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Патент USA US2114112

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April 12, 1938-
L. E. NORQUIST
2,114,112
STEERING AND CONTROL MEANS FOR WATERCRAFT
Filed June 11, 1937
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2,114,112
Patented Apr. 12, 1938
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,114,112
STEERING AND CONTROL MEANS FOR
WATERCRAFT
Lester E. Norquist, Denver, 0010.
Application June 11,
3 Claims.
This invention relates to watercraft of power
propulsion type, and more particularly to the rel
atively larger constructions of such craft, and
has as an object to provide improved means for
5 steering and controlling such craft when a?oat.
A further object of the invention is to pro
vide improved means for steering and controlling
watercraft a?oat independently of the longitudi
nal motion of such craft.
A further object of the invention is to pro
10
vide improved means associated with a ship or
vessel and selectively operable to independently
or simultaneously move end portions of such
craft laterally through the water when a?oat.
A further object of the invention is to provide
improved means associated with a ship or vessel
and selectively operable to simultaneously move
the end portions of such craft laterally in oppo
site directions to alter the heading of such craft
‘,0 when a?oat.
A further object of the invention is to provide
improved means associated with a ship or vessel
and selectively operable to simultaneously move
the end portions of such craft laterally in the
a same direction to shift such craft laterally when
a?oat without changing the craft heading.
A further object of the invention is to provide
improved means associated with a ship or vessel
and selectively operable, at times, as supplemen
3 0 tal propulsion means for such craft.
A further object of the invention is to- provide
improved steering and control means for water
craft whereby such craft may be at all times
positively controlled and moved about in re
35 stricted areas independently of the normal craft
propulsion means, which obviates many of the
limitations and disadvantages of conventional
steering means, which is simple, positive and ef~
?cient in principle, which is susceptible of prac
40 tical development in a wide variety of speci?c
embodiments through the use of conventional ap
paratus, and which is readily adaptable to exist
ing and conventional watercraft.
My invention consists in the construction, ar
45 rangement, and combination of elements herein
after set forth, pointed out in my claims, and
diagrammatically illustrated byythe accompany
ing drawing, in which—
-
Figure 1 is a plan view, partly in section, of a
50 conventionalized ship or vessel wherewith the
invention is operatively associated, the central
portion of the craft being broken away to con
serve space.
Figure 2 is a cross section taken
on the indicated line 2—2 of Figure 1. Figure
,55 3 is a fragmentary, detail elevation, on/an en
1937, Serial No. 147,729
(Cl. 114—148)
larged scale, of a movable grid advantageously
employed with the invention. Figure 4 is a sec
tion taken on the indicated line 4—4 of Figure 3.
In the construction of the improvement as
shown, a ship or vessel is conventionally illus GI
trated as comprising a hull portion In tapering
downwardly to a keel ll, tapering forwardly to
a bow portion [2 and merging rearwardly into a
curved stern portion l3. The hull is provided
with a main deck I4 and such other decks, bulk 10
heads, and the like, as may be desired in a given
construction. To give effect to the principles of
the invention, conduits or water channels l5 are
disposed in paired relation transversely of the
hull Hl adjacent the bow and the stern of the 15
vessel and open at their respective ends through
the hull walls well below the water line of the
craft. The conduits l5 may be of any particu
lar size, construction, and cross-sectional con
formation, as may be deemed expedient or de
sirable and may be employed‘in such number
and combination of pairs as may be best suited to
a particular craft, the arrangement shown being
but typical of an operative installation where
through the principles of the invention may be 25
practically applied. As illustrated, the conduits
l5 are disposed in horizontal planes and with
their axes at an angle with the longitudinal axis
of the vessel, the intake ends of the conduits ad
jacent the bow of the craft being disposed for
wardly of their corresponding outlet ends and
the inlet ends of the conduits adjacent the stern
of the craft being disposed rearwardly of their
corresponding outlet ends. The inlet end of each
conduit I5 is enlarged to open through the hull
of the vessel in a circular port having an area
considerably greater than the cross-sectional
area of the conduit, and a suitable water wheel
16, of propeller type, is disposed in and for suc
tion effect relative to each intake port. ‘The
Wheels It may be variously arranged and con
nected for power rotation relative to their respec
tive ports, but each wheel i6 is preferably ?xed
to the end of a shaft [1 which is journaled in and
extends through a stuf?ng-box l8 carried on the 45
wall of the conduit [5 and is thence directly con
nected through a suitable coupling l9 and bear
ings 20 with the armature shaft of an electric
motor 2| carried within the hull of the vessel.
