimen toward said knife, means to move said
head, holding means and specimen across said
knife whereby sections may be cut from said
specimen by said knife, manually operable means
to rotate said holding means between two pre
determined cutting positions whereby two non
parallel planes of said specimen may be alter
nately presented to said knife, and resilient
means to latch said holding means in each of
said cutting positions.
'
~
’
DONALD M. CROOKS.
45
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