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Патент USA US2113982

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April 12, 1938.
R. M. GlLSON
_
2,113,982
RAILWAY TRACK CIRCUIT APPARATUS
Filed Feb.-28,,l936
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INVENTOR
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Patented Apr. 12, 1938
2,113,982
UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE
2,113,982 ‘
RAILWAY TRACK CIRCUIT APPARATUS
Robert M. Gilson, Pittsburgh, Pa., assignor to
The Union Switch & Signal Company, Swiss
vale, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania
Application February 28, 1936, Serial No. 66,255
11 Claims.
’ (Cl. 246—34)
My invention relates to railway track circuit , relay Ta, and the operating winding of ‘relay A ‘
apparatus, and has for an object the provision
5
I
If the two subsections E-—F and F-G are
shunting sensitivity of apparatus. of this charac
equal in length, then the ballast resistance of
these two subsections will be approximately equal, ,5.
and this approximate equality will be main
tained regardless of variations in weather condi
tions. This being so, the two limiting-impedances
ter.
1 I will describe several forms of track circuit
‘apparatus embodying my invention, and will then
point out the novel features thereof in claims.
The present application is a continuation-in
part of my copending application, Serial No.
737,249, filed. July 27, 1934, for Railway track cir
cuit'apparatus, in so far as the subject matter
common to the two cases is. concerned.
In the accompanying drawings, Fig. 1 is a di
“ agrammatic view showing one form of direct cur
rent track circuit apparatus embodying my in
vention. Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic view showing
one form of alternating current track circuit
apparatus embodying my invention. Fig. 3 is a
20 diagrammatic view showing a modi?cation of
Fig. 1, also embodying my invention. Figs. 4 and
5 are diagrammatic views showing modi?ed'forms .
4 and 4a will be adjusted to the same values which
they would have if the two sub-sections E—F
and F-—-G were provided with standard- track cir
cuits.
For a clearer understanding of the required
magnitude of the limiting resistors 4 and 4a as
wellas
advantageous»
of the to
voltage
consider
oi‘ sources
that the
3 and
two3a,track
it is
vcircuits of section E—G normally operate in
dependently of each other. That is, the track
relay Ta, for example, is energized only from the
source 3 through the resistor 4-, and the track
relay Tb is energized only from its respective
source 3a through the ‘resistor 40.. When the
track circuits are analyzed in this manner, it
of the apparatus ofv Fig. 2, and also embodying
my invention. Fig. 6 is a diagrammatic view
becomesimmediately apparent, in view of the‘
showing a modification of a portion of Fig. 5.v '
fact that the two track circuits are of substane
Similar reference characters refer to similar '
. parts in each ‘of the views. .
.
Referring ?rst to Fig.- 1, the reference char
acters l and la designate the‘track rails of a
30. stretch of railway track, which rails are divided
by insulated joints 2 to form a track section E—G.
At least one of the rails is divided by an insulated
joint 2a at an intermediate point in this section to
_ provide two sub-sections E—F and. F--G.
As
3" shown in the drawings, each rail I and la is pro
vided with an insulated joint 2a at the point F. A
- trackbattery 3 is connected around the joint 2a
in rail l, alimiting-impedance 4 being inter
‘i0
to terminal 0 of the same source of current.
of novel‘ and improved means for increasing the
posed between one terminal of the battery and
the rail of section E—F. A similar battery 3a
is connected around the joint 2a in rail la, a lim
iting-impedance 4a being interposed between one
terminal of this battery and the rail of section
F-G. The two batteries 3 and 3a are opposite
' ly poled, so that if rail I of section E—F is posi
tive, rail Ia of section F-G is also positive. A
direct current track relay Ta is connected across
the rails of the section E—G adjacent the left
hand end of the section, and a similar track re
lay Tb is connected across. the rails adjacent the
right-hand end of the section. A relay A is pro
vided with a circuit which passes from terminal
B of a
suitable source of current, through a
55 front contact 51) of relay Tb, a front contact 5a of
tially equal length and have track relays of sim
ilar characteristics associated therewith, that the
values of the limiting resistors 4 and 40. for equal
voltages at sources 3 and 3a will also be equal.
