Патент USA US2114003код для вставки
April 12, 1938. 2,1 14,003 C. O. LITTON WINDMILL Filed Jan. 18, 1957 $3 5 __ no“ ... . 5 2 v rv w 7.5. 6 s h, ._ __o W4M6XQH. 90~ Mw .Z/5 ,1- .7 INVENTOR My @, 4km BY WW 127W - 11% ATTORNEY . 2,114,003 Patented Apr. 12, 1938 UNITED‘ ' STATES PATENT QFFICE A A" ‘ ‘ 2,114,003 ' ‘ l ‘ I ' WINDZMJLL Charley 0‘. Litton, Lock Springs, Mo. Application January 18, 1937, Serial No. 121,083 ’ 6 Claims. My invention relates to. improvements in wind mills of atype provided with a base revoluble'on a vertical axis on a support, a vane pivoted on a vertical axis on the base, a wind actuated pro peller,‘ an electrical‘ generator, .driving means ‘connecting the propeller and generator, and sup . porting means carried by the base for the pro peller and generator. One of the objects of my invention is ,the pro vision in a windmill of the kind described, of novel means supporting the propeller and the genera tor at opposite sides of theve'rtical plane of the axes of the‘base and vane, whereby an excessive wind operating‘ on the propeller, due to the pro 515 peller axis being offsetv at one side of said plane, will swing the base, so as-to throw the propeller (‘out of the windl A further object of this construction, is to cause the propeller and generator to serve as a 320 counterbalance one for the other. Another object is the ‘provision of novel means by which the. propeller may be adjusted trans versely to the plane of the axes of the base and vane, for adjustably' regulating ‘the amount the propeller is thrown out of the wind. ' , Anothergobject of my invention is the provi , sion of, novel means by which the generator may 130 ' A further object of my invention is the pro vision of a windmill‘ of the kind described, which is simple and cheap to construct, which is strong, durable, not likely to‘ get out. of- order, and which is e?icient in its operation.’ . I , The novel features of my invention are herein after fully described and claimed.» , I In the accompanying drawing which illustrates: the preferred embodiment of my invention, Fig. 1 is a side elevation, partly broken away, of my improved-windmill. ' " ‘ Fig. 2 is atop View thereof. -‘ ‘i ‘ ‘ . - Fig. 3 is an enlarged section on the line 3-3‘7 of Fig. 2, parts being omitted. ' i Fig. 4‘ is a section on the line '?—ll of Fig. 2, the generator being shown in end elevation. Fig. 5 is an enlarged section on the line 5-4‘) of _ ‘Fig. 2, the generator being shown in end elevation. " 20 Fig. 6 is a section on the line 6—6 of Fig‘.v 3. Similar characters of reference designate simi-' lar parts in the different views. ' ‘ l designates a vertical tubular electrically con- . ductive standard, ‘its upper end being threaded I 5 ‘and having ?tted thereon’ a threaded collar 2. An inverted cup-shaped member 3' has‘ cen trally'attached to the'inner side of its upper end, tightening or loosening the ‘ driving connection as by Welding, the upper end of a vertical tube 4 which is‘ revoluble in the upper end'of the stand ard l in which it is slidably ?tted for insertion or between them. . . J v , the aforesaid vertical plane; . removal. of novel means connecting the base and vane for retracting the base when the excessive wind pres sure abates, which provides proper leverage for exerting such retraction, even when the vane is ' A3 5 horizontal base 6 is mounted on the top of the‘ member '3 to- which it is fastened by bolts 7, which extend through the base 6 on which the heads of the bolts 1 rest, the lower ends of the bolts 1 be ing ?tted in, threaded holes in the top of the swung to throw the propeller wholly out of the member 3 and the collar 5. wind. A ball bearing 8 encircles the tube 4 and revo lubly supports ‘the member 3 on the upper end of , . . i . A further object of my invention is‘the-iprovi sion‘ of a novel turntable supporting the base, which is simple, strong, durable, and which may be easily and quickly applied to or removed from its: operative position upon its support. Still anotherobject of my invention is the pro, vision of a novel turntable construction in combi 50 nation'with a novel arrangement of wiring con necting the generator to be connected with a battery to, be charged, or forv other purposes, - which permits the base being revolved any num ber of-times in either direction without twisting theconducting wires around the stationary stand 0 A reenforcing collar 5 encircles the tube 4' and is fastened to the inner side of the member 3. , Another object of my invention is the provision .45 ard supporting therevoluble generator carrying " base. be adjusted toward and‘ from the propeller for Another object of my invention is the provision of novel means by which the propeller and gener ator are simultaneouslyadjusted, transversely to : 40 (ci. 170-46) the standard I and collar 2. i 1 - I _ The bolts‘ 1, member 3 and tube 4 are electrical- ‘ 1y conductive. A conductive sleeve 9 encircles and is supported by the standard between which and the sleeve insulation it is provided. The sleeve 9 is concentric with