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Патент USA US2114003

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April 12, 1938.
2,1 14,003
C. O. LITTON
WINDMILL
Filed Jan. 18, 1957
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INVENTOR
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BY
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11% ATTORNEY .
2,114,003
Patented Apr. 12, 1938
UNITED‘ ' STATES PATENT QFFICE
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2,114,003
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WINDZMJLL
Charley 0‘. Litton, Lock Springs, Mo.
Application January 18, 1937, Serial No. 121,083
’ 6 Claims.
My invention relates to. improvements in wind
mills of atype provided with a base revoluble'on
a vertical axis on a support, a vane pivoted on a
vertical axis on the base, a wind actuated pro
peller,‘ an electrical‘ generator, .driving means
‘connecting the propeller and generator, and sup
. porting means carried by the base for the pro
peller and generator.
One of the objects of my invention is ,the pro
vision in a windmill of the kind described, of novel
means supporting the propeller and the genera
tor at opposite sides of theve'rtical plane of the
axes of the‘base and vane, whereby an excessive
wind operating‘ on the propeller, due to the pro
515 peller axis being offsetv at one side of said plane,
will swing the base, so as-to throw the propeller
(‘out of the windl
A further object of this construction, is to
cause the propeller and generator to serve as a
320 counterbalance one for the other.
Another object is the ‘provision of novel means
by which the. propeller may be adjusted trans
versely to the plane of the axes of the base and
vane, for adjustably' regulating ‘the amount the
propeller is thrown out of the wind.
'
, Anothergobject of my invention is the provi
, sion of, novel means by which the generator may
130
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A further object of my invention is the pro
vision of a windmill‘ of the kind described, which
is simple and cheap to construct, which is strong,
durable, not likely to‘ get out. of- order, and which
is e?icient in its operation.’
. I
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The novel features of my invention are herein
after fully described and claimed.»
, I
In the accompanying drawing which illustrates:
the preferred embodiment of my invention,
Fig. 1 is a side elevation, partly broken away, of
my improved-windmill.
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Fig. 2 is atop View thereof. -‘
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Fig. 3 is an enlarged section on the line 3-3‘7
of Fig. 2, parts being omitted.
' i
Fig. 4‘ is a section on the line '?—ll of Fig. 2, the
generator being shown in end elevation.
Fig. 5 is an enlarged section on the line 5-4‘) of _
‘Fig. 2, the generator being shown in end elevation. " 20
Fig. 6 is a section on the line 6—6 of Fig‘.v 3.
Similar characters of reference designate simi-'
lar parts in the different views.
'
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l designates a vertical tubular electrically con- .
ductive standard, ‘its upper end being threaded I 5
‘and having ?tted thereon’ a threaded collar 2.
An inverted cup-shaped member 3' has‘ cen
trally'attached to the'inner side of its upper end,
tightening or loosening the ‘ driving connection
as by Welding, the upper end of a vertical tube 4
which is‘ revoluble in the upper end'of the stand
ard l in which it is slidably ?tted for insertion or
between
them. .
.
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the aforesaid vertical plane;
.
removal.
of novel means connecting the base and vane for
retracting the base when the excessive wind pres
sure abates, which provides proper leverage for
exerting such retraction, even when the vane is
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horizontal base 6 is mounted on the top of the‘
member '3 to- which it is fastened by bolts 7, which
extend through the base 6 on which the heads of
the bolts 1 rest, the lower ends of the bolts 1 be
ing ?tted in, threaded holes in the top of the
swung to throw the propeller wholly out of the
member 3 and the collar 5.
wind.
A ball bearing 8 encircles the tube 4 and revo
lubly supports ‘the member 3 on the upper end of
,
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.
i . A further object of my invention is‘the-iprovi
sion‘ of a novel turntable supporting the base,
which is simple, strong, durable, and which may
be easily and quickly applied to or removed from
its: operative position upon its support.
Still anotherobject of my invention is the pro,
vision of a novel turntable construction in combi
50 nation'with a novel arrangement of wiring con
necting the generator to be connected with a
battery to, be charged, or forv other purposes,
- which permits the base being revolved any num
ber of-times in either direction without twisting
theconducting wires around the stationary stand
0
A reenforcing collar 5 encircles the tube 4' and
is fastened to the inner side of the member 3.
,
Another object of my invention is the provision
.45
ard supporting therevoluble generator carrying "
base.
be adjusted toward and‘ from the propeller for
Another object of my invention is the provision
of novel means by which the propeller and gener
ator are simultaneouslyadjusted, transversely to
: 40
(ci. 170-46)
the standard I and collar 2.
