Патент USA US2114112код для вставки
April 12, 1938- L. E. NORQUIST 2,114,112 STEERING AND CONTROL MEANS FOR WATERCRAFT Filed June 11, 1937 24/ ?é 2 2'6 . /= (V61 \HI, 3’ :WWWL 24‘ 21/ 4 I M W *9 M 24 22 ' ” w *4 ' 2/ 26 /g 20 _ r nnnnnnn I 20 m M 25 ?wf ‘26 26 fnvem‘or Lester .5 Mryzzz'?‘ 2,114,112 Patented Apr. 12, 1938 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,114,112 STEERING AND CONTROL MEANS FOR WATERCRAFT Lester E. Norquist, Denver, 0010. Application June 11, 3 Claims. This invention relates to watercraft of power propulsion type, and more particularly to the rel atively larger constructions of such craft, and has as an object to provide improved means for 5 steering and controlling such craft when a?oat. A further object of the invention is to pro vide improved means for steering and controlling watercraft a?oat independently of the longitudi nal motion of such craft. A further object of the invention is to pro 10 vide improved means associated with a ship or vessel and selectively operable to independently or simultaneously move end portions of such craft laterally through the water when a?oat. A further object of the invention is to provide improved means associated with a ship or vessel and selectively operable to simultaneously move the end portions of such craft laterally in oppo site directions to alter the heading of such craft ‘,0 when a?oat. A further object of the invention is to provide improved means associated with a ship or vessel and selectively operable to simultaneously move the end portions of such craft laterally in the a same direction to shift such craft laterally when a?oat without changing the craft heading. A further object of the invention is to provide improved means associated with a ship or vessel and selectively operable, at times, as supplemen 3 0 tal propulsion means for such craft. A further object of the invention is to- provide improved steering and control means for water craft whereby such craft may be at all times positively controlled and moved about in re 35 stricted areas independently of the normal craft propulsion means, which obviates many of the limitations and disadvantages of conventional steering means, which is simple, positive and ef~ ?cient in principle, which is susceptible of prac 40 tical development in a wide variety of speci?c embodiments through the use of conventional ap paratus, and which is readily adaptable to exist ing and conventional watercraft. My invention consists in the construction, ar 45 rangement, and combination of elements herein after set forth, pointed out in my claims, and diagrammatically illustrated byythe accompany ing drawing, in which— - Figure 1 is a plan view, partly in section, of a 50 conventionalized ship or vessel wherewith the invention is operatively associated, the central portion of the craft being broken away to con serve space. Figure 2 is a cross section taken on the indicated line 2—2 of Figure 1. Figure ,55 3 is a fragmentary, detail elevation, on/an en 1937, Serial No. 147,729 (Cl. 114—148) larged scale, of a movable grid advantageously employed with the invention. Figure 4 is a sec tion taken on the indicated line 4—4 of Figure 3. In the construction of the improvement as shown, a ship or vessel is conventionally illus GI trated as comprising a hull portion In tapering downwardly to a keel ll, tapering forwardly to a bow portion [2 and merging rearwardly into a curved stern portion l3. The hull is provided with a main deck I4 and such other decks, bulk 10 heads, and the like, as may be desired in a given construction. To give effect to the principles of the invention, conduits or water channels l5 are disposed in paired relation transversely of the hull Hl adjacent the bow and the stern of the 15 vessel and open at their respective ends through the hull walls well below the water line of the craft. The conduits l5 may be of any particu lar size, construction, and cross-sectional con formation, as may be deemed expedient or de sirable and may be employed‘in such number and combination of pairs as may be best suited to a particular craft, the arrangement shown being but typical of an operative installation where through the principles of the invention may be 25 practically applied. As illustrated, the conduits l5 are disposed in horizontal planes and with their axes at an angle with the longitudinal axis of the vessel, the intake ends of the conduits ad jacent the bow of the craft being disposed for wardly of their corresponding outlet ends and the inlet ends of the conduits adjacent the stern of the craft being disposed rearwardly of their corresponding outlet ends. The inlet end of each conduit I5 is enlarged to open through the hull of the vessel in a circular port having an area considerably greater than the cross-sectional area of the conduit, and a suitable water wheel 16, of propeller type, is disposed in and for suc tion effect relative to each intake port. ‘The Wheels It may be variously arranged and con nected for power rotation relative to their respec tive ports, but each wheel i6 is preferably ?xed to the end of a shaft [1 which is journaled in and extends through a stuf?ng-box l8 carried on the 45 wall of the conduit [5 and is thence directly con nected through a suitable coupling l9 and bear ings 20 with the armature shaft of an electric motor 2| carried within the hull of the vessel. The mounting illustrated is preferred because of the ?exibility, compactness, selective control and immediate action of the driven elements possible therethrough, and because of the facility with which a water wheel may be removed and re placed in such an arrangement, but it is to be 55 g 2,114,112 understood that the mounting and driving ar rangement shown is indicative of