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Патент USA US2114212

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April 12, 1938.
F. A. CHRISTIANSEN
2,114,212
MOTORLESS TOY AIRPLANE
Filed July 16, 1937
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
2,114,212
Patented Apr. 12, 1938
UNITED STATES
PATENT . OFFICE
2,114,212
MOTORLESS TOY AIRPLANE
Frederick A. Christiansen, Los Angeles, Calif., as
signor of two-thirds to William H. Hammer,
Santa Monica, Calif.. and one-third to Lane
Rhodes, Santa Monica, Calif.
‘
Application July 16, 1937, Serial No. 154,109
20 Claims. (Cl. 272-31)
This invention relates to a toy airplane appa
ratus driven by manually operated means.
An object of the invention is to provide a manu
with a cap 3 through which extends a shaft 4.
ally operated toy airplane which is exceedingly
The sleeve 5, through which the shaft 4 extends,
5 simple in construction, and which requires a less
number of parts than toy airplanes of this gen
eral type that are adapted to ?y about a central
pylon and perform various stunts.
Another object of the invention is to regulate
10 by means of remote control manually operated
means, the movement of the plane whereby to
cause it to “wing over” or "barrel roll” by vary
ing the speed of ?ight.
Another object of the invention is to provide in
15 a toy airplane of the type described, a novel
mounting means for the plane so as to permit it
to freely pivot about its longitudinal central axis,
and to be quickly removed to allow replacement
of another type of plane.
20
A still further object of the invention is to
provide a toy airplane having wing surfaces
which, during certain speeds of ?ight, cause the
plane to “barrel roll” as it ?ies around va central
pylon.
25
Other objects and advantages will appear here
inafter throughout the speci?cation.
In the drawings_:—
Figure 1 is an elevation of a device embodying
my invention showing the planein ?ight;
30
lon. Said pylon is detachably mounted on a base
2. The upper portion of the pylon is provided
Figure 2 is a vertical section of the structure
shown in Figure 1, through substantially the cen
ter of the pylon;
_
Figure 3 is a horizontal section taken on the
forms a bearing for said shaft to prevent wob- 5
bling of said shaft. The lower portion of the
shaft 4 which may be termed the driven shaft, is
hollow and is provided with a slot 8, communi
cating with the hollow interior of the shaft. Lo
cated below the shaft 4 is a driving shaft ‘I, the 10.
upper portion 8 of which extends within the shaft
4. The driving shaft ‘I is provided with a pin 9
which projects into the slot so as'to provide a
driving connection between the shafts ‘I and 4, I
that will allow the shaft 4 to slide on the shaft ‘I 15
as it is rotated thereby. This is due to the fact
that the upper portion of the‘shaft ‘I extends
within the hollow lower'end‘ of the shaft 4, and
the pin 9 engages the sides of the slots 6 and ro
tates the shaft 4 as the shaft ‘I is rotated, by 20
means hereinafter described.
The base 2 is provided with a bearing l0 which
houses the lower end of the driving shaft 1.
Mounted on the shaft 'I is a beveled gear II,
which is splined or otherwise fixed to said shaft. 25
Also attached above the beveled gear is a worm
l2 which drives a worm wheel I3, to which is at
tached a crank I4. The end of the crank l4 has
pivotally attached thereto a rod l5 whose oppo
site end is pivotally attached to a yoke l8 which 30
surrounds a sleeve II that is adjustably fixed by
means of a screw I8 to the shaft 4. There is a
second bearing IS in the base 2 which houses
the shaft 20 having mounted thereon the pinion
2|, which is in meshed relation with the gear II, 35
Figure 4 is a horizontal section taken on the ' and which drives said gear. The middle portion
of the shaft ‘I is housed in a bearing 22 formed
lines 4--4 of Figure 3, looking in an upward di
at the upper end of the supporting arm 23 mount
rection;
lines 3—3 of Figure 2 looking in a downward di
35 rection;
Figure 5 is a plan view of the control means
40 showing its connection to the pylon;
Figure 6 is a bottom plan view of the tail sur
faces of the plane, and showing the rod upon
which the plane is mounted;
Figure 7 is a rear elevation of the airplane,
45 showing generally the parts illustrated in Fig
ure 6;
_
Figure 8 is a central vertical section of the
plane as shown on the lines 8—8 of Figure 6;
Figure 9 is a vertical section taken through the
50 right wing of the plane, as viewed in Figure 1;
Figure 10 is a vertical section taken through the
left wing of the plane, as viewed in Figure 1, and
Figure 11 is a fragmentary plan view of one of
the wing surfaces.