That is, since the track circuits of sections E—F
and F—G normally operate as though inde
pendent of each other the constants of these
track circuits will be the same as for standard
track circuits of equal length, equipped with sim
ilar track relays.
.
35
The relay A may be utilized to control traf
?c governing apparatus of any suitable type. As
here shown, the section E--G is provided with a
signal S the circuit for which is controlled by a
front contact 6 of relay A.
.
When a train moving toward the right enters
subsection E—F, the wheels and axles will form a
shunt around the terminals of the operating
winding of relay Ta, and the effectiveness of this
shunt will be high, because the multiple resist
ance of relay Tb and the resistance of the
ballast in subsection F-—-G will be in series with
batteries 3 and 3a. That, is, whatever cur
40
45.
rent reaches relay Ta under the shunted con
dition must pass not only through the usual bat 50.
tery limiting resistor 4 but also partly through
the windingof relay Tb and partly through the
ballast resistance of sub-section F—G. Accord
ingly, the voltage remaining across relay Ta' un
der the shunted condition will be much lower 5:15.
2;
2,113,982
,
due to this added resistance, and the shunting
effectiveness will be much higher than in the case
of the usual track circuit in which the track re
lay current during the shunting operation is lim
ited by the battery resistor only. The higher the
ballast resistance, the greater will be the value
of this additional resistance in the track circuit.
In dry weather-when the usual track-circuit. is
most di?‘icult to shunt, no path will exist, through
things, upon the maximum value of the track
voltage which is effective in disrupting the re
sistance ?lm in the track shunting path, the cir
cuit of Fig. 4 provides increased shunting sensi
tivity over the circuits of Figs. 1 and 3.
Referring to Fig. 5, the circuit of this ?gure
is’ similar to Fig. 4, with the exception that the
recti?ers. R. andRa are eliminated and a period
icall'y pole—changed direct’currentgis .applied to
the ballast of sub-section F-G and the full the primary winding 1 of the transformer D. 10
resistance of the winding of relay Tb will there;v > The source of current is the battery 3, and this
fore be effective in limiting theqflo’w of current in is periodically pole-changed'at any suitable rate,
relay Ta during the shunting-i‘operations It will ‘such, for example, as 60 operations per minute,
be seen, therefore, that the apparatus provides, by. means of the constantly operating ?asher
15 self-compensation to prevent pexcessiyeuoveifen-p or coding device C. The track voltage‘output 15
ergization of the relays in dry weather atthe time of windings 8v and ‘3a.- will be in the form of short
that the sections are shunted.‘
the‘ train , impulses of relatively high peak, value, thus aid
passes out of sub-section E‘—-F"andinto"subesec " ing to improve the shunting sensitivity for sub
tion F—G, track relay Tb will be shunted; and‘. stantiallythe same reasons as in Fig. 4. The a1
track relay Tav will become energized. Relay A ternating current track relays Tia. and Tlb of 20
Fig». 5- can be of either the steadily energized or
will become deenergized asrsoonias‘relay Ta re
leases,la'nd- will'remain deenergized aslong as code-following type, as desired, depending upon
the type of wayside signal control'which is used.
the train occupies any part'iof section'E—G', '
25
' Instead of steadily energized alternating cur
When a- light car passes~throughthesection
at high speed, relay Tajmayi'bec'ome- en- - rent relays, direct current relays plus recti?ers 25
ergized before rel'ay‘fTb 'relea-ses’g'i Relay A'is can also be used. This modi?cation of Fig. 5 is
preferably slow 'pick—up—in7character to- prevent shown in Fig. 6.. The operation of the D. C.
'rely-recti?er‘combination of Fig.- 6 will be clear
momentary clearing of'signali S under this- condi
tion.
'
’
'
>
'
without. added description.
'
Referring“ now to-r‘g. Zgthe apparatus vshown
in this view is the-same as'thatlshown-‘in Fig. 1',
except that the batteries are replaced by sec
ondaries 8' and 8a of a transformer D, the pri
mary 1 of which is constantly supplied with al-,
35 ternating current from a source not shownin
the drawings. The track'relays, which are‘ here
designated. Tl-a and TH}, respectively, are, of
‘course,’ of the alternating current type instead
of the direct current type used with the- appa
40
ratus shown in Fig; ‘1. *The operation‘and char
acteristics of the apparatus‘ shown in Fig. 2 are
the same as those of the apparatus shown in
"51.1%
'1;_
.
