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Патент USA US2114284

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April 19, 1938”
J. 5. BARNES ET AL
2,114,284
MACHINE TOOL AND CONTROL THEREFOR
Original Filed Aug. 28, 1933
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J. 5. BARNES ET AL
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MACHINE TOOL AND CONi‘ROU THEREFOR
Original Filed Aug. 28, 1933 '8 Sheets-Sheet 2
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MACHINE TOOL AND CONTROL THEREFOR
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J. 5. BARNES ET AL
MACHINE T001: AND CONTROL THEREFOR
Original Filed Aug. 28, 1933
2,114,284
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_' April 19, 1938.
J, '5, BARNES ET AL
2,114,284
MACHINE TOOL AND OONTROL THEREFOR
Original Filed Aug. 28, 1933
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J.‘ 5. BARNES‘ET AL
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2,114,284
momma TOOL AND CONTROL THEREFOR
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J. 5. BARN-ES ET AL
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MACHINE TQOL AND CONTROL THEREFOR
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April '19, 1933- .
J. s. BARNES ET AL
2,114,284
MACHINE TOOL AND CONTROL THEREFOR
Original Filed Aug. 28, 1933
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‘2,114,284
. Patented Apr. 19, 1938
UNITED STATES
_
PATENT OFFICE
2,114,284
_
mom jroor. AND CONTROL 'rmmnron.
and Ernest J.
John S. Barnes, Paul R. ‘Guild,
Barnes, execu
Svenson, Rockford, 111.; Hope
deceased, , assignor
trix of ‘said John S. Barnes,
to W. F. 85 John Barnes Company, Rockford,
111., a corporation of Illinois
_
Application August 28, loss, Serial'No. 687,060
Renewed December 28, 1936
/ . '
16 Claims. ‘- (01. 71-23) '
This invention relates generally to machine
that ma- '
this connection it will be understood
_
tools and controls therefor, and more particu
chines of the type contemplated by this inven
tion have a practical application in instances
, larly to machine tools whereby a series of cut
where a group of machines are simultaneously
ting operations may be performed upon a work
5 piece, and also relates to improved control mech
anism for such machine tools.
One of the important objects of this invention
is to provide a machine tool having certain uni
tary structural features of design and control,
employed to perform various operations upon a
work piece, and which are frequently used in ._
combination with mechanical work conveyors,
which are timed in accordance vvith the syn-'
chronized functioning of the machines. Accord
10 which enable a single machine to be used for ma- ‘
chining work pieces, which vary in shape and
design over a relatively wide range.
In other
ingly the invention proposes the use of an inde
10
pendent hydraulic control for each work unit
to thereby enable ?exibility in the timing of said
'
words, the invention .contemplates the provision
of a machine tool which is particularly adapted
15 for “standardized” production. That
to say,
the invention relates to machines made up of a
units, so that any variation in cycle .of operation
can be‘ obtained for each unit. Conventional
controls with which we are familiar, do not per
15
mit ofthe above mentioned independent‘con
trol, and hence are not readily adaptable for
plurality of units, each unit including relatively ‘performing varied machining operations as con
shiftable work and tool holders. These units templated by the present invention.
may be detached and replaced by other similar
More speci?cally, the invention‘ contemplates a
units without the necessity of completely re ‘ single control for each working unit in combi 20
20 building the machine, and, in fact, without in
nation with a control for initiating the simulta
curring any ‘appreciable additional expense. neous functioning of all the units, and the accu
Thus, the invention contemplates a machine and racy with which said control is accomplished is
controls therefor, which include as main struc
made possible by an improved hydraulic system 25
25, tural sections thereof, standardized parts, name
of
control.
-
‘
_
~
.
ly. parts which need not be rebuilt or modi?ed
Another object of the invention is to provide a
in order to render the machine adaptable for' machine tool wherein a plurality of working units
of the above mentioned type may be grouped
performing a wide range of machining opera
around a center support such as a vertical, hori 30
30 More speci?cally, the invention contemplates zontal, or angular-1y disposed column.
the provision of a machine which is made up of
A further object of the invention is to provide
a'plurality of working units, each unit includ
in a structure of the above mentioned type an
ing a reciprocable rotary spindle ‘and means for improved system of hydraulic control whereby a
tions.
.
'
imparting reciprocation thereto at various speeds.
35 These units are arranged upon a suitable support
succession of machining operations may be per 35
_,in accordance with the number of operations
formed with the utmost accuracy and with a
minimum amoimt of effort and skill on the part
which are to be performed upon a work piece, and
of the operator, and ‘to this end the invention
each unit ‘is capable of independent control, as
well as ‘control which enables the synchronized
contemplates a novel hydraulic. transmission
equipped with a control arrangement which will 40
' 4Q functioning of all the uni
.
It is an object of the invention in providing
above mentioned working units not only to utilize
the same working structure for a wide variety of
machines, but also to enable the continued opera '
‘i5 ation of the machine, even though one of the
units should experience a breakdown. In other
permit independent cycles of operation of each
work unit and synchronous functioning of all
the units without employing any positive driving
connection such as lead screws, worm drives, and
‘the like. ‘
45
.- Still another object of the invention‘is to pro
vide a novel and practical hydro-electric control
words, the invention contemplates an arrange- I for a machine tool,_which is arranged to inter
ment of working units which enablesthe ma
chine equipped therewith to continue to func
50 tion, even though one or more of the units may
be temporarily rendered functionally ‘inoperative.