The mounting illustrated is preferred because of
the ?exibility, compactness, selective control and
immediate action of the driven elements possible
therethrough, and because of the facility with
which a water wheel may be removed and re
placed in such an arrangement, but it is to be 55
g
2,114,112
understood that the mounting and driving ar
rangement shown is indicative of but one pos
sible installation and that the invention con
templates the use of other types of prime movers
in driving relation with the water wheels H5 in
such individual or combined drive arrangements
as may be operable to attain the functions here
inafter set forth.
As is clearly shown in Figure 2, the conduits
10 iii in each pair may be conveniently disposed to
conventional rudder or similar steering means.
In effecting lateral and directional control of the
craft, the water wheels l6 may be selectively oper
ated in various combinations for varying results.
With the arrangement shown, the craft may be
moved bodily to the right without change in its
directional heading through simultaneous opera
tion of the water wheels I6 on the right hand side
of the hull H], which operation draws water from 10
cross each other without obstructing the free ?ow
of water therethrough by bends or offsets in said
conduits, by positioning one of the conduits above
the right hand side of the vessel through the con
duits l5 served by said water wheels and estab
lishes a ?ow through said conduits for discharge
the other and by expanding the intake end of the
at the opposite side of the hull, thereby creating
lower conduit upwardly and that of the upper
conduit downwardly, so that the intake ports of
the conduits are in alignment transversely of the
vessel and consequently the mounting shafts I‘!
of the water wheels it may be conveniently
aligned as shown.
With an independent drive for each water
wheel it, the usual motor control panel 22 may
be associated with each motor 2! and a remote
control panel 23 positioned on the control bridge
of the craft for selective control of the motors
2i through their panels 22, as is well-known prac
tice within the skill of those competent in the
electrical ?eld. While the conduits l5 are illus
trated as provided with a single water wheel l6
disposed at the intake end of each conduit, it is
obvious that the water wheel may be positioned
at the outlet end of the conduit or at any desired
a suction effect adjacent the bow and stern on the 15
right hand side of the hull and a pressure effect
at the left hand side of the hull, which effects
location throughout the length of the conduit
without in any way altering or modifying the op
erative principle of the invention, and that addi
tional water wheels may be operatively associ
ated with each conduit to supplement the effect
produced by the single water wheel shown.
The intake ports of the conduits l5 should be
40
instant invention are employed in place of the
suitably protected to prevent the entrance there
through of ?otsam, weeds, debris, and the like,
in a manner which will permit free access to. the
water wheel and its mounting and not unduly ob
struct the ?ow of water to and through said
port. Various constructions may be employed to
properly protect the water wheels and to guard
the conduit intakes, and one construction suitable
to such purpose is illustrated as comprising a ver
tically-disposed slide bearing 24 positioned on the
hull it just forwardly of each intake port, and
a grid assembly comprising a connecting bar 25
engaged for vertical reciprocation in the slide
bearing 21?, and a plurality of ?ngers 26 ?xed in
uniformly-spaced relation at their forward ends
to the bar 25 and extending outwardly and rear
wardly from said bar in trailing relation across
v the intake port, the rear ends of the ?ngers 25 be
ing free and spaced outwardly somewhat from the
hull iii to permit weeds and foreign matter en~
tangled in the grid to slip rearwardly of said ?n
gers and thus clear the grid during forward travel
of the vessel. A hoist line or cable 27 may be at
tached to the upper end of the bar 25 to provide
convenient means for moving the grid assembly
65 out of covering relation with the conduit intake
when it is desired to repair or replace a water
wheel iii.
The invention is primarily concerned with di
rectional and lateral control of a vessel independ
70 ently of longitudinal motion of the craft and of
the propulsion means employed with the craft.
Obviously, the craft may be equipped with any
suitable form or arrangement of propulsion
means to initiate, regulate, and control its longi
75 tudinal travel, and the operative principles of the
combine to shift the craft laterally to the right.
To augment the result just described, the water
wheels l'6 on the left hand side of the hull may 20
be simultaneously operated to establish water
?ow from right to left through their respective
conduits, and thus increase the suction and pres
sure effects above described. Shifting of the craft
to the left without change of its heading is ac
complished by actuation of the water wheels H5
in directions opposite to those employed for the
shift to the right. Change in the directional
heading of the craft is had through selective ac
tuation of the. wheels l6, either‘ singly or in com
bination. Should it be desired to alter the craft
heading to the right, the forward water wheel
IE on the right hand side of the craft is oper
ated to establish a water flow through its conduit
from right to left of the craft, which ?ow is pro
ductive of a suction effect adjacent the bow of
the vessel and on the right hand side of the hull
and a pressure effect also adjacent the bow of
the vessel but on the left hand side of the hull,
which effects combine to swing the bow of the
craft to the right. A more rapid change of direc
tion may be had through simultaneous operation
of water wheels adjacent the bow and stern of
the vessel and on opposite sides of the hull in a
manner to produce simultaneous suction and
pressure effects adjacent the bow and stern and
on opposite sides of the hull, which effects are
productive of a pivoting action on the vessel in
the water. From the foregoing it should be ap
parent that full lateral and directional control of
the craft may be had through selective actua
tion of the water wheels I 6, even when the vessel
25
30
40
45
has no longitudinal travel or steerage way.
