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Патент USA US2114030

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April 12, 1938I
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'
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.1. 1.. REINARTZI
Y
2,114,030
SUPERREGENERATIVE RECEIVER
Filed Jan. 20, 1956,
2 Sheets-Sheet i
'INVENTOR
- .Jo/nv Z. ?H/VARTZ
BYJJLQQM
ATTORNEY
April 12, 1938.. ‘
J. L. REINARTZ
_
2,114,030
SUPERREGENERATIVE RECEIVER
Filed Jan. 20, 1956
2 Sheets-Sheet \2,
0
£29, 2.
AF”
INVENTOR
JOHN L. Rfl/MRTZ
ATTORNEY
2,114,03?
Patented Apr. 12, 1938
UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE
2,114,030
SUPERREGENERATIVE RECEIVER
John Ii. Reinartz, Manchester, Conn., assignor
to Radio Corporation of America, a corpora
tion of Delaware
Application January‘ 20, 1936, 'Serial No. 59,803
10 Claims. ‘(01. 250-20)
The present invention relates to super-regen
erative receivers and more particularly to a novel
circuit arrangement utilizing a screen grid type
tube for detection and for super-regeneration.
The theory underlying the operation of the
super-regenerative type receiver is too well
known at the present time to require any dis
cussion thereof herein, however, reference may
be had to U. S. Patent 1,424,065 issued July 25,
10 1922 to E. H. Armstrong wherein this type of
circuit is described in detail.
5
It is an object of the present invention to de
vise a circuit arrangement that readily allows
super-regeneration of signals by the useof an
15 electron stream coupled tube.
devise a circuit arrangement through which it is
possible to obtain the required interrupting fre
quency by utilizing the “mush” which is usually
20 present under practically all conditions of re
.
Y
,
Other objects of the invention will be apparent
‘ from a study of the following detailed speci?ca
tion and the drawings.
25 I
tector tube. In such arcase the control grid of
the detector tube can be made to respond in‘ the
In the drawings:
Figure 1 illustrates, in diagrammatic form, a
circuit arrangement embodying the present in
vention with an electron stream coupled tube; ‘
Figure‘2 illustrates, diagrammatically, a super
30 regenerative receiver incorporating the inven
tion and using a Hartley type oscillator; and,
Figure 3 is a simpli?ed form of the circuit ar
rangement shown in Figure 1.
A screen grid type of tube allows the use of
35 electron stream type of coupling to an external
load without re?ecting any of the load back to
the control circuit. Because of this fact it is
possible to use a portion-of the audio frequency
variations to modulate the control‘ grid of an
40 oscillating electron stream coupled type of screen
grid detector without thev usual howling that
would take place if the same connection were
made with the ordinary triode tube circuit.
The present invention makes use of this pos
sibility in a novel electron coupled super-re
generative receiverr Brie?y, in such a circuit
the control grid, cathode and screen grid of the
tube are so connected that there is formed an
oscillatory circuit which may be tuned by a
suitable reactance, as for instance a condenser.
In such a circuit it is well to provide a variable
screen grid voltage as an aid to clearing up the
received signal. The plate circuit of the tube is
made through the medium of resistance coupling
55 to the grid of an ampli?er tube. According to
5 .
manner of true super-regeneration with sub-f- <
stantially perfect control over the amount of the
response and without audio howl feedeback.
The screen grid voltage for the screenlgridde
tector tube may be obtained directly from the
alternating component that isgenerated between
the plate connection of the. ampli?er tube and
the screen connection of the detector tube bythe
use of the coupling capacity connected between
these two points.
It is also an object of the present invention to
ception.
the invention capacity coupling is provided be
tween thev plate of the ampli?er tube and .the
screen grid of the electron stream .coupled de
-
'
From what has preceded, it is seen that three
'
results are possible with the circuit arrange
ment of the invention. These may be brie?y
summarized as follows:
, 1. The relaxation or interruption frequency is
generated.
.
2?
q 2. The amplitude of the relaxation frequency
may be controlled as well as its period; and,
3. The voltage for the screen of the detector
tube may be generated thus obviating the neces
sity for an external voltage that ‘would normally
be required.
.
L
1 _
In operating the device as above described, the
coupling condenser between thev plate of the
ampli?er tube and the screen grid of the detector '
tube is adjusted to increase its capacity until
heterodyne reception is possible, this takes place
before the relaxation or interruptionlfrequency
generated has attained su?icient amplitude, to
cause super-regeneration to- take place. At the
same time, the voltage generated between the
plate of the ampli?er tube and the screen of the
detector tube, provides the proper voltage for
the screen causing it to react as though it had ‘
been supplied with such voltage from an external
source, apparently at the optimum value.