Another object of the invention is to so ar
range the above mentioned working units that
the timing thereof maybe conveniently accom
55"plished in a novel and expeditious manner. In
lock the movement of the working unit heads
with the movement of an index table, whereby 60
to prevent any breakage of tools and the like
during the operation of the machine.
A still further object of the invention is to
provide a machine tool of the type mentioned
above, wherein each working unit includes a
2
2,114,284
spindle head capable of multi-speed feed, and
each head is equipped with a propelling mecha
nism such as a variable displacement pump which
controls‘ the feed and rapid traverse movements
of the cutting tools; and
'
_
Figures 13, 14, 15, and 16, respectively, show
functions to independently control-the variable
feed of the head in accordance with the require , the successive operations performed upon a work
piece during a complete cycle of operation of the
ments of the work to be performed by the tools machine.
_
in the head.
'
Referring now to the drawings wherein like
numerals have been employed to designate sim
ilar parts throughout the various ?gures, it will
Another object of the invention is to provide
in combination with an actuator for propelling
10 machine tools of the above mentioned ‘type a
closed circuit arrangement whereby uniform
travel of the tool per each revolution thereof is
obtained irrespective of variation in speeds ex
be observed that one embodiment of the present
invention includes a center column machine hav 10
ing a base 20, Figure 2, which serves as a support
for a centrally loca
perienced by the prime mover which drives said
tools.
Still another object is to eliminate the use in
machines of the above mentioned type, of con
work carrying table II which is adapted? -
ventional clutch mechanisms and similar trans- '
missions, and to this end it is proposed to inter--'
mittently connect a feed pump. within a closed
circuit in such a manner as to positively govern
the speed of travel irrespective of the direction
of the load experienced by the part which is by
draulically shifted.
v,
The foregoing and numerous other objects and
advantages will be more apparent from the fol
lowing detailed description when considered in
connection with I the accompanying drawings
wherein-
30
-
'
,
-
Figure 1 is a plan view of a machine of the cen
, upright column member
22, which, in turn, carries an upper column sec
The base 2' also rotatably supports a 15
shiftable
'
to be indexed by mechanisms denoted generally
by the numerals 28 and ‘properly located by a
mechanism 30, later to be described.
Associated with the upper column section 2! 20
are four tool spindle actuating units designated
generally by the numbers 32, 34, 36, and 38, Fig
ure 1. The units 32 and 38 are separated su?i
cientlyto provide a loading station, thereby en
abling a work piece 40 to be initially clamped
within a holder 42 before said holder and work
piece are indexed into position beneath the unit
32, Figure 2. ‘Upon the completion of one re
ciprocation of the tool spindle ll of the unit 32,
ter column type embodying features of the pres, ' the mechanism 28 operates to automatically shift 30
the table 26 so as to carry the workpiece "into
position beneath the unit ll. These cycles of
Figure 2 is a vertical sectional view of the ma
chine taken substantially along the line 2-2 of reciprocation are repeated until the cutting tools
Figure l;
'
of all four units have performed their intended
Figure 3 is a horizontal sectional view of the operations upon the work piece, and when said .35
‘or
machine taken substantially along the line- 3-3 work piece is again indexed to the
_ of Figure 2; '
loading station, a new work piece is inserted
Figure 3a is a perspective view of the clamping the holder. It will thus be apparent that after
40
each cycle of reciprocation of the tools. a com
or work holding device, said view'belng shown _ pleted
work piece is indexed to the loading posi
more clearly illustrate the structural charac
tion and another work piece is inserted in its
teristics thereof;
‘
Figure 4 is'an enlarged detailed elevational view place. While in the drawings a machine
equipped with six stations is disclosed, it will be
of
the valve-control mechanism shown in asso
45 ciation
with -the hydraulic actuator and feed 1 apparent that the number'of stations may be
pump companion thereto, said viewbeing taken greater or less, depending entirely upon the na
ture of the work to be performed, In vother
substantially along the line 4-4 of Figure-1;
Figure 5 is a fragmentary elevational view of words, the device disclosed in this application
the valve control mechanism taken substantially merely illustrates one practical adaptation of the
ent invention;
50 along the line 5-5 of Figure 4; v
invention.
'
Spindle driving unit
unit as shown along the line 6-8 of Figure 2,
All of the units 32, 34, II, and SI are identical
which unit includes a hydraulic actuator, spindle in construction and hence a detailed description
Figure 6 is a detailed plan view of a spindle
pump transmission and prime move
56' transmission,
er or electric motor;
,
of one unit will sumce for all. Each working or
driving unit includes a prime mover or electric
Figure 7 is an enlarged vertical sectional view
motor 48, which is mounted upon a frame 48 at
the upper end of the column section 24. A frame
of the tool spindle transmission, said view being
taken substantially along the line 1-1 of Fig
60
‘or housing 50 carried by the frame It supports
ure 6;
Figure 8 is an enlarged vertical sectional view
a transmission made up of a plurality
one group or train of gears shown in
of the pump driving transmission, taken substan
serving to impart rotation to a spindle
said train including a gear 54 driven from a main
tially along the line 8-8 of Figure 6;
g -
Figure 9 is an enlarged fragmentary front ele
vational view of the table locating and locking
mechanism and the work clamping device;
,
of gears,
‘
driving pinion 5| driven directly from the motor
shaft 58. The gear SI drives through gears ‘I,
. The gear 81 is
Figure 10 is an enlarged fragmentary view of \ secured to a splined sleeve 68 which
slidably re
the control mechanism of the air valve which gov
ceives the spindle shaft 5!. Roller bearings ‘ll
erns the functioning of the table, locating or provide a support'for the sleeve as clearly shown
locking mechanism, said view being taken along
the line |0-l0 of Figure 9;
>
Figure 11 discloses a diagram of the electrical
circuits which automatically control the timed
housing 50, and the spindle shaft extends down 70
, functioning of the spindle units and work sup- _ wardly to receive a spindle head 14, Figure 2.