V
.
:12
.
1
.
.
The apparatus shown in either Fig-xi oriFig.
45 2 _may be modi?ed by-omitting-ene of the-insu
lated joints 2a and the associated sourceioi track
circuit current. Fig. 3 shows such? a-modi'?cati'on
of Fig. 1.
This modi?cationhdoe's ‘not provide
for equal groundi potential for‘ the two» subesea.
tions,
results- ‘therefore in increased‘ ballast
leakage current in‘ wetv weather, thusirequiring"
a lower value ofv total limiting impedance which
results in somewhat less sensitive; shunting.
When a train enters section
the current in
55 relay Ta. will be limited not only: by-resisitor-d
but also. by‘ an additional ‘resistance;‘consisting
ofthe winding of relay: Tb and'the ballast of
f subsection F'—G-,.Iin multiple, whereby improved‘
shunting:v sensitivity over the usual track: circuit
60 will be obtained.
'I’hererna-ini‘ng operation of
the apparatus of Fig; 3 ‘will-be clear from the
foregoing description oi Fig-l. I
-
-.
..
./
1
- Referring now to. Fig. 4, the. apparatus of this
?gure is identical with that of Fig.2, except that
65 the limiting resistors; it and. 13a. arereplaced by
suitable recti?er units R and Ra which may, for
example, be of the copper oxidetype. This per-~
mits, the. use of direct. current track relays and
a > has thejadvantage over.‘ a battery-fed .track cir
l; or Fig.3, in thatthe
70 cuit suchas shown in
peak voltage; during an impulse .of current sup
plied. to the track’ through the recti?ers R andv
much- higher. than the effective voltage
Ra,
supplied from a track battery;v Since. the. effec
tiveness of the train. shuntdepends, among other
7
.
30
The principal advantage of apparatus embody
i-ng my invention- lies in its. provision. for auto
matic variation in the shunting sensitivity of the
track circuit‘ in response to variations in ballast
resistances. As a result ofwthis characteristic it
35
is- possible, by proper selection-of relays and bat
teries, to obtain as good or better shunting un
der dry weather conditions. as is obtained under
wet. weather conditions. If‘ the track relays
shown in. the drawings are. replaced. by what is
known as. the “primary-secondary track relay
combination”, the resulting. apparatus will have
from two to three times the minimum ‘shunting
sensitivity of thestandard track circuit with the
primary-secondary relay combination under the
mostunfavorable weather conditions. Moreover,
by makingv use of. the “peak voltage” apparatus
of'Figs. 4 and 5, more reliable shunting can be
obtained in conjunction with track sections hav—
ing an'appreciablei rail ?lm resistance.
' Although I have herein shown and described
only a. few forms of apparatus embodying my in—
vention, it is understood that. various changes
and modi?cations may be made therein within
the scope of the appended claims without de
parting from the spirit and scope of my inven 55
tion.
'
'
'
Having thus described my invention, what I
claim
is:
'
'
.
. 1. In combination, a section of railway track
divided by insulated rail joints
each rail at
an; intermediate. point, two track relays connected
across'the rails adjacent‘ the two ends of said
sectionrespectively; two oppositely poled sources
of track circuit current connected across said two
joints respectively and exclusive of .any electrical 65
connection from one to said other source other
than the rails of said section, whereby when a
train enters said section the winding of the track
relay at the leaving end of said section will be
included‘ in a series circuit with said. two sources 70
to thereby limit the track voltage at the entering
end of said section; to facilitate release of the.
track‘relay at said entering end‘; and traffic gov
erning means controlled jointly bylsaid two re
lays,
‘
'
'
75
2,113,982
2. In combination, a section of railway track
divided by insulated rail joints in each rail at
an intermediate point, two track relays connected
across the rails adjacent the two ends of said
divided by an insulated rail joint in one rail at
an intermediate point in the section, two track
section respectively, and two oppositely poled
relays receiving energy from the rails adjacent
sources of track circuit current connected across
former having an output winding connected
across said rail joint, said output winding being
said two joints respectively and exclusive of any
electrical connection from one to said other
source other than the rails of said section, where
'10 by when a train enters said section the winding of
the track relay at the leaving end of said section
will be included in a series circuit with said two
sources to thereby limit the track voltage at the
entering end of said section to facilitate release
15 of the track relay at said entering end.