As the capacity between the plate of the
ampli?er tube and the screen of the detector tube
is increased the amplitude of the relaxation fre
quency becomes greater and super-regeneration 45
takes
place.
I
'
‘
In Figure 1 there is shown an electron coupled
type circuit wherein tube T1 is used as a detector
tube and wherein resistor R2 controls the regen
eration amplitude. This detector tube circuit is
of the grid leak type and R1 is the grid leak and 1'
C2 the grid blocking condenser, while L is the
tuning coiland L1 isthe section across which
the tuning condenser 01 is placed, this section‘
being connected between the cathode 2 and the 55
2
10
15
20
25
30
2,114,030
ground G. Section L2 of the coil L is connected
between cathode 2 and grid 4 with R1 and C2 in
series. L3 is an antenna pick-up coil which may
be variably coupled to the coil L. With voltage
applied through R2 to grid 5 of tube T1, the cir
cuit becomes regenerative or oscillating, deter
mined by the value of the voltage app-lied to
grid 5. While a regenerative detector circuit is
very sensitive and has‘ wide application, it is
generally conceded that the super-regenerative
form of detector circuit is markedly superior in
sensitivity. We proceed to obtain super-regen
eration in this circuit through the addition of
condenser C3 which is connected- to anode 6‘ of
tube T2. The value of condenser C3 and the
combination of the values of the resistance R3
which is connected to anode I of .tube T1, the
value of the blocking condenser Cs which is con-‘
nected between anode l of tube T1 and grid 9
of tube T2, the value of R4v which is connected
between grid 9‘ of tube T2 and the connection l3
of the bias battery, all help to determine, with
the aid of the voltage applied to grid 5 of tube
T1. if the tube circuit shall‘ be regenerative‘ or
super-regenerative. If, with C3 set to minimum
value and the value of R2 such that the circuit
becomes regenerative, C1 is tuned to an incoming
signal the response in the phones U will be an
audio signal the frequency of .which will be de
terminedrbyi the extent the detector tuning differs
from the incoming'fre‘quency. If the incoming
frequency were modulated, such as from a'radio
mission, retaining the advantage of both types of
phone station, the action of the regenerative de
tube, said tube being provided with an anode, a
‘ tector would be to add to the reception of the
modulated carrier an audio tone of a frequency
35
determinedby the carrier‘ frequency and thev ex
tent that. the detector circuit is detuned from
the carrier frequency. Only when'there is no
difference frequency will the audio tone" be absent.
If the detector circuit is made super-regenera
tive in action, complete oscillations are prevented
in the detector tube- circuit and there then can be
no difference frequency or audio tone generated
which would be heard along with the modulation,
45 even though the detector circuit tuning differed
in frequency from the incoming carrier fre
quency. In addition, the super-regenerative de
tectorcircuit, surpasses the regenerative detector
. circuit in sensitivity.
I When a relatively low-frequency alternating
50
voltage is superimposed on the grid or anode of
a regenerative detector, super-regeneration re
sults. This low-frequency alternating voltage is
usually supplied from an outside source, as from
55
a low-frequency oscillator circuit.
I '
reception.
In Figure 2 the same method of obtaining the
relaxation or low frequency type of super-regen
eration is applied to a Hartley oscillator as the
function is not limited .to a certain type of circuit.
In Figure 3 the bias battery has been replaced
by a cathode dropping resistor to obtain the
proper value of negative bias for the ampli?er
tube T2.
10
As shown in Figures 1, 2, and 3, the antenna
coupling may take on any of the usually used
forms.
In actual practice it has been found that very
good. results are obtained by giving the following 15
values to ther'various component parts:
C1=100 pm‘, C2=100 to 250 ML)‘, R1=1A to 1
megohm, Ca=up to 150 lief variable, Rz=up to
1 megohm variable, 04:.01 a)‘, 05:.01 pf, R3=%.
20
megohm, C's=.1 ,uf, R4=1A megohm.
j L1 has 1/3 the turns of L in Figure 1 and Fig
ure
2.
'
I
It should be understood that the various em
bodiments described herein and the particular
values for the elements of these embodiments are 25
not to be construed as limiting the scope of the
invention since obviously many modi?cations may
be made without departing from the scope of’ the
invention.
'
I claim:
1. In a receiver of the super-regenerative type,
an electron stream coupled detector-oscillator
cathode, a signalgrid and an auxiliary grid, ex
ternal circuits and means associated with the 35
controlgrid, cathode and auxiliary‘grid arranged
to form an oscillatory circuit, means for tuning
said circuit to any frequency within a predeter
mined’range of frequencies, an ampli?er tube
provided with an anode, a cathode and a grid, 40
means for coupling the ?rst named anode to the
grid of the ampli?er tube, means for generating
the interruption frequency and impressing the
generated interruption frequency upon the de
tector oscillator tube to thereby produce super 45.
regenerative action, said last named means in
cluding a variable condenser connected. between
the anode of the ampli?er tube and the auxiliary
grid of the first named tube and a utilizing means
connected between the anode of the ampli?er tube
and the- cathode thereof.