As clearly shown in Figure 2, the spindle head
porting table; ,
75
Figure 12\disclosesl the hydraulic circuit which
includes a head frame or housing 1‘ which is ~
vertically reciprocable within guides ‘ll, Figure 3, 75
3
2,114,284
a said guides being secured as a unit to the upper
column section 24. The lower extremity of the
spindle shaft 52 extends within the head frame
18 and carries a pinion 88, which meshes with a
gear 82 mounted'upon the upper end of a drive
shaft 84. The lower end of the shaft 84 carries
a gear 88, which meshes with four tool spindle
the gears 88 connects
with and drives a companion tool spindle 44.
Thus each spindle head is provided with at least
four tool driving spindles. The gears 88 and 82
. driving gears 88. Each of
ing pin I52. Thus movement-of the actuator
piston to the right (Figs. 9 and 11) will cause a
downward disengaging movement of the pin- I52
and movement to the left will cause said pin to
move upwardly into registration with a comple
mentary opening I54 in-- a bushing I58 carried
by the table 28. The movement of the table in
response to the index mechanism 28 and the
movement of the locating mechanism are so cor-_
related that as the indexing movement ap-v 10
preaches completion, the rounded upper end of
are pickoif gears to enable variable spindle speeds.
the pin I52 moves into engagement with the in
The hydraulic actuator 12 includes a cylinder
88, a piston 82 therein, which. through the agency
of a piston rod 84 and .a bracket 88, is coupled
with the head frame 18, Figure 2. It will thus
ner periphery of the bushing I58.
be apparent from the foregoing description that
reciprocation of the head 14 and‘ consequently the
tools supported thereby is effected by the hy
draulic actuator 12, and rotation of the tools is
caused by the gear trains and spindle shaft driven
from the motor 48.
1 A second gear train driven from the pinion 58
within the housing 58 serves to drive a feed pump
88 and a rapid traverse pump I88 (see Figure 8).
The gear train includes the gear 54 which is
driven directly from the pinion 88, and gears I82,
I84 and I88. The gear ‘I84 througha shaft I88
drives one of the ‘gears of the rapid traverse or
gear pump I88, while the gear I88 meshes with
-
The functioning of the actuator I38 may be
automatically controlled through the agency of 15
a control valve I 58, Figures 9, 18, and 11. Con
veniently‘located cores I88 and I82 may be manu
ally manipulated by the operator, and these cores
'
form an operative element in solenoids I84 and
I88, respectively, connected within a circuit about
to be described. , The valve I58 is connected with
opposite ends of the actuator cylinder I48 by con
duits or pipe lines I88 and I18, and conduits I12
and I14 serve as intake'and return connections
for a suitable ?uid pump I15 (see Figure 8). Any
suitable source of ?uid supply such as a ?uid
pump (not shown) may be employed. This pump‘,
may be driven independently of or in synchroq
vnism with the machine.
_ A member or arm I18 mounted on the shaft
I48 serves to control switches I18 and I88, later
a gear I I8, forming a part of the feed pump struc:
?nger I82 is adapted, when
to
described. A
ture. It will also be noted that the-shafts in the theberack
bar I44 shifts to the_right. (Figure 11)
housing 58, which support the gears- just de
in suitable anti-friction
to close a switch ‘I84. _A timing switch I88 is 85
operated ‘through a gear. train connected with the
_ scribed, are all mounted
bearings.
.
motor II8, as shown in Figures 3 and 11. The
motor, upon the completion of an indexing move
ment of the table, is electrically disconnected by
a viscosity switch mechanism I88, later to be 40
'
' To counterbalance the weight of the spindle
head 14 and associated parts, a suitable counter
weight II2 (Figure 2) ,is connected to the upper
end of the head frame 18 through a ?exible ele
ment or chain II4. The-chain II4 passes over
described.
ture of the machine.
As previously mentioned, the work supporting
motor II8-in accordance with
-
'
Before taking up in detail the manner in which
the locating and indexing mechanisms are auto-v
matically controlled, reference at this point is 45
made to the hydraulic system of controlshown in“
.
Work table indexing and locating mechanisms
table 28 is adapted to be automatically indexed
upon the completion of each reciprocation ‘of the
spindle heads 14 and this is accomplished by
means of the indexing mechanism 28, Flgs.'2, 3,
50 and 11. This mechanism 28 includes a prime
mover or reversible electric motor II8 which is
coupled to a bevel gear I28‘through a gear train
I22, I24, I28 and I28 (Fig. 3). The bevel gear
I28 drives through a companion bevel gear I38, a
shaft I32 and a gear ‘I84 (Fig. 2) which meshes
with an internal gear I38 mounted on the tah‘e
28. By timingly controlling the functioning of the
»
Hydraulic system of control
pulleys I I8 supported by the center column struc:
~li‘igures 4, 5, and 12. ' Each spindle driving unit
'- 82, 34, 88, and 38v includes a‘control valve mech
anism I88. The valve mechanism comprises a
casing or housing I82 and a main- valve member‘.
the position of the _
spindle heads, the table is indexed subsequent to
80 each reciprocation of the tools. The timed func
tioning of the motor will be more apparent from
the description of the circuit diagram of Fig. 11
I84 (Figure 12) vertically shiftable within said
casing pivotally connected at its upper extremity
with an arm I88, which rotates with a horizontal
shaft I88. .This shaft I88 carries a‘handle 288
at one extremity to permit of manual manipula
*tion and a pair of ?ngers 282 and 284 for auto
matic control, said ?ngers being adapted to be en
gaged by dogs 288 and 288, respectively, adjust
.able mounted upon a vertically shiftable rod 2 l8.