55
In the drawings, the numeral I indicates a py
ed on the base 2. Said arm 23 also is provided
with a bearing 24, Figure 3, which supports the 40
worm wheel I3 in such manner that it is always
in proper meshed relation with the worm I2. The
parts l2, I3, I4, I5 and I6 comprise an offset
drive means for causing the plane 44 and its sup
porting arm 40 to have up and down'movements. 45
Adjustably mounted upon the shaft 4 by means
of the screw 25, is a collar 26, and surrounding
the shaft 4 is an expansible coil spring 21 having
its lower end bearing against the collar 28 and
its upper end against an abutment 28 forming the 60
lower end of the bearing 5. Said spring tends to
force the shaft 4 downwardly, to thereby counter
balance the weight of the plane and its support.
Mounted on the cap 3 is a washer 29 having an
aperture through which the shaft 4 extends. 55
2
2,114,212
The numeral 30 indicates a decorative globe
shaped member having a disk-like base 3| and
vided with a disk 66 and a handle 61. The cen
tral portion of the disk 66 has a bearing sleeve
68 which extends within the aperture 59, of the
an aperture 32, through which the shaft 4 ex
tends. The upper end of the shaft 4 is provided
control device, and attached to the sleeve 63 is a
with a pivot 33. Pivotally attached at the pivot
flexible driving shaft ‘I0, which may be composed
33 is an arm 34 which is supported by a second of braided wire, and whose opposite end is driv
arm 35 having its upper end pivoted at 35 to said ' ingly connected to the shaft 20.
' There may be as many housing members 59 and
?rst named arm and attached by a pivot 31 to
the disk-like base 3|. The globe-shaped member
10 30 is provided with a slot 38, the arm 34 being
adapted to move up and down in said slot, ac
cording to the position of the airplane now about
to be described.
Detachably connected as by the cotter pin 39
15 is a rod 40 which extends within an aperture 4|
in the arm 34. Said rod 40 is provided with an
aperture, not shown, through which the cotter
pin 39 extends. The opposite end of the rod 40
has a curved portion 42 and a right-angled rod
20
portion 43, which extends within the plane 44.
Said airplane is provided with a propeller 45
which is freely pivoted at 46 so as to be driven
by the air as the plane is turned about the pylon
i. Said propeller is not otherwise driven. The
25 numeral 41 indicates ground-engaging wheels
mounted on struts 48. The plane 44 is detachably
mounted on the right-angled portion 43 of the
rod 40, as follows:
Said right-angled rod portion 43 is provided
30 with one or more collars 49 and the interior of the
body of the plane is provided with at least two
(only one being shown) bearings, similar to the
bearing 50, which are provided with apertures 5|
to allow the plane 44 to be mounted on the por
35 tion 43 or detached therefrom. It will be noted
that the plane may freely tilt about said portion
43 and is caused to automatically tilt by the
means hereafter to be described.
There is a
spring 52, the left portion of which (Figure 6) ,
V40 is attached by glue or other suitable means to the
interior of the plane and which is adapted to
bear against the collar 49, as shown in Figures 6,
7 and 8. By grasping the end 53 of the spring
and pulling downwardly, as viewed in Figure 8,
45 the spring may be released from the collar 49 so
as to allow the withdrawal of the plane from the
rod portion 43, and the insertion of another
plane of different type, in place thereof. There
may be a number of planes provided of different
types, such as bombers, commercial planes, obser
vation planes, etc.
The plane is provided with ailerons 54 and 55,
62 as need be necessary, according to the length
10
of the flexible driving shaft 10.