and. spaced from the side wall of the member 3. A brush or contact, ( member comprising a strip of spring metal II has circumferential rubbing engagement at one end portion with the periphery of the sleeve 9, the other end of the brush being fastened to an in sulating member l2 extending through and car- ,‘ 5.5 2 2,114,003 ried by the side wall of the member 3, by a bolt l3 which extends through the insulating member [2 to which it is secured by a nut I4. The bolt I3 member 2| by which the vane is manually drawn and nut serve as a binding post to which is con of the vane in one direction, as has been de scribed, the portion of the tail piece 22 effects another function. As the vane swings, or the nected a conducting wire l5, which is connected to one terminal of an electric generator, which is carried on the base 6, as will be explained herein after. , A binding post I6 is attached to the sleeve 9 10 and has attached to it a conducting wire I1, which leads to one pole of a battery located at a dis tance, and not shown. out of the wind. In addition to serving to limit the swinging base swings from the in the wind position to ward the out of wind position, the leverage ex erted by the spring 2'6 and wire 28 will decrease, as the wire 28 nears the axis of the vane. After 10 the vane has swung toward the out of the wind position, a substantial distance, the front end of A binding post I8 is attached to the standard ‘ the tail piece 22, which was previously disen l and has attached to it a conducting wire [9 . gaged from the wire 28, due to the point of con 15 which is attached to the other pole of the storage battery, The base just 6referred and top to. of the, member > " -a 3 ‘\ have through them a hole 20 through" which loosely extends a ?exible manually operated member 2|, 20 which extends downwardly through the tube 4 and the standard l and out of the latter to a point where it may be grasped and drawn down 'wardly, for swinging the vane of the mill to the full out-of-the-wind position, as will be explained 25 hereinafter. ' A vane, comprising a rearwardly extending tail 30 piece 22 having mounted thereon the usual ver tical wing 23, is pivoted to the base 6 on a ver tical axis at the rear of the axis of the base, as follows:— > The rear end of the base 6 is provided at the left side, as viewed from the front, with a notch 24 in which is. disposed the front end portion of the tail piece 22 to the side next the base I of 35 which is fastened a hinge 25 having a vertical axis at the extreme rear end of the base 6, where by the vane can be swung to the out of the wind position, shown in dotted lines in Fig. 2. The axis of the hinge 25 is disposed at a sub 40 stantial distance to the rear of the front end of the tail piece 22. From such dotted position, the vane'can be swung to the position shown in solid lines in Fig, 2, in which latter position the vane will be in the 45 vertical plane of the axes of the base and vane. The portion of the tail piece 22, which is for ward of the axis of the vane (the hinge axis), by striking the longitudinal side of the notch 24, 50 will prevent the vane from swinging from the out of the wind position, past the alined position shown in solid lines in Fig. 2. For means for retracting the vane automati cally from the out of the wind position, shown in 55 dotted lines in Fig. 2, to the in the wind position, shown in solid lines in Fig. 2, there is provided a coil spring 26, the forward end of which is at tached to an eye 21 mounted in the left edge of the base 6, as viewed in Fig. 2 from the front, ad .60 jacent to the turntable. The other end of the spring 26 is attached to one end of a wire, or other ?exible member, 23, the rear end of which is attached to a lateral arm 29, with which the vane is provided, mounted on 65 the tail piece 22 a short distance from and to the rear of the axis of the latter. The wire 28 is fastened, preferably, to the arm 29 at a dis tance from the vane axis greater than the distance from said axis to the front end of the tail piece 22. As viewed from the front, the arm 29 ex tends to the left at right angles to the tail piece 22. Extending from the opposite side of the tail piece, and substantially opposite to the arm '29, 75 is an arm 39 to which is attached the ?exible nection of the latter to the arm 29 being further from the vane axis than the distance to the latter from thefront end of the tail piece, the front end of the tail piece will engage the wire 28 where it is pivotally attached to the rear end of the spring 26, and will have the retracting stress _of, ‘the 20 ‘spring 26 ‘applied to it. The ‘engagement of the front end of the tail piece with‘ the wire 28, thus enables the spring'26 to' exert a'proper leverage for retracting the base or the vane, even when the latter is in the fully 25 out of wind'position, as shown in dotted lines in Fig; 2.