The rod 2I8 is secured at its lower end to the 00
head frame 18, and hence moves as a unit with
said frame. Assume that the rod 2I8 occupies
its/Jraised position, or, in other words, assume"
'
~
that the spindle is in position to begin a down
In timed relation with the operation of the ward movement toward the work piece 48 on the 85
65 indexing mechanism 28, the mechanism 38 func
‘table as. Assume ‘further that the motor 48 is
tions to positively locate the table. as the table voperating,
thereby causing the actuation of the . approaches the limit of each indexing movement. feed pump ,88 and the rapid traverse pump I88]
Referring to Figs. 2, 9 and 11, it will be seen that through gear trains previously described. with‘
the locating mechanism includes a fluid operated the valve'member I84 positioned as shown in Fig
70 actuator I38 comprising a cylinder I48 (Fig. 9), ure 12, ?uid from a reservoir 2 I2 passes through a
which is to follow.
a piston I42 and a piston rod or rack bar I44.
The bar I44 meshes with a gear I48 mounted on
a. shaft I48 (Fig. 11), and the shaft I48 carries
conduit 2“ into the gear, pump I88. A conduit
or pipe line 2 I8 directs ?uidinto an annular pas
sage 2I'8, which now communicates with an. end
a pinion I58 which meshes with companion‘rack' . chamber 228 through radial ports 222 and a lon 75
a vertically shiftable locating or lock
75 teeth in
4
8,116,684
gitudinal passage 226. The chamber 226 re
tion, and makes ?uid from the rapid traverse
turns ?uid to the reservoir 2I2 through a con
pump I66 enter the lower end of the actuator
duit 226 and a restricted ori?ce 226. Thus ?uid ~ cylinder
66.
When the tools have been shifted
from the rapid traverse gear pump circulates
toztheir
starting
position, the machine may be
5 back to the reservoir under a pressure estab
manually stopped or a second cycle of reciproca- 5
lished by the restricted ori?ce 226 without im
7 tion automatically initiated in a manner aboutto ‘
parting movement to the actuator piston 62.
bepdescrlbed.
. The- feed pump, under the above mentioned
circumstances, circulates from the discharge side
Slow feed control
10 thereof through a conduit 266, conduit 262, an
nular valve port 266, passage 266, and passage
It is very desirable in instances where the 10
266 of a valve member 266, and thence through ' tools must besubjected to heavy duty-during
a return conduit 262 to the intake side of said. avportion of their cutting stroke, to cut ‘down
the rate of feed during that period 'of the stroke.
pump,.
15 . Assume now that the handle or lever 266 is _ To accomplish this, the present invention con
templates the use of a device which serves to.“
shifted downwardly either manually or in re
sponse to the upward movement of a plunger 266 vary the displacement of the feed or plunger
of asolenoid 266, which plunger is adapted to pump 66. This pump includes a cylinder block
engage an inwardly extending arm 266 formed in— 266, which supports a plurality of reciprocable
2a te'gral with the handle 266. This causes the valve plungers 266 (Figure 8). These plungers are
member I66 to be shifted upwardly to its rapid driven by means of a rotary ‘eccentric driving 20
approach position. In this position ?uid from the ring 266. The ring 266 is supported at the lower
pump I66 is directed by the valve member I66 end of a driving member 262 which rotates with)’
from the annular port 2I6 to the annular port 266 a driving sleeve 266 mounted’ within anti-trio;
26 and into the upper end of the actuator cylinder tion bearings’ 266. To vary the eccentricity ‘of
66 through the conduit 262 and the conduit 266. the driving ring 266, it is only‘ necessary to lat- 25
which communicates with a passage 252. Fluid erally shift the member 262 within the sleeve
"from the advancing side of the piston 62 passes 266. This is accomplished through the agency
through a passage. 266, conduit 266, and valve of a member 266 which is longitudinally adjust
able within the sleeve2ii6.v The lower end of the
30' port 266, which now communicates with a cham
' ber 266. The chamber 266, through a longitudi
nal passage 262, communicates with the dis
charge chamber 226, previously described.
At this point it should be understood that when
35v the valve member I66 initially moves toward its
rapid approach position, the valve member 266
. is automatically shifted downwardly in response
‘to the sudden increase in pressure occasioned
within the side area 266 as restriction in com-v
40 - munication takes place between the annular pas
sage or port 216 varidthe radial ports 222. This
increase in pressure is‘transmitted through pas
sages 266 and 266 within the valve casing _I62,
which communicate with the upper end of the
45- valve member‘266'. _B_y shifting the valve 266 to
its lower position, the feed ; pump is conditioned
for delivering ?uid to the upper end of the actu
ator-12 when the rapid traverse pump I66 is cut
.
011'.