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The bolts‘ 1, member 3 and tube 4 are electrical- ‘
1y conductive. A conductive sleeve 9 encircles
and is supported by the standard between which
and the sleeve insulation it is provided. The
sleeve 9 is concentric with and. spaced from the
side wall of the member 3.
A brush or contact, (
member comprising a strip of spring metal II
has circumferential rubbing engagement at one
end portion with the periphery of the sleeve 9, the
other end of the brush being fastened to an in
sulating member l2 extending through and car- ,‘ 5.5
2
2,114,003
ried by the side wall of the member 3, by a bolt l3
which extends through the insulating member [2
to which it is secured by a nut I4. The bolt I3
member 2| by which the vane is manually drawn
and nut serve as a binding post to which is con
of the vane in one direction, as has been de
scribed, the portion of the tail piece 22 effects
another function. As the vane swings, or the
nected a conducting wire l5, which is connected
to one terminal of an electric generator, which is
carried on the base 6, as will be explained herein
after.
,
A binding post I6 is attached to the sleeve 9
10 and has attached to it a conducting wire I1, which
leads to one pole of a battery located at a dis
tance, and not shown.
out of the wind.
In addition to serving to limit the swinging
base swings from the in the wind position to
ward the out of wind position, the leverage ex
erted by the spring 2'6 and wire 28 will decrease,
as the wire 28 nears the axis of the vane. After 10
the vane has swung toward the out of the wind
position, a substantial distance, the front end of
A binding post I8 is attached to the standard ‘ the tail piece 22, which was previously disen
l and has attached to it a conducting wire [9 . gaged from the wire 28, due to the point of con
15 which is attached to the other pole of the storage
battery,
The base
just 6referred
and top
to. of the, member
> " -a 3 ‘\ have
through them a hole 20 through" which loosely
extends a ?exible manually operated member 2|,
20 which extends downwardly through the tube 4
and the standard l and out of the latter to a
point where it may be grasped and drawn down
'wardly, for swinging the vane of the mill to the
full out-of-the-wind position, as will be explained
25
hereinafter.
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A vane, comprising a rearwardly extending tail
30
piece 22 having mounted thereon the usual ver
tical wing 23, is pivoted to the base 6 on a ver
tical axis at the rear of the axis of the base,
as follows:—
>
The rear end of the base 6 is provided at the
left side, as viewed from the front, with a notch
24 in which is. disposed the front end portion of
the tail piece 22 to the side next the base I of
35 which is fastened a hinge 25 having a vertical
axis at the extreme rear end of the base 6, where
by the vane can be swung to the out of the wind
position, shown in dotted lines in Fig. 2.
The axis of the hinge 25 is disposed at a sub
40
stantial distance to the rear of the front end of
the tail piece 22.
From such dotted position, the vane'can be
swung to the position shown in solid lines in Fig,
2, in which latter position the vane will be in the
45
vertical plane of the axes of the base and vane.
The portion of the tail piece 22, which is for
ward of the axis of the vane (the hinge axis),
by striking the longitudinal side of the notch 24,
50 will prevent the vane from swinging from the
out of the wind position, past the alined position
shown in solid lines in Fig. 2.
For means for retracting the vane automati
cally from the out of the wind position, shown in
55 dotted lines in Fig. 2, to the in the wind position,
shown in solid lines in Fig. 2, there is provided
a coil spring 26, the forward end of which is at
tached to an eye 21 mounted in the left edge of
the base 6, as viewed in Fig. 2 from the front, ad
.60 jacent to the turntable.
The other end of the spring 26 is attached to
one end of a wire, or other ?exible member, 23,
the rear end of which is attached to a lateral arm
29, with which the vane is provided, mounted on
65 the tail piece 22 a short distance from and to
the rear of the axis of the latter. The wire 28
is fastened, preferably, to the arm 29 at a dis
tance from the vane axis greater than the distance
from said axis to the front end of the tail piece
22. As viewed from the front, the arm 29 ex
tends to the left at right angles to the tail piece
22.
Extending from the opposite side of the tail
piece, and substantially opposite to the arm '29,
75 is an arm 39 to which is attached the ?exible
nection of the latter to the arm 29 being further
from the vane axis than the distance to the latter
from thefront end of the tail piece, the front end
of the tail piece will engage the wire 28 where it
is pivotally attached to the rear end of the spring
26, and will have the retracting stress _of, ‘the
20
‘spring 26 ‘applied to it.