“ " ‘ " ‘ ' W For assisting the operator to pull the vane to the out 'of 'the ‘wind position, by means of the wire or ?exible member 2|, a’coil spring 3|, which is 30 weaker than the spring 26, is fastened at its front end to the base 6, and at its rear end to the arm 30, ‘the tension of the spring being such as to normally exert a stress tending to swing the vane to’ the out of the wind position. ‘ ’ ’Mounted'upon the forward portion of the base 6 is a supporting means comprising‘a horizontal member 32, which extends through the vertical plane of the axes of the base 6 and vane, and through which it is longitudinally adjustably 40 fastened to the base ‘6 by two ‘bolts 33 which ex tend- ‘through the base 6 and respectively through two slots 34 disposed lengthwise of the member 32. = The heads of the bolts 33 bear on the top of the member 32», and their nuts 35 bear against 45 the under side of the base 6. l ~ - . A bearing means comprising a cylinder 36 is mounted on the member 32 at the right-of the vertical plane of the axes of the base 6 and vane, as viewed from the front. The cylinder is pro 50 vided with side wings 31-attached to the member 32 by bolts 38. c 7 ~ -> . A Wind actuated propeller, comprising blades 39 mounted on a hub 40, which is fastened on and revoluble. with they propellershaft 4|, has 55 said shaftdisposed at the right of the axes of the base 6 and the vane, as viewedfrom the front, said shaft .40 being extended. parallel with the plane of said axes through the bearing cylinder 36 in which it is revolubly mounted, preferably on ball bearings, not shown. , Excessive wind pressure operating on the propeller will cause it to swing the base 6 out of the wind to an extent required to avoid destruc tive action by the wind, or too rapid revolution 65 of the propeller. At theother side of the vertical plane of the ‘axes of thebase 6 and vane, there is mounted on the supporting member 32, as shown in Figs. 4 and 5, a block 42 on which is mounted a gen 70 erator of electricity 43 against opposite sides re spectively bear two wedge shaped blocks 44. An in'vertedyU shaped clamp 45 embraces upper side of the generator 43. Bolts 46 extending through the end portions of the clamp 45 and respectively 75 32,111,063 through the blocks 44, and the block 42,‘ have ‘balance in’spite of the propeller being offset from ‘their heads engaging the under side of the latter, nuts4'l on the upper ends of the bolts bearing on the clamp 45, thus securing the generator 43 to the block 42. ' " , To enable the generator to be adjusted toward and from the plane of the axes of the base 6 and ‘ the vane, bolts 48, at each side of the clamp ‘43, extend through the wedge blocks 44 and the .Fhe ‘ 3' ' > Y I ‘ - f “ 32," transversely adjustable with respect to the 7v'ane, the propellerand‘generator, on-the erec vtion of the windmill, can be bodily jointly moved, ‘so as to obtain the proper counter-balance just vided. through the member 32.‘ The heads of the bolts 48 bear on the blocks 44, and nuts 49 'hereinbefore'referred to, and then“ securely re tained in their‘ adjusted; position. " 'I vdo not limit my invention to the structure on the' bolts 48 bear on the under side of the member 32. The armature 5| of the generator 43 has ?xed on it a sprocket wheel 52 which is connected by a chain belt 53 with a sprocket wheel 54 mounted on the propeller shaft 4!. By adjustment of the ‘generator toward or from the propeller shaft, which is effected by loosening the nuts 49, the generator 43 with the blocks 42 and 44 may be so adjusted, after which the nuts are tightened, whereby the chain belt may be properly adjusted . for driving purposes, the chain belt and sprocket 'wheels 52 and 54 providing driving means by which the propeller revolves the generator arma ture. A conducting wire 55 connects a ground ter minal 56 of the generator with one of the bolts 1. The conducting wire i5 is attached to the other terminal 51 of the generator 43. The current will pass from the terminal 51 by the conductor I5, bolt 13, brush ll, sleeve 9 and conductor I‘! to one pole of the storage battery, and will return therefrom by the conductor l9, tube 4, collar 5, bolt 1 to which is attached con ‘ductor 55, and by the latter to the terminal or binding post 56 of the generator 43. The member 32 having been adjusted to prop erly position the propeller, to suit the conditions required at a predetermined wind velocity, when this velocity is exceeded, the increase in air pressure on the propeller, will swing the base 6 counter-clockwise, as viewed in Fig. 2, against 45 the restraining action of the spring 26. When the pressure again reduces, the spring with the help of the vane will retract the base and pro peller to their normal position, shown in solid lines in Fig. 2. When it is desired to swing the vane to the po ‘sition shown in dotted lines in Fig. 2, in which position it will be out of the wind, the ?exible member 2| is drawn downwardly through the standard I, the spring 3| assisting in swinging the vaneto this position. The vane will then cause the base 6 to swing with the propeller so that the latter will be completely out of the wind. ’ vertical plane‘ of the axes of the base and the i block 42, and