~
,
>
,
-
member 266 has an inclined projection 366, which '30
extends within a complementary inclined recess
in the member 262. Thus, when the member 268
is moved upwardly, the eccentricity of the driv
ing ring-266 is varied so as to decrease the stroke
of the plungers, and hence decreases the rate 35
of ?uid displacement. This causes the actuator
piston 62 to experience a slower rate of feed.
. A coiled spring 262 constantly urges the mem
ber 266 upwardly by acting against the under
side of a sleeve 666, which carries an anti-friction 4b
thrust bearing 666. A projection or follower
member 666 is constantly urged against the sur
face of a cam member 6". This cam member
. Is provided with a recess 2I6a, which, when it
registers with the follower member 666, enables, 45
the coiled spring 662 toshift the control member
266 upwardly so as to decrease the feed of the
pump 66.
_
--
4
-
5o» - As-the head frame 16 moves downwardly. the
dog 266 ‘at a preselected interval engages the
?nger 266, thereby ' automatically shifting the
valve member to the neutral position shown in
Figure 12. Fluid at high pressure from the feed
55 pump 66 enters the upper end of the actuator 12,
and ?uid from the advancing end of the actuator
A timed rotation of the cam 6| 6 takes place in ‘
response to the movement of a rack bar or rod w
6I2, the lower end of whichv is connected with
the head frame 16, Figure 4. The upper end of
the bar 6l2 is provided with rack teeth which
mesh with. a gear 6“ on a shaft 6I6. This shaft
also supports the cam 6l6. Thus, the rotation 55
returns through the annular valve port 266, which ‘of the cam is so timed that as ‘the tools begin
now communicates with the return conduit their cut in a heavy section .of the work piece
through ‘a passage 216 and the valve passage 266. 66, the recess 6I6a will register with the follower
As vthe tools on the spindles 66 complete their member-666. Obviously the cam may be designed
60
cutting stroke, a dog 212 ‘on the rod 2I6 engages to suit any particular type of work piece.
. Statement of operation
a valve member 216 and shifts said valve down
wardly against the action of a coiled spring 216.
Thus far the description has been directed to
In its lowered position the valve establishes un
the individual mechanisms, which cause the spin
65' restricted communication between an end cham
dle units and work table to function. The com- 85
ber 216 of the valve I66 and the reservoir 2I2 plete
hydro~electric, automatic control of the
through the following passages 216, 266, 262, and machine
may best be understood by describing
1 266, after the valve member 216 has been shifted a complete
cycle of operation. A work piece 66
sufficiently to close communication between
~70" chambers 266 and 216' through a passage 266. is ?rst clamped within a. holder 62 at station
No. 1 (Figure 3). By turning a hand lever 62a, 70
-. The normal balancing pressure of the ?uid with
a clamping jaw. 62c (Figure 2). is tightened
in the chamber 226 causes the valve member I66 . against
the work piece. Bushings provided in
to suddenly shift downwardly to its rapid re
verse position. This causes the valve member - the holder serve as guides for the complementary
spindles 66.
75 266 to shift upwardly toits ?uid circulating posi
60~
Byldepressing a start button 6| 6, Figure 1l,'a 75
5
2,114,284
Figure 14). At station No. 4 a semi-?nish bore.
master switch 323 is closed, and hence power is - of the small hole, a ?nish of the counterbore and
available in all circuits whereby magnetic switch a semi-finish bore of the large hole take place.
323 is closed, provided all of the'spindle heads At station No. 5 a ?nish ream of the small hole
are in starting position. This causes current and ?nish ream of the large hole occurs. From
to pass through switch I13 and switches 323 and station No. 5 the completed work piece is indexed
333. By depressing each start button 322, the to station No. 1. At station No. 1 the completed
spindle driving motors are started through suit
able switches 333. The switch 323 is operated by
work piece is replaced by another piece to be
machined. From the foregoing it will be appar
means of a dog 323a as shown in Figure 3. The
ent that during the cycle of reciprocation of the
solenoid I33 being thus energized, ‘operates the heads 13, the machining of one work piece is com,L
10 valve I53, admitting ?uid under pressure from ' pleted and another put in its place to be subse
the pump I15 into they left end of the actuator quently machined. This series of operations con
I33 ‘(Figure 1-1).
This causes the downward
withdrawal of the locking pin' I52, the opening
of the switch I13, and closing of the switch I33.
tinues until the stop buttons 3I3 or 3I9 are de
pressed or the snap switch 333 is opened. It will
15 Closing the limit switch I33 starts the motor H3
in a forward direction, so as to cause movement
also be noted that each motor 33 is provided
with an independent magnetic switch 333 con
of the table in a clockwise direction, as viewed
trolled by push-button switches 322 and 333. The
latter switch serves to simultaneously stop all of
from
above.
The viscosity switch I33 maintains the motor
20 II3 electrically connected within the circuit as
the motors 33. The switch 3I3 is preferably an
emergency foot-operated device. A relief valve
332 may be employed in the conduit 333, which
long as the motor rotates in a direction which
causes the table 23 to be indexed. However, when
the motor rotates in an opposite direction, the
switch I33 opens to disconnect said motor. It
will be. noted that due to the action of the rack
.
connects with the conduit 2I3 (Figure 12) .
