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Патент USA US2114289

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April 19, 1938.
N. A. DRAIM
2,114,289
LOW DRAG, CORROSION RESISTING CONNECTION AND METHOD OF FORMING SAME
Filed NOV. 2, 1935
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INVENTOR ‘
BYN/CHQLAS A. .DRA/M
ATTORNEY
2,114,289
Patented Apr. 19, 1938
uuirsD STATES‘ PATENT‘ OFFICE
. NECTION
AND METHOD OF FORMING
SAME
Nicholas A. Draim, United States Navy
Application November 2, 1935, Serial No. 48,059
6 Claims. .(ci. 29-148)
(Granted under- the act of March 3, 1883,. as
amended April 30, 1928; 370 0. G. 157)
This invention relates to riveted connections
between plates and between plate and supports
therefor, and it has a particular relation to riv
eted connections for the plates of structures sub
5. jected to hydrodynamic and aerodynamic ?ow,
such as the ?oats or pontoons or seaplanes or the
peripheral edges and outer surface of the head
thus formed. This not only resulted in a rivet of
unsightly appearance, but one possessing decid
edly inferior corrosion resisting properties espe
cially when exposed to salt water as in the case 5
of marine hulls and seaplane ?oats, for the rea
son that the water would seep into the cracks
Heretofore, it has been common practice to ; and crevices where it was retained by capillary
unite plates, those of the ?oat of a seaplane for action. Furthermore, an absolutely ?ush sur
face, besides being di?icult to obtain practically
10 example, with one another or with the internal
frame structure, by rivets, the heads of which is still of little protection to the paint, as a
project beyond .the surfaces of the plates. - The scratch starting in the surrounding surface of
rivets may be of the round head, button head, the plate will continue across the head of the riv
mushroom head or brazier head types. This et. Moreover, even with a ?ush rivet, the riveted
area presents a region of stiffness, which when 16
is - practice has been found to be unsatisfactory in
such structures for the reasons that they caused the surrounding sheet stock is ?exed inwardly by
‘parts of airplanes exposed to air currents.
a decided drag to the passage of the ?oat through
the water and the paint is rapidly scraped off
through the abrasive action of solid supports,
20
such as a ramp or beach, thus permitting the riv
ets to corrode rapidly. Also, when resting on sol
id supports the protruding heads of the rivets
take most of the weight of the seaplane and are
forced inwardly, ?exing the plates in the vicinity
25‘ of the rivets. This not only cracks the protective
coating of paint around the head of the rivet but
' also strains the metal of the plates so as to per
mit moisture to collect at these points and further
hasten the corrosion of the rivets. The old meth
0d of riveting also subjected the rivet to a sheer
load of substantial magnitudes and was found to
be particularly objectionable when the rivets em
ployed were treated so as to form corrosion re
sisting anodic ?lms thereon. As a result of the
35 inherent disadvantages enumerated above, a riv
eted connection made in the usual manner has
been found to be particularly susceptible to cor
rosion and short lived.
Efforts have also been made to overcome the
40 dimculties inherent in exposed rivet heads by em
ploying rivets of ?at head type, set in counter
sunk recesses of proper depth, presenting a ?ush
surface to gaseous or liquid flow. Practical di?i
‘culties were even here encountered, in that, when
45 rivets having preformed ?at heads beveled to the
shank were employed, the process of driving was
- frequently attended by either damage to the sur
exterior forces it projects outwardly relatively
thereto, thus becomingsubject to excessive abra
sion.
One of the objects of the invention is to over-'
come the disadvantages hereinabove pointed out
through the provision of an improved corrosion
resisting riveted connection and method of mak
ing same, in which the head of the rivet is pre—
formed and located wholly without a recess or de
25
pression in the plate or plates and below the sur
faceof the main portion of the plate, so as to
protect it from external abrading agencies.
Another object of the invention is the provi
sion of a riveted connection of the character de 30
scribed, in which the plates are formed with coni
the
cal plate
depressions
for receiving
surrounding
the preformed
the perforation
head of the
rivet and in which the rivet is upset at its inner ,
end, so as to form a head engaging and embracing 35
the apex of the inner conical protrusion, thus re
ducing sheer strain exerted on the rivet and
insuring that the preformed head is packed tight
ly within its recess, so as to prevent leakage.
With these and other objects in view, as well
as other advantages which may be incident to the
use of the improvements, the invention consists‘
of the parts and combinations thereof her einafter
set forth and claimed, with the understanding
that the several necessary elements constitutingv 5
the same may be varied in proportion and ar
rangement without departing from the nature
rounding surfaces of the plate or the rivet head
was not packed solidly into its countersink in ' and scope of the invention, as de?ned in the ap
50 water-tight condition. When rivets were in
serted from the inner surface with the shank ex
tending outwardly and were then upset by the
driving tools so as to ?ll the countersink, the se
vere working and ?owing of the metal of the
55v shank caused splits and cracks to develop at the
pended claims.
In order to make the invention more clearly
understood, there are shown in the accompany-.
ing drawing means for carrying the invention in
50
to practical'e?fect, without limiting the improve-~
ments in their useful application to the particu 5.5.
2,114,2s0
in: construction, which, for purposes of explana
tion, have been made the subject of illustration.
In the ac
drawing:
'
1 is a mmentary. elevational view of a
riveted‘eonnection embodying the present inven
tion:
‘
Fig. 2 is a transverse sectional view taken on
line 2-4 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3isasimilar view ofthe plates afterbeing
10 perforated but before being countersunk; and‘
' , Fig. 4 is a fragmentary, vertical, sectional view “'
of a plate being countersunk by the forming dies.