2. In a receiver of the super-regenerative type,
an electronic tube provided with two grids, a
cathode and an output electrode, means for pro
viding signal feed .back between one of the grids 55
In Figure 1, use is made of the properties of and the other grid, an ampli?er tube connected to
the circuit connections between tube l and tube 2 the output electrode of said electronic tube, said
ampli?er tube beingprovided with an anode, a
to generate this low frequency and both the volt
age amplitude ‘and the frequency of this low grid and a cathode, means for. providing signal
feed back between the anode of the ampli?er 60
60 frequency is determined by the value of con
denser C3. The voltage amplitude being low tube and the grid thereof for generating the in
when the condenser is set to a low value while terrupting frequency energy and means including
the frequency is high, as the condenser value is a variable device for impressing the interrupting
. frequency energy upon the electronic tube.
I increased the voltage increases but the frequency
3. In a super-regenerative receiver, a detector 65
65 decreases. By this means it is possible to arrive
oscillator circuit including an electronicv tube pro
at a value of both voltage and frequency which vided with an input circuit and an output circuit,
gives the best result vwithout being dependent
upon an outside source for the generation of the
byvarying' C3, and thus make it possible to listen
to an unmodulated carrier which iskeyed or to a
modulated carrier such as a radiophone' trans
said last named means including means for con
proper low frequency and voltage amplitude.
70 Also it is possible to go from a regenerative de
tector to a super-regenerative detector at'will
75
a signal energy collecting means connected to the
input circuit, an ampli?er tube'connected to the
output circuit, an interruption frequency energy 70
generator circuit including said ampli?er tube and
means for impressing the generated interruption
frequency energy upon the detector-oscillator cir
cuit to thereby produce super-regenerative action,
75
2,114,030
trolling both the frequency and the intensity of
the generated interruption frequency energyim
3
condenser connectingv the ‘anode of the second
tube to thescreen grid {of the ?rst tube; '
i
interruption frequency energy generator circuit
7. Apparatus for amplifying varying" electric
currents‘ comprising an electronic tube “provided
including ‘a portion of the detector oscillator cir
with an anode, a cathode, a control grid and an
' pressed upon the detector oscillator circuit, said
cuit.‘
_
*
'
4. In radio receiving apparatus of the super
regenerative type, a detector-oscillator circuit
.7 including an electronic tube provided with an in
put circuit and an output circuit, said input circuit
being linked with said output circuit to facilitate
the transfer of energy from said‘ output circuit
to‘ said input circuit for producing oscillations,
an ampli?er circuit connected to the output cir
cuit of said electronic tube, said ampli?er circuit
including a thermionic tube provided with an in
put circuit and an output circuit, said last named
input circuit being linked with the last named
output circuit to facilitate the transfer of energy
20 from the last named output circuit to the last
named input circuit for producing interruption
frequency oscillations, means for controlling both
the intensity and the frequency of the last named
oscillations, said last named oscillations- being
25 impressed upon the detector oscillator circuit so
as to periodically damp the detector oscillator cir
cuit whereby super-regenerative action is ob
tained.