The ‘engagement of the front end of the tail
piece with‘ the wire 28, thus enables the spring'26
to' exert a'proper leverage for retracting the base
or the vane, even when the latter is in the fully 25
out of wind'position, as shown in dotted lines in
Fig;
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For assisting the operator to pull the vane to
the out 'of 'the ‘wind position, by means of the wire
or ?exible member 2|, a’coil spring 3|, which is 30
weaker than the spring 26, is fastened at its
front end to the base 6, and at its rear end to
the arm 30, ‘the tension of the spring being such
as to normally exert a stress tending to swing
the vane to’ the out of the wind position. ‘
’
’Mounted'upon the forward portion of the base
6 is a supporting means comprising‘a horizontal
member 32, which extends through the vertical
plane of the axes of the base 6 and vane, and
through which it is longitudinally adjustably 40
fastened to the base ‘6 by two ‘bolts 33 which ex
tend- ‘through the base 6 and respectively through
two slots 34 disposed lengthwise of the member
32. = The heads of the bolts 33 bear on the top
of the member 32», and their nuts 35 bear against 45
the under side of the base 6.
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A bearing means comprising a cylinder 36 is
mounted on the member 32 at the right-of the
vertical plane of the axes of the base 6 and vane,
as viewed from the front. The cylinder is pro 50
vided with side wings 31-attached to the member
32 by bolts 38.
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. A Wind actuated propeller, comprising blades
39 mounted on a hub 40, which is fastened on
and revoluble. with they propellershaft 4|, has 55
said shaftdisposed at the right of the axes of
the base 6 and the vane, as viewedfrom the front,
said shaft .40 being extended. parallel with the
plane of said axes through the bearing cylinder
36 in which it is revolubly mounted, preferably
on ball bearings, not shown.
,
Excessive wind pressure operating on the
propeller will cause it to swing the base 6 out of
the wind to an extent required to avoid destruc
tive action by the wind, or too rapid revolution 65
of the propeller.
At theother side of the vertical plane of the
‘axes of thebase 6 and vane, there is mounted
on the supporting member 32, as shown in Figs.
4 and 5, a block 42 on which is mounted a gen 70
erator of electricity 43 against opposite sides re
spectively bear two wedge shaped blocks 44. An
in'vertedyU shaped clamp 45 embraces upper side
of the generator 43. Bolts 46 extending through
the end portions of the clamp 45 and respectively 75
32,111,063
through the blocks 44, and the block 42,‘ have ‘balance in’spite of the propeller being offset from
‘their heads engaging the under side of the latter,
nuts4'l on the upper ends of the bolts bearing
on the clamp 45, thus securing the generator 43
to the block 42.
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, To enable the generator to be adjusted toward
and from the plane of the axes of the base 6 and
‘ the vane, bolts 48, at each side of the clamp
‘43, extend through the wedge blocks 44 and the
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32," transversely adjustable with respect to the
7v'ane, the propellerand‘generator, on-the erec
vtion of the windmill, can be bodily jointly moved,
‘so as to obtain the proper counter-balance just
vided. through the member 32.‘ The heads of
the bolts 48 bear on the blocks 44, and nuts 49
'hereinbefore'referred to, and then“ securely re
tained in their‘ adjusted; position.
" 'I vdo not limit my invention to the structure
on the' bolts 48 bear on the under side of the
member 32.
The armature 5| of the generator 43 has ?xed
on it a sprocket wheel 52 which is connected by
a chain belt 53 with a sprocket wheel 54 mounted
on the propeller shaft 4!. By adjustment of the
‘generator toward or from the propeller shaft,
which is effected by loosening the nuts 49, the
generator 43 with the blocks 42 and 44 may be
so adjusted, after which the nuts are tightened,
whereby the chain belt may be properly adjusted
. for driving purposes, the chain belt and sprocket
'wheels 52 and 54 providing driving means by
which the propeller revolves the generator arma
ture.
A conducting wire 55 connects a ground ter
minal 56 of the generator with one of the bolts
1. The conducting wire i5 is attached to the
other terminal 51 of the generator 43.
The current will pass from the terminal 51 by
the conductor I5, bolt 13, brush ll, sleeve 9 and
conductor I‘! to one pole of the storage battery,
and will return therefrom by the conductor l9,
tube 4, collar 5, bolt 1 to which is attached con
‘ductor 55, and by the latter to the terminal or
binding post 56 of the generator 43.
The member 32 having been adjusted to prop
erly position the propeller, to suit the conditions
required at a predetermined wind velocity, when
this velocity is exceeded, the increase in air
pressure on the propeller, will swing the base 6
counter-clockwise, as viewed in Fig. 2, against
45 the restraining action of the spring 26. When
the pressure again reduces, the spring with the
help of the vane will retract the base and pro
peller to their normal position, shown in solid
lines in Fig. 2.