Summary
From the foregoing description it will be ap
parent that the present invention contemplates
I33 and lever I13, operation of the switch I33
the provision of a machine tool of rigid and du
causes relay 323 to reverse the motor II3 through
the reversing switch 323. However, as soon as
rable construction having relatively few parts.
the motor experiences reverse rotation, the switch
30 I33 opens. The table rotates until the timing
switch I33 closes a switch 333. which controls the
The invention also contemplates systems of con
trol previously described, of hydraulic and elec
tical types which enable a series of different oper
ations to be performed upon a work piece until
completed- in a very e?lcient and effective manner.
causing the valve I53 to direct ?uid to the right
From the foregoing description it will be ap 35
end of the actuator I33. This causes the looking parent that the invention contemplates the pro
or locating pin I52 to move upwar . The plug-' vision of a machine tool, in which a plurality of
ging action of the switch I33 then takes place working units, such as the units 32, 33, 33, and 33,
so as to stop the motor H3. The rounded end are readily attachable to any convenient mount
surface of the pin engages the inner periphery _ ing. In the present disclosure we have shown 40
of the bushing I53, and causes the table to ex
these units mounted upon a vertical column, but
perience, as a result of this engagement, a slight it will be obvious that said units may be associated
‘?nal movement after the motor II3 has been in any desired number with a support or mount
arrested. This slight movement is su?icient to ing disposed in any plane. Thus, the invention
cause a switch element I330 to rotate a distance contemplates a machine which is readily adapt
which positions an arm I331), as shown in Figure able for a wide range of work without requiring
45 11, thereby conditioning the switch mechanism complete rebuilding of the machine, and this is
I33 for starting the indexing motor II3 during of very practical signi?cance in the machine tool
valve I53, by energizing the solenoid I33, and
the subsequent cycle of reciprocatio L The
movement of the rack bar I33 to the right (Fig-v
ure 11) also causes the ?nger I32 to close the
50 - switch I33, thus closing a magnetic switch 332,
which causes the solenoids 233 to be energized.
This causes the plungers 233 to engage thelever
-
,arm 233 and thereby automatically shift the
valve I33 to its rapid approach position to repeat
55 another cycle of reciprocation. It will, of course,
be remembered that during each forward move
ment of the spindle heads 13, the rapid traverse,
feed and slow feed'thereof is controlled by the
mechanisms previously described.
Attention is directed to the fact that a circuit
breaker 333 is provided, which is held open so
when it is necessary to
rebuild a machine to suit a particular type of
. are relatively expensive
work.
By having each of the above mentioned work
units independently controlled to perform any
particular cycle of operation in combination with
‘a control which governs all‘bf the working units,
makes for simplicity in construction and cm
ciency in operation. This arrangement of the
working units reduces the hazards and delay
caused by breakage, etc. Any of the working
units described herein, because of their independ
ent functioning, may be rendered functionally ine
operative without affecting the operative func
art, where machines of the type shown
herein
as to prevent a repetition of the indexing cycle ’ tioning of the other uni . Furthermore, each
' until the spindle heads have returned to the start
working unit maybe replaced or repaired with 65
ing position. When the spindle heads return to a minimum loss of time, thereby enabling the
their starting or stopping position, the switch continuous operation of the machine, as distin
323 is closed through limit switches I13 and 323,
and the indexing operation previously described
is repeated.-
'
Y
‘
During the ?rst cutting operation at station
70 No. 2, a rough bore of the small hole half way
through takes place (see Figure 13) . At station
No. 3 a rough bore of the remainder of the small
hole and a roughing of the counterbore occur,
as well as the rough bore of the large hole (see
13
guished from other conventional types with which
we are familiar, wherein the breakdown of one
of the tool driving mechanisms requires an ex
tended period of time and a complete rebuiiding
operation to place the machine in condition for
continued functioning.
The closed feeding circuit with the slow feed
control also presents a very practical and e§d~
2,114,284
ciently operable arrangement, particularly as it
relates to the working unit feature just referred
to. The variation in feed may be independently
controlled by each unit, although the functioning
of all the units may be controlled from a single
point. The hydro-electric controls hereinbefore
described in combination with a working unit and
other novel features render the machine fool
governing the timed actuation ofsaid spindle
units.
3. A center column machine including a base,
an upright center column section, a plurality of
spindle carrying units disposed about said col
umn, each unit being driven from a prime mover
such as an electric motor and including a trans
proof and operable with-a minimum amount of ~ mission drivingly associated with said prime
mover, a feed pump driven from said transmis
10 skill and effort on the part of the attendant.
sion, a rapid traverse pump driven from said
It will also be apparent that the invention pr'e
cludes the necessity of using conventional clutches transmission, a hydraulic actuator operably con
nectable with said pumps, a valve mechanism for and the like. The improved hydraulic arrange
ment enables the feed pump to be constantly controlling the timed functioning of said pumps,
15 driven.v By causing the feed pump 98 to circulate and a spindle supporting member having a ma
through the valve member 240, no clutch devices chine spindle driven from said transmission, said 15'
spindle supporting member being operatively
are required. This makes for simplicity in de
sign and eliminates frictional losses, slippage, etc., coupled with said actuator, a supporting table,
experienced when conventional transmissions are an indexing mechanism for successively shifting
said table after each downward movement of the
20 used.
By having the power means, which rotates the
spindle and propels the feed pump arranged as
disclosed herein, a truly “synchronized" operation
of spindle rotation and spindle translation is ob
tained. This “synchronized” feature of opera
tion materially enhances the functional e?lciency
of the machine. This phase of the invention is of
particular importance in connection with the use
of tlmgsten carbide tools and the like, the use
30 of which presents new requirements for safety
and positive interlocking of the various co-acting
rotary and feeding mechanisms in a machine tool.