Operation
Rotation of the disk 65 by the handle 31 causes
the ?exible driving shaft to rotate pinion 2|,
which drives the beveled gear I l, thereby rotating 15
shaft ‘I. Rotation of the shaft 1 causes the rota
tion of the shaft 4 and movement of the parts,
including the globe 30, arm 34, rod 40, and plane
44 around a center de?ned by the axis of shafts
4 and ‘I. Rotation of said shaft 1 also causes 20
worm i2, and worm gear i 3, to be rotated, and
the up and down movement of the shaft 4 by
means of the crank l4, rod l5, and yoke l6. It
will be appreciated that the sleeve i1, being fixed
to driven shaft 4, rotates with said shaft, and 25
that the yoke l6 does not rotate, but its engage
ment with the sleeve l1 causes the shaft 4 to
move up and down as said yoke is so moved by
the crank l4, and rod i5. The upward movement
of the shaft I4 is resisted by the spring 21, but 80
said resistance is overcome by the movement of
the parts [4, l5 and IS.
The principal function of the spring 21 is to
counterbalance the weight of the plane, and its
supporting parts, and relieve the gears Ii and 35
2|, and I2 and I3, from the strain of supporting
these parts. As said shaft 4 is reciprocated in
.a vertical direction, the rod 40 and the plane 44
supported thereby, are caused to be raised and
lowered. These parts are preferably so adjusted 40
that the plane will rest on the ground when not
in use. It will take-off and begin to ascend as its
speed of rotation increases, about the pylon I,
when the handle 61 is turned. The plane will rise
to the position shown in Figure 2, when rotated 45
by the handle 61. The plane 44, after having
taken-off, will gradually rise and fall one or more
times for each revolution of the plane about the
central pylon. While this is taking place, the
surfaces 54 and 55 of the ailerons of the plane, 50
when suf?cient speed has been reached, will
cause the plane to “barrel roll", or rotate on its
the surfaces of which are illustrated in cross sec
central longitudinal axis. The plane, therefore,
tion in Figures 9 and 10 of the drawings. The
rear edges of the ailerons are preferably provided
with clips 56 to hold in adjustment the rear edges
of the wings which have been bent, as shown in
Figures 9 and 10. The shape of these ailerons,
as shown in these ?gures, causes the plane to
"barrel roll" as it ?ies around the pylon.
When the plane has attained proper speed by
the means hereinafter to be described, the differ
ently shaped surfaces of the ailerons will cause
the plane to rotate about its central axis and
has three distinct movements: ?rst, it moves in
a circle about the pylon I; second, it seeks eleva 55
tion and approaches the ground in regular se
65 cause the plane to "wing over” or “barrel roll".
The base 2 is provided with an aperture 51 into
which is adapted to fit a pin 58, attached to a
housing 59, the opposite end of which is provided
with a bridge or cross-over 30 for the plane to
70 travel over when running on the ground. The
runway 60 is also provided with a pin 5|, which
?ts within an aperture in another housing mem
ber 62, the opposite end of which is provided with
a pin 63 which fits within an aperture 64, of the
75 control device 65. Said control device is PTO
quence, and third, it rotates about its longitudinal
axis. These movements of the plane present an
interesting spectacle to a child, or other person
operating the plane.
60
It will be further noted that all of the parts are
simple and of sturdy construction, and that no
comparatively expensive mechanism is employed,
such as electric motors, and the driving parts
therefor. It is also to be noted that foot oper 65
ated means may be substituted for the hand op
erated means shown.
.
The foregoing description and drawings are
understood to be for illustrative purposes only,
and it is further understood that'the invention
is adaptable to various modi?cations. I desire to
be limited therefore in the practice of my inven
tion only to the extent as de?ned by the append
ed claims. For instance, I may substitute for
the driving connection between disk 66 and the
3
2,114,212‘
shaft 1, instead of the ?exible wire drive, any
other well known drive, such as a belt and pulley
?exible'drive shaft connected to said hand op
erating means, means connecting said ?exible
drive, or a rigid shaft drive, or a chain drive.
drive means'to a driving shaft, a driven shaft
having an aperture and a slot, one end of said
I claim:—-
-
1. A .toy airplane apparatus comprising a toy
plane and including means for supporting and
guiding the plane around a center, means for
causing said plane to travel around said center,
including driving and driven shafts, a slidable
10 driving connection between said shafts whereby
said driven shaft may be rotated by said driv
ing shaft and may slide in relation thereto, an
arm mounted on said driven shaft, said plane
being mounted on said arm, means driven by said
15 driving shaft and connected to said driven shaft
for causing said driven shaft to slide with relation
to said driving shaft and compel up and down
movements of said plane, and manual means
‘for causing said planeto move about said sup
20 porting and guiding means.