'
5. In a super-regenerative receiver, a detector
30 oscillator tube provided with an anode, a cathode
and two grid electrodes, a source of space current
having a negative terminal and a positive termi
nal, a connection between one of the grid- elec
trodes and the negative terminal of the source in
35 cluding means to give the tube detector tube
characteristics and an inductance coil, a connec
tion between the cathode of the tube and a point
of said inductance coil, means for tuning said
input circuit, a connection between the other grid
40 electrode and the positive terminal of said source
said connection including a variable resistor de
vice and a condenser connected between the end
of the resistor connected to the positive terminal
of the source and the end of the inductance coil
45 connected to the negative terminal of the source,
a second electronic tube provided with an anode,
a cathode and a control grid, a connection be
tween the anode of the ?rst tube and ‘the control
grid of the second tube and a coupling condenser,
50 a connection between the anode of the ?rst tube
and said positive terminal including said resistor
element and a connection between the grid of
the second tube and the negative terminal of the
source including a resistor element, means con
necting the anode of the second tube to the sec
ond named grid. of the ?rst tube comprising a var
iable condenser, a utilizing circuit connected be
tween the anode of the second tube and the posi
tive terminal of the source and a resistance means
connected between the cathode of the second
named tube and the negative terminal of the
auxiliary grid; aninput circuit conn'ected'be
tween the ‘controlgrid and the cathode of the
tube‘, means‘ for impressing the potential of said '
currents ,fup‘on the input circuit, a circuit cone
nected between the auxiliary grid and' the‘cathg
ode'of the tube, said input circuit ‘beingjlinked
with said‘ last named, circuit to facilitate the
transfer of energy from said last named circuit
to‘ said input‘ circuit‘for producing oscillations,
means for controllingthe frequency, of ‘the ‘oscil-v
lations, an output vcircuitfor said tube connected
15
between ‘the anode of the tube and the ‘cathode
thereof, a second electronic tube provided with
an anode, a cathode and a control grid, an input
circuit for the second tube, means for coupling 20
said output circuit to the input circuit of vthe
second tube whereby energy is transferred from
the ?rst tube to the second tube, an output cir
cuit for the second tube including a load imped
ance device, means for coupling the last named 25
output circuit to the auxiliary grid including a
variable reactance device, said last named cou
pling acting to link the output circuit of the
second tube to the input thereof to facilitate the
‘transfer of energy from the output circuit to the 30
input circuit thereof for producing oscillations,
said last named oscillations being impressed upon
the ?rst named electronic tube throughv said re
actance to periodically stop the generation of
oscillation by the ?rst tube whereby super-regen
erative action is obtained.
35
8. Apparatus for amplifying varying electric
currents comprising an electronic tube provided
with an anode, a cathode, a control grid and an
auxiliary grid, an input circuit connected be
tween the control grid and the cathode of the
tube said input circuit including means to give
the tube detector-tube characteristics, means for
impressing the potential of said currents upon
the ‘input circuit, a circuit connected between
the auxiliary grid and the cathode, said circuit
including a variable resistor device, an output
circuit for said tube connected between the anode
and the cathode, said output circuit being linked
with the input circuit to facilitate the transfer of
energy from the output circuit to the input cir
cuit for producing oscillations, a second elec
tronic tube provided with an input circuit and
an output circuit, means for coupling the last
named input circuit to the output circuit of ‘the
?rst electronic tube whereby energy is transferred
from the ?rst tube to the second tube, a load
impedance device in the output circuit of the
second tube, means for coupling said last named
output circuit to the auxiliary grid of the ?rst
named tube, said means including‘a variable re
actance device, said last named coupling means
40
45
50
55
60
source and means for impressing the signalling ‘ acting to link the output circuit of the second
energy across the ?rst named inductance.
tube to the input circuit thereof to facilitate the
6. In a super-regenerative receiver, an elec
transfer of energy from said last named output 65
tronic tube provided with an anode, a cathode, a circuit to said last named input circuit for pro
screen grid and a control electrode, an input ducing oscillations, said last named oscillations
circuit for said tube and an output circuit there
for, said input circuit being provided with tuning
means and means to give the tube detector tube
characteristics, a source of signalling energy cou
pled to said input circuit, an ampli?er tube provided with input and output circuits, means for
electrically connecting the output of the ?rst tube
75 to the input of the second tube and a variable
being impressed upon the ?rst named electronic
tube through said reactance coupling device in
such a manner that the generation of oscilla
70
tions of the ?rst tube is periodically, ‘stopped
whereby super-regenerative action is obtained.
9. In a receiver of electric oscillations, an elec
tronic tube containing a cathode element, a con
trol grid element, a screen-like anode element, 75
2,1 14,030
and a second anode element, an input circuit be
tween the control grid and cathode elements, an
output circuit between the screen-like anode ele
ment and the cathode element, the said circuits
being coupled in such a manner as to produce
regeneration, means for controlling said regen
eration, a. second output circuit between the sec
> end anode and the screen-like anode elements,
and including an output device, a second elec
10 tronic tube having an input circuit and an out
an electron tube containing a cathode element,
a control grid element, a screen-like element and
an anode element, said elements being inter-con
nected by means of external circuits, so as to
provide the electron tube with an input circuit
and an output circuit, said input and output cir
cuits being coupled in such a manner as to pro
duce oscillations, means for controlling the
strength of said oscillations, a second electron
tube provided with input and output circuits, and 10
put circuit, said input circuit being coupled to
the output device, a utilizing device connected in
means connecting the output circuit of the ?rst
the last-named output circuit, and a feedback
means including a variable coupling condenser
coupling between the output circuit of the laste
for connecting the output circuit of the second
tube to the output circuit of the ?rst tube.
15
15 named electronic tube, and the screen-like anode
element of the ?rst-named tube.
10. In a receiver of electric oscillations having
tube'to the input circuit of the second ‘tube, and
JOHN L. REINARTZ.
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