While certain speci?c structural features have
been shown for illustrating one embodiment of
the-invention, it must be understood that said
invention is in no sense limited to said embodi
ment, but is capable of numerous other changes
and modi?cations without departing from the
spirit and scope of the appended claims.
40
Having thus described our invention, what we
claim as new and- desire to obtain by Letters
Patent is:
_
1. A center column machine including a base,
an upright center column section, a plurality of
45 spindle carrying units disposed about said column,
each unit being driven from a prime mover such
as an electric motor and including a transmission
drivingly associated with said prime mover, a
feed pump driven from said transmission, a rapid
50 traverse pump driven from said transmission, a
hydraulic actuator operably connectable with said
pumps, a valve mechanism for controlling the
timed functioning of said pumps, and a spindle
supporting member having a machine spindle
55. driven from said transmission, said spindle sup
spindle supporting members, a locating and lock 20
ing means for said table, and means for e?ecting
the timed automatic functioning of said units and
supporting table whereby upon the completion
of each reciprocating cycle of the spindle support
ing members, said table indexing and locking
means will automatically function, and said sup
porting members will automatically perform
successive cycles of reciprocation.
4. A machine tool including a rotary support
ing spindle, .driving means therefor, a second 30
support, one of said supports being adapted to
hold a cutting tool and'the other a work piece.
said supports being relatively movable to effect
the cutting‘ action upon a supported work piece '
during the rotation of said spindle, power means 35
for causing rapid relative movement between
said supports to effect relative ‘translation of said
spindle, power means for causing a feeding rate
of translation during a portion of the cutting
operation and .a slower feeding translation dur 40
ing, another portion of the cutting operation,
means for rendering the rotation and relative
translation of said spindle synchronous, and a
frame structure for detachably receiving one of
said supports and said feed and rapid traverse
power means.
'
5. A machine tool including a rotary support
ing spindle, driving means therefor, a second sup~
port, one of said supports being adapted to hold
a cutting tool and the other a work piece, said ~
supports being relatively movable to effect the
cutting action upon a supported work piece dur~
ing the rotation of said spindle, power means for
causing rapid relative movement between said
porting member being operatively coupled with supports to effect relative translation of said
said actuator, a supporting table, and control spindle, hydraulic power means for causing a
means for governing the timed functioning of _ feeding rate of translation during a portion of the
said spindle
cutting operation and a slower feeding transla
2. A center column machine including a base, tion during another portion of the cutting op
an upright center column section, a plurality of eration, means for rendering the rotation and '
spindle carrying units disposed about said column, the relative translation of said spindle synchro
each unit being driven from a prime mover such nous, and a frame structure for detachably re
ceiving one of said supports and said hydrauli
as an electric motor and'including a transmis
sion drivingly associated with said prime mover, feed and rapid traverse power means.
6. A machine tool including a center column,
a feed pump. driven from said transmission, a
section, a base therefor, an indexable work sup
rapid traveme pump driven from said transmis
sion, a hydraulic actuator operably connectable porting table, a plurality of spindle supporting
means shiftable toward and away from work
with said pumps, a valve mechanism for, con
70 trolling the timed functioning of said pumps. and pieces supported by said table, means for rotat
a spindle'supporting member having a machine ing the spindles in said supporting means, means
spindle driven from said transmission through a for imparting a rapid traverse movement to said
splined shaft connection, said spindle supporting supporting means, means for imparting a given
feeding movement to said supporting means dur
member being operatively coupled with said actu
75 ator, a supported table, and control means for ing a portion of the working stroke thereof and for
imparting a slower feeding movement during an
v
7
9,114,284
other portion of said working stroke, power op
erated indexing mechanism for indexing said
table, and control means operable as an incident
to the shifting of said supporting‘means to a
preselected position for automatically rendering
said indexing mechanism functionally operable
to index said table.
.
’
‘
-
'7. A machine tool including a center column
section, a base therefor, an indexable supporting
table, a plurality of spindle supporting means
10 shiftable toward and away from said table, means
said pistons in timed relation with the shifting
of said supporting carriage.
11. In an automatically variable ?uid trans
mission system for machine tools and the like,
a plurality of automatically variable displace
ment pumps, a ?uid actuator companion to and
connectable with each of said pumps for pro
vpolling purposes, a plurality of constant delivery
pumps, one pump companion to each of said
?uid actuators, shiftable valve means companion 10
to each of said ?uid actuators for establishing the
effective propulsion of said actuator by a pre
for imparting a rapid traverse movement to said
selected pump to thereby control the propelling
supporting means, hydraulic means companion to
speed of said actuator, control'cam means for
shifting said valve means in timed relation with 15
each supporting means for imparting a given
feeding movement to saidsupporting means dur
15 ing a portion of. the working stroke thereof and
.
for imparting a
slower feeding movement during
the shifting of said hydraulic actuator, means
operable in response to the ?uid ?ow from said
another portion of said working stroke, power op
erated indexing mechanism for indexing said
table, and control means operable as an incident
'20 to the shifting of said supporting means to a pre
variable displacement pump for further varying
the propelling speed of said actuator, and auto
matic initiating means operable at a preselected
point in the cycle of actuation for causing the
actuation of a' plurality of said shiftable valve
selected position for automatically rendering said
indexing transmission functionally operable to
index said table.