3. In combination, a section of railway track
‘divided by insulated rail joints in each rail at an
intermediate point, two track relays connected
across the rails adjacent the two ends of said
20
3
7. In combination, a section of railway track
section respectively, two oppositely poled sources
of track circuit current connected across said
two joints respectively and exclusive of any elec
trical connection from one to said other source
other than the rails of. said section, and a cur
25 rent limiting impedance inserted in the connec
tion between a terminal of one of said sources
the two ends of said section respectively, a trans
exclusive of any electrical connection with the
remaining rail of said section except through said
two track relays, a source of direct current, and 10
means including a coding device for supplying
current from said source to the input winding of
said transformer.
,
'
,
8. In combination, a section of railway track
divided by insulated rail joints in each rail at an 15
intermediate point, two alternating current track
relays receiving energy from the rails adjacent
the two ends of said section respectively, a trans
former having two output windings connected
across said two rail joints respectively with in
stantaneous polarities so chosen that said two
windings aid one another in causing current to
?ow in the rails of said section, said two output
windings being exclusive of any electrical con
nection therebetween other than the rails of 25
said section, a source of direct current, and’ means
4. In combination, a section of railway track I including a coding device for supplying current
and the associated rail.
30
divided by insulated rail joints in each rail at an
from said source to the input winding of said
intermediate point, two alternating current track
relays receiving energy from the rails adjacent
transformer.
the two ends of said section respectively, and two
oppositely poled sources of alternating track cir
cuit current connected across said two joints
respectively and exclusive of ‘any electrical con
nection from one to said other source other than
the rails of said section, whereby when a train
enters said section the winding of the track re
a lay at the leaving end of said section will be
40 included in a series circuit with said two sources
to thereby limit the track voltage at the enter
ing end of said section to» facilitate release of
the track relay at said entering end.
'
5. In combination, a section of railway track
divided by an insulated rail joint in one rail at an
,
9. In combination, a section of railway track 30
divided by an insulated rail joint in one rail at an
intermediate point in the section, two track re
lays connected across the rails adjacent the two
ends of said section respectively, a single source
of track circuit current connected across said rail 35
joint for maintaining both of said track relays
picked up from said single source, and trai?c gov
erning apparatus controlled jointly by said two
track relays‘.
.
10. In combination, a section of railway track 40
divided by an insulated rail joint in one rail at
an intermediate point in the section, two track
relays connected across the rails adjacent the
two ends of said section respectively, a recti?er,
and a source of alternating track circuit current 45
for said section connected across sail rail joint
through said recti?er and exclusive of any elec
source of track circuit current for said section ' trical connection from said source to the remain
connected across said rail joint for maintaining ing rail of said section except through said two
.
.
50
both of said track relays picked up from said track relays.
11.
In
combination,
a
section
of railway track
single source.
'
divided
by
an
insulated
rail
joint
in
one
rail
at
6. In combination, a section of railway track
divided by an insulated rail joint in one rail an intermediate point in the section, two track
at an intermediate point in the section, two track relays connected across the rails adjacent the
relays receiving energy from the rails adjacent two ends of said section respectively, a copper 55
the two ends of said section respectively, and a oxide recti?er, and a source of alternating track
circuit current for said section connected across
source of track circuit current connected across
said rail joint and exclusive of any electrical said rail joint through said recti?er and exclusive
of any electrical connection from said source to
GO connection from said source to the remaining
the
rail of said section except through
rail of said section except through said two track said remaining
two track relays.
relays.
intermediate point in the section, two track re
lays connected across the rails adjacent the two
ends of said section respectively, and a single
ROBERT M. GILSON.
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