The invention has a further advantage in that
it provides means operable to maintainv a degree of
longitudinal motion of the craft when the normal
propulsion means are for any reason inoperative.
This function of the invention derives from the
angular disposition of the conduits l5 relative to
the longitudinal axis of the craft, and is made 60
effective for forward travel of the craft through
simultaneous operation of the water wheels It
on opposite sides of and adjacent the bow of
the vessel, and for rearward travel of the craft
through actuation of the water wheels on op 65
posite sides of and adjacent the stern of the craft.
In either case, a flow of water is established
through the conduits l5 which acts to move the
craft longitudinally away from the pressure areas
developed at the discharge ends of the conduits. 70
While the forward conduits [5 shown in the
drawing are illustrated as spaced rearwardly
somewhat from the peak of the vessel, it is to
be understood that they. may be disposed with
their intake ports opening closely adjacent the 75
3
2,114,112
prow of the craft and may be supplemented ‘by
additional pairs of conduits related altitudinally
and longitudinally of the craft in such number as
may be expedient or desirable for a given instal
lation, the same being true for the installation ad
jacent the stern of the vessel.
The invention is of particular advantage in
that it provides means for steering and controlling
a water craft at all times and irrespective of the
longitudinal motion of the craft, thus permitting
precise handling of a vessel in restricted waters
and crowded harbors where maintenance of
steerage way is impractical.
Since many changes in the speci?c form, con
dividually associated with each water wheel for
the selective actuation thereof in either direc
tion of rotation.
2. Lateral and directional control means for
water craft comprising a plurality of conduits
arranged in pairs transversely of a vessel adjacent
the opposite ends thereof and each opening
through opposite sides of the vessel hull below the
water line thereof, the conduits constituting each
pair being disposed in adjacent, superposed, hori 1O
zontal relation to oppositely and diagonally
traverse the vessel hull between intake ports
centered in a common vertical plane transversely
of said hull adjacent the corresponding end
15 struction, and arrangement of the elements shown
thereof and outlet ports centered in a common
and described may be had without departing from
the spirit of my invention, and may in fact be
necessary in adapting the principles of the in
vention to given installations, I wish to be under
stood as being limited solely by the scope of the
appended claims, rather than by any details of the
illustrative showing and foregoing description.
vertical plane transversely of said hull and rela
tively more remote from the corresponding hull
end, enlarged portions on the intake ends of
said conduits, the enlarged portion on the lower
I claim as my invention
1. Lateral and directional control means for
water craft comprising a plurality of conduits
arranged in pairs transversely of a vessel ad
jacent the opposite ends thereof and each extend
conduit being ?ared upwardly and that on the 20
upper conduit being ?ared downwardly to center
the intake ports of said portions on a common
horizontal line transversely of said hull, a water
wheel journaled for rotation in bearings car
ried by said conduit intake portion and vessel and 25
disposed across the intake port of each conduit,
and means associated with each water wheel for
ing between and opening through opposite sides
the selective actuation thereof in either direction
of the vessel hull below the water line thereof,
of rotation.
3. Lateral and directional control means for 30
the conduits in each pair being disposed with
their axes in spaced, parallel horizontal planes
and oppositely and diagonally traversing the
vessel hull to cross on the longitudinal median line
of said hull, enlarged intake chambers on and
35 smoothly merging with the ends of said conduits
adjacent the corresponding end of said hull and
communicating through said hull by means of
intake ports of diameters greater than those of
their associated conduits, the intake chamber of
the lower conduit being flared upwardly and
that of the upper conduit being ?ared downwardly
to center the intake ports of each pair of con
duits on a common horizontal line perpendicular
to the longitudinal axis of the vessel, a water
a wheel operatively associated with the intake
chamber of each conduit to initiate and main
tain water flow through said conduit from one side
of the hull to the other, and power means in
water craft comprising transversely-aligned in
take ports in the opposite walls and adjacent the
ends of a vessel hull and below the water line
thereof, relatively smaller outlet ports in the hull
walls and spaced longitudinally from said intake 35
ports toward the midportion of the vessel, an in
take chamber housing cooperating with each in
take port, a straight conduit of uniform diameter
operatively connecting each intake chamber with
an outlet port on the opposite side of the vessel, 40
whereby said conduits are disposed in crossed,
paired relation adjacent the ends of the vessel, a
water wheel operatively associated with each
intake chamber to initiate and maintain water
flow through its associated conduit, and means 45
for selectively actuating said water wheels in
either direction of rotation.
LESTER. E. NORQUIST.
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