'
8. In a machine tool of the vertical center
25 column type, a supporting center column and a
means.
'
'
12. A ‘center column machine including a base,
an upright center column section, a plurality of 25
spindle carrying units disposed about said col
umn, each unit being driven from a prime mover.
such as an electric motor and including a trans
supporting base therefor, an indexable supporting
table,. a power transmission for indexing said ‘mission drivingly associated with said prime
mover, a feed. pump driven from said transmis 30
table, a plurality of spindle carrying heads sup
ported by said center column for relative transla- , sion, a rapid traverse pump driven from said
30 tion, work-holding means associated with said transmission, a hydraulic actuator operably con
nectable with said pumps, a valve mechanism
spindle heads and table, means for imparting rel
ative rapid traverse movements to said heads in for- controlling the timed functioning of said
'
away from said work
pumps, and a spindle supporting member hav
ing a machine spindle driven from said trans
holding means, ?uid transmission means includ
mission, said spindle supporting member being
35 ing a hydraulic actuator for imparting a rela
tive feeding movement between said spindle heads operatively coupled with said actuator, a sup
and said work-holding means, valve means for porting table, control means for governing the
connecting said ?uid transmission~ means in a timed functioning of said spindle units, and power
means for causing relative transverse shifting
closed circuit and for controlling the timed func
40 tioning of said closed circuit and said rapid between said spindle units and said supporting
table.
‘
traverse movements, and a control circuit oper
13. A machine tool including a rotary support
able at a preselected position of said carrying ing spindle, driving means therefor, a second
heads for initiating said table power transmission
support, one of said supports being adapted to
and thereby causing the indexing of said table.
9. In a machine tool structure of theupright
hold a cutting tool and the other a work piece,
type, an,upright support including a-base for
said support, a spindle carrier vertically recipro
cable on and supported by said upright support,
a work-supporting table beneath said spindle
the cutting action upon a supported work piece
during the rotation of said spindle, power means
said supports being relatively movable to effect
50 carrier, ?uid transmission means including a hy
draulic actuator for imparting a feeding move
_
‘spindle carrier and for imparting
rapid traverse in both directions to the carrier,
shiftable valve means for establishing a closed
?uid circuit during said feeding movement and
for positively controlling the ‘rapid traverse move—
movement of said spindle carrier‘whereby said
closed ?uid circuit'is positively established at a
preselected point of travel irrespective of pressure
condition in said ?uid transmission means.
10. In a variable ?uid transmission system for
65 machine tools and the like, a shiftable supporting
carriage, means for shifting said carriage, con
trol means therefor, a pump body having a pin
rality of pistons reeiprocable within said body, a
rotary means including an anti-friction bearing
70 for reciprocating said pistons, an axially shiftable
member for supporting and shifting said rotary
ineans, and means contfolledby said' supporting
carriage for shifting said axially shiftable means
to thereby vary the amount of reciprocation of
>
for ‘causing rapid relative movement between
said supports to effect ‘relative translation of said
for causing a feeding rate
spindle, power means
of translation during a portion of the cutting
operation and a slower feeding translation‘ dur 55
‘ ing another
portion of the cutting operation,
means for rendering the rotation and relative
translation of said spindle-synchronous, a frame
structure for detachably receiving one of said
supportsand said feed and rapid traverse power means, and power means for causing relative
transverse shifting between said rotary support
ing spindle and said second support.
14. A machine tool including a rotary support
ing spindle, driving means therefor, a second
support, one of said supports being adapted to
hold a cutting tool and the other a work piece,
said supports being relatively movable to effect
the cutting action upon a supported work piece
during the rotation of said spindle, power means
for causing rapid relative movement between
said supports to eifect relative translation of said
spindle, hydraulic power means for causing a
feeding rate of translation during a portion of
the cutting operation and a slower feeding trans I
lation during another portion of the cutting oper
ation. means for rendering the rotation and the
relative translation of said spindle synchronous,
a frame structure for detachably receiving one
'01’ said supports and said hydraulic feed and
dering said power operated mechanism func
tionally operable to e?fect relative index movement between said spindle supporting means and
table.
'
16. In an automatically variable ?uid trans- I
mission system for machine tools and the like,'a
the rotary supporting spindle and said second
support.
10
.
-
15. A machine tool including a center column
section, a base therefor, a supporting table, a
plurality oi’ spindle supporting means, said spin
dle supporting means and table being relatively
shittable toward and away from each other.
means for rotating the. spindles, means for im
parting relative rapid traverse movement be
plurality of automatically variable displacement
pumps, a ?uid actuator companion to and con
nectable with each of said pumps for propelling
purposes, a plurality of constant delivery pumps,
one' pump companion to each of said iiuid actu
ators, shiftable valve means companion to each
of said ?uid actuators for establishing the eii’ec
tive propulsion of said actuator by a preselected
pump to thereby control the propelling speed of
said actuator, control cam means for shifting
said valve means in timed relation with the shift- -
ing of said hydraulic actuator, means operable
in response to the ?uid .?ow from said variable
displacement pump for further varying the pro
pelling speed of said actuator, and automatic
electrical initiating means operable at a prese
lected point in the cycle or actuation for causing
and said table, and control means operable in
response to the relative shitting of said spindle
supporting means and table toward each other
to a preselected position for automatically ren
a simultaneous actuation of a plurality oi‘ said
shiftabie valve means.
'
‘
_
JOHN’ S. m.
PAUL R. GUIRL.
.
ERNEST J. SVENSON;
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