but one pos sible installation and that the invention con templates the use of other types of prime movers in driving relation with the water wheels H5 in such individual or combined drive arrangements as may be operable to attain the functions here inafter set forth. As is clearly shown in Figure 2, the conduits 10 iii in each pair may be conveniently disposed to conventional rudder or similar steering means. In effecting lateral and directional control of the craft, the water wheels l6 may be selectively oper ated in various combinations for varying results. With the arrangement shown, the craft may be moved bodily to the right without change in its directional heading through simultaneous opera tion of the water wheels I6 on the right hand side of the hull H], which operation draws water from 10 cross each other without obstructing the free ?ow of water therethrough by bends or offsets in said conduits, by positioning one of the conduits above the right hand side of the vessel through the con duits l5 served by said water wheels and estab lishes a ?ow through said conduits for discharge the other and by expanding the intake end of the at the opposite side of the hull, thereby creating lower conduit upwardly and that of the upper conduit downwardly, so that the intake ports of the conduits are in alignment transversely of the vessel and consequently the mounting shafts I‘! of the water wheels it may be conveniently aligned as shown. With an independent drive for each water wheel it, the usual motor control panel 22 may be associated with each motor 2! and a remote control panel 23 positioned on the control bridge of the craft for selective control of the motors 2i through their panels 22, as is well-known prac tice within the skill of those competent in the electrical ?eld. While the conduits l5 are illus trated as provided with a single water wheel l6 disposed at the intake end of each conduit, it is obvious that the water wheel may be positioned at the outlet end of the conduit or at any desired a suction effect adjacent the bow and stern on the 15 right hand side of the hull and a pressure effect at the left hand side of the hull, which effects location throughout the length of the conduit without in any way altering or modifying the op erative principle of the invention, and that addi tional water wheels may be operatively associ ated with each conduit to supplement the effect produced by the single water wheel shown. The intake ports of the conduits l5 should be 40 instant invention are employed in place of the suitably protected to prevent the entrance there through of ?otsam, weeds, debris, and the like, in a manner which will permit free access to. the water wheel and its mounting and not unduly ob struct the ?ow of water to and through said port. Various constructions may be employed to properly protect the water wheels and to guard the conduit intakes, and one construction suitable to such purpose is illustrated as comprising a ver tically-disposed slide bearing 24 positioned on the hull it just forwardly of each intake port, and a grid assembly comprising a connecting bar 25 engaged for vertical reciprocation in the slide bearing 21?, and a plurality of ?ngers 26 ?xed in uniformly-spaced relation at their forward ends to the bar 25 and extending outwardly and rear wardly from said bar in trailing relation across v the intake port, the rear ends of the ?ngers 25 be ing free and spaced outwardly somewhat from the hull iii to permit weeds and foreign matter en~ tangled in the grid to slip rearwardly of said ?n gers and thus clear the grid during forward travel of the vessel. A hoist line or cable 27 may be at tached to the upper end of the bar 25 to provide convenient means for moving the grid assembly 65 out of covering relation with the conduit intake when it is desired to repair or replace a water wheel iii. The invention is primarily concerned with di rectional and lateral control of a vessel independ 70 ently of longitudinal motion of the craft and of the propulsion means employed with the craft. Obviously, the craft may be equipped with any suitable form or arrangement of propulsion means to initiate, regulate, and control its longi 75 tudinal travel, and the operative principles of the combine to shift the craft laterally to the right. To augment the result just described, the water wheels l'6 on the left hand side of the hull may 20 be simultaneously operated to establish water ?ow from right to left through their respective conduits, and thus increase the suction and pres sure effects above described. Shifting of the craft to the left without change of its heading is ac complished by actuation of the water wheels H5 in directions opposite to those employed for the shift to the right. Change in the directional heading of the craft is had through selective ac tuation of the. wheels l6, either‘ singly or in com bination. Should it be desired to alter the craft heading to the right, the forward water wheel IE on the right hand side of the craft is oper ated to establish a water flow through its conduit from right to left of the craft, which ?ow is pro ductive of a suction effect adjacent the bow of the vessel and on the right hand side of the hull and a pressure effect also adjacent the bow of the vessel but on the left hand side of the hull, which effects combine to swing the bow of the craft to the right. A more rapid change of direc tion may be had through simultaneous operation of water wheels adjacent the bow and stern of the vessel and on opposite sides of the hull in a manner to produce simultaneous suction and pressure effects adjacent the bow and stern and on opposite sides of the hull, which effects are productive of a pivoting action on the vessel in the