2. A toy airplane apparatus comprising a toy
plane and including means for supporting and
guiding the plane around a center, means for
driving said plane around said center comprising
25 a ?exible shaft, a driving and driven shaft, said
driving and driven shafts being connected by a
telescoping driving connection, means driven by
said drive shaft for causing said driven shaft
to slide with relation to said driving shaft and
30 compel said plane to have up and down move
ments while in ?ight, and said plane having
surfaces to cause the same to roll on its central
longitudinal axis when in ?ight.
3. A toy airplane apparatus comprising a toy
35 plane and including means for supporting and
guiding the plane around a center, means for
causing said plane to travel around said center,
including driving and driven shafts, a slidable
connection between said shafts whereby said
40 driven shaft may be rotated by said driving shaft,
and may slide thereon, an arm mounted on said
driven shaft, said plane being mounted on said
arm, manual means for causing said plane to
move about said supporting and guiding means,
45 and offset drive means connected to said driving
and driven shafts for causing said plane to be
raised and lowered as said plane moves around
said center during ?ight.
4. A toy airplane apparatus comprising a toy
50 plane and including means for supporting and
guiding the plane around a center, means for
driving said plane around said center compris
ing driving and driven shafts, hand operated
means for driving said shafts, and offset drive
55 means for causing said plane to be alternately
raised and lowered as it moves around said center
during ?ight.
5. A toy airplane apparatus comprising a toy
plane and including means for supporting and
60 guiding -the plane around a center, means for
driving said plane around said center compris
ing driving and driven shafts, hand operated
means for driving said shafts, means for caus
ing said plane to be raised and lowered as it
65 moves around said center during ?ight, said rais
ing and lowering means including a crank, means
for driving said crank from said driving shaft,
and a connection from said crank to said driven
shaft.
6. A toy airplane apparatus comprising a toy
70
plane and including means for supporting and
guiding the plane around a center, means for
moving said plane around said center including
a control located remote from said center, hand
75 operated means for operating said control, a
driving shaft being adapted to extend within said
aperture and having a pin extending within said
slot, whereby to permit said driven shaft to slide
relative to said driving ‘shaft, means connected
to said driving and driven shafts to cause said
driven shaft to move in a vertical direction as 10
said driving shaft is rotated, and means connect
ing said plane to said driven shaft whereby said
plane is raised and lowered as said shaft is moved
in a vertical direction vduring the ?ight of said
plane.
'
15
a 7. A toy airplane apparatus comprising a toy
plane and including means ‘for supporting and
guiding the plane around a center, means for
driving said plane around said center compris~
ing driving and driven shafts, hand operated 20
means for driving said shafts, said plane sup
porting means including‘means on said plane to
permit free rotation of said plane on its longitu
dinal axis, and additional means on said plane
to cause the same to rotate on said longitudinal 25
axisrwhen in ?ight.
8. A toy airplane apparatus-comprising a toy
plane and including means for supporting and
guiding the plane around a center, hand operated
means for driving said plane around said center, 30
said plane supporting means including supports
on said plane permitting free turning movements
of the same about its longitudinal axis, and ad
ditional means on said plane for causing the
same to rotate on its longitudinal axis while in 35
?ight.
9. A toy airplane apparatus comprising a toy
plane and including means for supporting and
guiding the plane around a center, means for
driving said plane around said center, said plane 40
supporting means including supports on said
plane permitting free turning movements of the
same about its longitudinal axis, and additional
means on said plane for causing the same to ro
tate on its longitudinal axis while in ?ight.
45
10. A toy airplane apparatus comprising a toy
plane and including means for supporting and
guiding the plane around a center, means for
driving said plane around said center, said plane
supporting means including supports on said 50
plane permitting free turning movements 01" the
same about its longitudinal axis, and additional
means on said plane for causing the same to ro
tate on its longitudinal axis while in ?ight, and
means for detachably mounting said plane on 55
said supporting means.
11. A toy airplane apparatus comprising a toy
plane and including means for supporting and
guiding the plane around a center, means for
driving said plane around said center, said plane
supporting means including supports on said
plane permitting free turning movements of the
same about its longitudinal axis, additional
means on said plane for causing the same to ro
tate on its longitudinal axis while in ?ight, said 65
additional means on said plane comprising op
positely curved aileron surfaces.