through longitudinal slots 50 pro 50 mane. By having’the support, comprising the member , In swinging the vane to the out of wind posi tion, shown in dotted lines in Fig. 2, after the vane has swung a predetermined distance, the wire 28, being in the path of the front end of the vane, will be engaged thereby, as shown in 65 dotted lines in Fig. 2, and will be held from swinging closer to the vane axis, whereby the spring 26 will exert a proper leverage, for re tracting the vane easily when the member 2| re leases the vane .and permits it to- return to the normal operative position. Thus an even charg ing speed can be maintained in the generator 43. By reason of the generator 43 and the pro peller being at opposite sides of the plane of the axes of the base 6 and the vane, they will coun 75 ter-balance each other, and will preserve an even shown and*desc_ribed, as many modi?cations, within thesc’o‘pev ‘of the appended claims, may be made without departing from the spirit of my in vention. 'What I claim is: 15 1. In a windmill, the combination with a base revoluble on a vertical axis, of a vane pivoted at the rear of said axis to said base on a Verti 20 cal axis so as to swing in one direction from an initial position, and having its front end at a substantial distance forward of its axis, and means connecting said base and said vane for re tracting the latter to its initial position, said 25 retracting means, when said vane is in said posi tion, being disengaged from said front end, and, when said vane swings from said position a pre determined distance in said direction, being in the path of and engaging and exerting a retract 30 ing stress upon said front end. 2. In a windmill, the combination with a base revoluble on a vertical axis, of a vane pivoted at the rear of said axis to said base on a vertical axis, so as to swing in one direction from an ini tial position, and having its front end at a sub stantial distance forward of its axis, and means 35 including a spring connecting said base and said vane, said spring exercising a tension adapted to retract said vane to its initial position, said re~ 4.0 tracting means, when saidvane is in said posi tion, being disengaged from said front end, and, when said vane swings from said position a pre determined distance in said direction, being in the path of and engaging and exerting a retracting 45 stress upon said front end. 3. In a windmill, the combination with a base revoluble on a vertical axis, of a vane pivoted at the rear of said axis to said base on a vertical axis, so as to swing in one direction from an ini 50v tial position, and having its front end at a sub stantial distance from its axis, and having a lat eral arm, and means connecting said arm and said base for retracting said vane to its initial position, said retracting means, when said vane is 55 in said position, being disengaged from said front end, and, when said vane swings from said posi tion a predetermined distance in said direction, being in the path of and engaging and exerting a 60 retracting stress upon said front end. 4. In a windmill, the combination with a base revoluble on a vertical axis, of a vane pivoted at the rear of said axis to said base on a vertical axis, so as to swing in one direction from an ini tial position, and having its front end at a sub 65 stantial distance forward of its axis, and having a lateral arm longer than said distance, and means for retracting said vane to- its initial position, and attached to said base, and attached to said arm at a point located at a distance greater than the 70 distance of said front end from the vane axis, and, when said vane is in its initial position, said retracting means being disengaged from said front end, and when said vane swings from said position a predetermined distance in said direc 75 '4 2,114,003 tion, being in the path of and engaging and exert ing a retracting stress upon said front end. 5. In a windmill, the combination with a base revoluble on a vertical axis, and a vane pivoted at the rear of said axis to said base on a vertical axis, of a support carried by said base and extending through and transversely adjustable to the verti cal plane of said axes, a wind actuated propeller having its axis at one side of said plane, an elec tric generator carried by said support at the other side of said plane, driving means connecting said propeller and said generator, and bearing means for said propeller carried by said support. 6. In a windmill, the combination with a base revoluble on a vertical axis, a vane pivoted at the rear of said axis to said base on a vertical axis, and a wind actuated propeller having its axis at one side of the vertical plane of said axes, of an electric generator at the other side of said plane, driving means connecting said propeller and said generator, and means carried by said base and adjustable transversely to said plane, and sup porting said propeller and said generator and on ; which said generator is adjustable toward and from said plane. CHARLEY O. LI'I'I‘ON.