water. From the foregoing it should be ap parent that full lateral and directional control of the craft may be had through selective actua tion of the water wheels I 6, even when the vessel 25 30 40 45 has no longitudinal travel or steerage way. The invention has a further advantage in that it provides means operable to maintainv a degree of longitudinal motion of the craft when the normal propulsion means are for any reason inoperative. This function of the invention derives from the angular disposition of the conduits l5 relative to the longitudinal axis of the craft, and is made 60 effective for forward travel of the craft through simultaneous operation of the water wheels It on opposite sides of and adjacent the bow of the vessel, and for rearward travel of the craft through actuation of the water wheels on op 65 posite sides of and adjacent the stern of the craft. In either case, a flow of water is established through the conduits l5 which acts to move the craft longitudinally away from the pressure areas developed at the discharge ends of the conduits. 70 While the forward conduits [5 shown in the drawing are illustrated as spaced rearwardly somewhat from the peak of the vessel, it is to be understood that they. may be disposed with their intake ports opening closely adjacent the 75 3 2,114,112 prow of the craft and may be supplemented ‘by additional pairs of conduits related altitudinally and longitudinally of the craft in such number as may be expedient or desirable for a given instal lation, the same being true for the installation ad jacent the stern of the vessel. The invention is of particular advantage in that it provides means for steering and controlling a water craft at all times and irrespective of the longitudinal motion of the craft, thus permitting precise handling of a vessel in restricted waters and crowded harbors where maintenance of steerage way is impractical. Since many changes in the speci?c form, con dividually associated with each water wheel for the selective actuation thereof in either direc tion of rotation. 2. Lateral and directional control means for water craft comprising a plurality of conduits arranged in pairs transversely of a vessel adjacent the opposite ends thereof and each opening through opposite sides of the vessel hull below the water line thereof, the conduits constituting each pair being disposed in adjacent, superposed, hori 1O zontal relation to oppositely and diagonally traverse the vessel hull between intake ports centered in a common vertical plane transversely of said hull adjacent the corresponding end 15 struction, and arrangement of the elements shown thereof and outlet ports centered in a common and described may be had without departing from the spirit of my invention, and may in fact be necessary in adapting the principles of the in vention to given installations, I wish to be under stood as being limited solely by the scope of the appended claims, rather than by any details of the illustrative showing and foregoing description. vertical plane transversely of said hull and rela tively more remote from the corresponding hull end, enlarged portions on the intake ends of said conduits, the enlarged portion on the lower I claim as my invention 1. Lateral and directional control means for water craft comprising a plurality of conduits arranged in pairs transversely of a vessel ad jacent the opposite ends thereof and each extend conduit being ?ared upwardly and that on the 20 upper conduit being ?ared downwardly to center the intake ports of said portions on a common horizontal line transversely of said hull, a water wheel journaled for rotation in bearings car ried by said conduit intake portion and vessel and 25 disposed across the intake port of each conduit, and means associated with each water wheel for ing between and opening through opposite sides the selective actuation thereof in either direction of the vessel hull below the water line thereof, of rotation. 3. Lateral and directional control means for 30 the conduits in each pair being disposed with their axes in spaced, parallel horizontal planes and oppositely and diagonally traversing the vessel hull to cross on the longitudinal median line of said hull, enlarged intake chambers on and 35 smoothly merging with the ends of said conduits adjacent the corresponding end of said hull and communicating through said hull by means of intake ports of diameters greater than those of their associated conduits, the intake chamber of the lower conduit being flared upwardly and that of the upper conduit being ?ared downwardly to center the intake ports of each pair of con duits on a common horizontal line perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the vessel, a water a wheel operatively associated with the intake chamber of each conduit to initiate and main tain water flow through said conduit from one side of the hull to the other, and power means in water craft comprising transversely-aligned in take ports in the opposite walls and adjacent the ends of a vessel hull and below the water line thereof, relatively smaller outlet ports in the hull walls and spaced longitudinally from said intake 35 ports toward the midportion of the vessel, an in take chamber housing cooperating with each in take port, a straight conduit of uniform diameter operatively connecting each intake chamber with an outlet port on the opposite side of the vessel, 40 whereby said conduits are disposed in crossed, paired relation adjacent the ends of the vessel, a water wheel operatively associated with each intake chamber to initiate and maintain water flow through its associated conduit, and means 45 for selectively actuating said water wheels in either direction of rotation. LESTER. E. NORQUIST.