12. A toy airplane apparatus comprising a toy
plane and including means for supporting and
guiding the plane around a center, means for 70
driving said plane around said center, said plane
supporting means including supports on said
plane permitting free turning movements of the
same about its longitudinal axis, additional
means on said plane for causing the same to ro 75
2,114,212
I
tate on its longitudinal axis while in ?ight, said
last named means including means to cause said
additional means on said plane comprising op
positely curved aileron surfaces, and clips at
tached to said oppositely curved surfaces.
from a supporting surface
around said center.
13. A toy airplane apparatus comprising a toy
plane and including means for supporting and
guiding the plane, around a center, means for
driving said plane around said center, said plane
supporting means including a rod having a right
10 angled portion extending longitudinally of said
plane, and a bearing member adjacent the rear
of said plane into which said extension pro
trudes when said plane is mounted thereon.
plane to have undulatory movements toward and
as the same ?ies
1'7. A toy airplane apparatus comprising a toy
plane and including means for supporting and
guiding the plane around a center, hand operated
means for driving said plane around said center,
said plane supporting means including supports
on said plane permitting free turning movements 10
of the same about its longitudinal axis, and ad
ditional means on said plane for causing the same
to rotate on its longitudinal axis while in flight,
supporting means including a rod having a right
said additional means comprising ailerons with
oppositely curved surfaces in transverse cross 15
section to provide upwardly and downwardly ex
tending trailing edges, and clips attached to said
trailing edges to retain the same in the proper
angled portion extending longitudinally of said
position of curvature.
14. A toy airplane apparatus comprising a toy
15 plane and including means for supporting and
guiding the plane around a center, means for
driving said plane around said center, said plane
20 plane, and a bearing member adjacent the rear
of said plane into which ‘said extension protrudes
when said plane is mounted thereon, a collar on
said extension, and a spring mounted on said
plane, said spring being adapted normally to
25 cause said collar to remain in juxtaposed posi
tion'to said bearing member, but when released
permits said collar and bearing to be moved with
relation to each other, whereby to permit re
moval of said plane from said supporting means.
15. A toy airplane apparatus comprising a toy
plane and including means for‘ supporting and
guiding said plane around a center, said plane
having oppositely inclined wing surfaces, and said
supporting means including a pivotal longitudi
35 nal support for said plane whereby said plane
wing surfaces will cause said plane to rotate on
its longitudinal axis when in ?ight, and manual—
ly operated means for causing said plane to ?y
around said center, said last named means in
40 cluding means to cause said plane to have un
dulatory movements toward and from a support
ing surface as the same ?ies around said center.
16. A toy airplane apparatus comprising a toy
plane and including means for supporting and
45 guiding said plane around a center, said plane
‘
18. A toy airplane apparatus comprising a toy 20
plane ‘and including means for supporting and
guiding the plane around a center, means for
driving said plane around said center, said plane
supporting means including a rod having a right
angled portion extending longitudinally of said 25
plane, and entering the rear thereof, and ya bear
ing member in said plane through which said
extension protrudes when said plane is mounted
thereon to thereby support said plane on said
extension.
7
30
19. A toy airplane apparatus comprising a toy
plane and including means for supporting and
guiding the plane around a center, means for
driving said plane around said center compris
ing driving and driven shafts, hand operated 35
means for driving said shafts, offset drive means
for causing said plane to be raised and lowered
as it moves around said center during flight, and
means for relieving said o?set drive means from
strain.
I
40
20. A toy airplane apparatus comprising a toy
plane and including means for supporting and
guiding the plane around a center, means for
driving said plane around said center comprising '
driving and driven shafts, hand operated means 45
having oppositely inclined wing surfaces, and said , for driving said shafts, offset drive means for
causing said plane to be raised and lowered as it
supporting'means including a pivotal longitudi
nal support for said plane whereby said plane moves around said center during flight, and spring
wing surfaces will cause said plane to rotate on its means for relieving said offset drive means from
strain.
50 longitudinal axis when in flight, and means for
FREDERICK- A. CHRISTIANSEN.
causing said plane to fly around said center, said
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