When it is desired to swing the vane to the po
‘sition shown in dotted lines in Fig. 2, in which
position it will be out of the wind, the ?exible
member 2| is drawn downwardly through the
standard I, the spring 3| assisting in swinging
the vaneto this position. The vane will then
cause the base 6 to swing with the propeller so
that the latter will be completely out of the
wind.
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vertical plane‘ of the axes of the base and the i
block 42, and through longitudinal slots 50 pro
50
mane.
By having’the support, comprising the member
,
In swinging the vane to the out of wind posi
tion, shown in dotted lines in Fig. 2, after the
vane has swung a predetermined distance, the
wire 28, being in the path of the front end of
the vane, will be engaged thereby, as shown in
65 dotted lines in Fig. 2, and will be held from
swinging closer to the vane axis, whereby the
spring 26 will exert a proper leverage, for re
tracting the vane easily when the member 2| re
leases the vane .and permits it to- return to the
normal operative position. Thus an even charg
ing speed can be maintained in the generator 43.
By reason of the generator 43 and the pro
peller being at opposite sides of the plane of the
axes of the base 6 and the vane, they will coun
75 ter-balance each other, and will preserve an even
shown and*desc_ribed, as many modi?cations,
within thesc’o‘pev ‘of the appended claims, may be
made without departing from the spirit of my in
vention.
'What I claim is:
15
1. In a windmill, the combination with a base
revoluble on a vertical axis, of a vane pivoted
at the rear of said axis to said base on a Verti
20
cal axis so as to swing in one direction from an
initial position, and having its front end at a
substantial distance forward of its axis, and
means connecting said base and said vane for re
tracting the latter to its initial position, said 25
retracting means, when said vane is in said posi
tion, being disengaged from said front end, and,
when said vane swings from said position a pre
determined distance in said direction, being in
the path of and engaging and exerting a retract 30
ing stress upon said front end.
2. In a windmill, the combination with a base
revoluble on a vertical axis, of a vane pivoted at
the rear of said axis to said base on a vertical
axis, so as to swing in one direction from an ini
tial position, and having its front end at a sub
stantial distance forward of its axis, and means
35
including a spring connecting said base and said
vane, said spring exercising a tension adapted to
retract said vane to its initial position, said re~ 4.0
tracting means, when saidvane is in said posi
tion, being disengaged from said front end, and,
when said vane swings from said position a pre
determined distance in said direction, being in the
path of and engaging and exerting a retracting 45
stress upon said front end.
3. In a windmill, the combination with a base
revoluble on a vertical axis, of a vane pivoted at
the rear of said axis to said base on a vertical
axis, so as to swing in one direction from an ini
50v
tial position, and having its front end at a sub
stantial distance from its axis, and having a lat
eral arm, and means connecting said arm and
said base for retracting said vane to its initial
position, said retracting means, when said vane is 55
in said position, being disengaged from said front
end, and, when said vane swings from said posi
tion a predetermined distance in said direction,
being in the path of and engaging and exerting a
60
retracting stress upon said front end.
4. In a windmill, the combination with a base
revoluble on a vertical axis, of a vane pivoted at
the rear of said axis to said base on a vertical
axis, so as to swing in one direction from an ini
tial position, and having its front end at a sub 65
stantial distance forward of its axis, and having a
lateral arm longer than said distance, and means
for retracting said vane to- its initial position, and
attached to said base, and attached to said arm
at a point located at a distance greater than the 70
distance of said front end from the vane axis,
and, when said vane is in its initial position, said
retracting means being disengaged from said
front end, and when said vane swings from said
position a predetermined distance in said direc 75
'4
2,114,003
tion, being in the path of and engaging and exert
ing a retracting stress upon said front end.
5. In a windmill, the combination with a base
revoluble on a vertical axis, and a vane pivoted at
the rear of said axis to said base on a vertical axis,
of a support carried by said base and extending
through and transversely adjustable to the verti
cal plane of said axes, a wind actuated propeller
having its axis at one side of said plane, an elec
tric generator carried by said support at the other
side of said plane, driving means connecting said
propeller and said generator, and bearing means
for said propeller carried by said support.
6. In a windmill, the combination with a base
revoluble on a vertical axis, a vane pivoted at the
rear of said axis to said base on a vertical axis,
and a wind actuated propeller having its axis at
one side of the vertical plane of said axes, of an
electric generator at the other side of said plane,
driving means connecting said propeller and said
generator, and means carried by said base and
adjustable transversely to said plane, and sup
porting said propeller and said generator and on ;
which said generator is adjustable toward and
from said plane.
CHARLEY O. LI'I'I‘ON.
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