Referring to the’ drawing, a riveted connection
embodying the invention is shown as comprising
15 two plates i0 and II, having overlapping edges
and each being provided with registering rivet re
ceiving perforations II. The metal of the plates
is depressed around each of the perforations so
as to form a circular pocket or recess i3 having
20 inclined walls.
This depressing of the plates may
be accomplished by means of male and female die
members it and I5, respectively, the former hav
ing a pilot member l6 adapted to engage the per
portion and arrangement of the parts, other than
thoseshowmmaybemadebythoseskilled inthw
art, without departing from the nature and scope
of the invention, as defined in the appended
claims.
'
e
“
The ‘invention described herein may be manu
factured and used by or for the Government ‘of
the United States of America for governmental‘
purposes without the payment of any royalties
thereon or therefor.
What is claimed is:
.
'
'
1. A corrosion resisting connection between
plates of a structure subjected to hydrodynamic
and aerodynamic ?uid ?ow comprising a plurality
of overlapping sheet metal plates having register
ing perforations therein, adjacent plates having
inwardly depressed areas surrounding said per
forations forming substantially conical depres
sions on the outer surfaces of said plates and sub
stantially conical protuberances on the inner sur .20
faces thereof, the protuberances on the inner sur
face of an outer plate being disposed in nested
relation with the depressions in an adjacent inner I
foration l2 and register it with respect to said die ' plate; and fastening elements extending through
25 members.
The plates l0 and II are secured together in
their overlapping position shown and with the
pockets ii in the upper plate nesting within the
1 corresponding'pockets in the lowermost plate, by
30 means of rivets l'l.
These rivets are each pro
vided with a relatively ?at preformed outer head
ll, having a rounded outer surface disposed below
the upper edge of the pocket l3, and an inclined
said perforations and having outer head portions 25
disposed entirely within the depressions in the’
outermost of said plates and spaced from they
plane of the surfaces of said outermost plates and .
inner head portions in engagement with the
conical protuberance of the innermost of said
plates.
2. A corrosion resisting connection ‘between.
inner surface, the latter conforming accurately
plates of a structure subjected to hydrodynamic
and aerodynamic fluid ?ow comprising a plurality
with the inclination of the walls of the pocket IS.
The inner end of the shank I 9 of the rivet I1 is
ing perforations therein, adjacent plates having
upset so as to form an inner head 20 which closely
engages‘ around the inner conicaLprotuberance
formed by the depressing operation so as to ren
'40 der the same leakproof. If desired, the rivet l'I
may be provided with an anodic ?lm 2i so as to
resist corrosion and provide a more desirable base
for the coating 22 of paint which has the tend-_
ency to collect in the pocket and form a layer
45 thereof of. greater depth than elsewhere, as shown
in Fig. 2. This still further forti?w the rivet
against corrosion.
In making the above described riveted connec
tion, the plates l0 and II are arranged in their
50 proper positions and the perforations l2 drilled
therein in registering relation (Fig. 3). The
' plates are then separately depressed by means of
‘the dies I4 and I! so as to form the pocket l3,
of overlapping sheet metal plates having register
inwardly depressed areas surrounding said per- .
forations forming substantially conical depres
sions on the outer surface of said plates and sub- -
stantially conical protuberances on the inner sure
faces thereof, the protuberances on the inner
surface of an outer plate being disposed in nested
relation with the depressions in an adjacent inner
plate; and fastening elements extending through -
said perforations and having outer head portions
disposed entirely within the depressions in the
outermost of said plates and spaced from the:
plane of the surfaces of said outermost plates
and inner head portions in engagement with the.
conical protuberance of the innermost of said
plates.
3. A corrosion resisting connection between
plates of a structure subjected to hydrodynamic,
the pilot member accurately centering the per ~ and aerodynamic ?uid ?ow comprising a plu
forations I! with respect thereto (Fig. 4). The rality of overlapping sheet metal plates having
plates are then repositioned in their overlapping registering perforations therein, adjacent plates
relation with the pockets l3 nesting and the per
having inwardly depressed areas surrounding
forations l2 registering. The rivets i'l' are then said perforations forming substantially conical
inserted in the perforations II with their pre
depressions on the outer surfaces of said plates
formed heads l8 disposed within the pockets i3 and substantially conical protuberances on the,‘
and their shanks is are then upset to form the‘ inner surfaces thereof, the protuberances on the ,
inner heads 20. This upsetting operation is per
inner surface of an outer plate being disposed
formed by holding a dolly bar having a cavity in in nested relation with the depressions in an
the end thereof corresponding in shape to the adjacent inner plate; fastening elements extend
ing through said perforations and having outer
head l8, against said head and applying the im
pact blows against the shank l9. If the rivet is head portions disposed entirely within the de
vupset inthis manner the head l8 will be packed pressions in the outermost of said plates and
tightly into the pocket IS without distorting its spaced from the plane of the surfaces of said
anodic film or rupturing its surface or edge, and outermost plates and inner head portions in en
70 the inner head 2. will ?ow over and embrace the gagement with the conical protuberance of the 70
‘ inner conical protuberance formed by the pocket.
As a result, not only is a water tight connection
obtained but the corrosion reskting properties of
the rivet ‘materially enhanced.
Other modifications and changes in the pro
75
innermost of said plates; and a protective coat- ~.
ing. covering the outer surface of the outermost
of said members and the outer head portions of
said fastening elements, whereby an additional
quantity of said coating will collect in said- de- "m
3
auaaee
pressions adjacent to the line of contact between
said outer head portions and said outermost
member.
4. The method of connecting the plates of a
structure subjected to hydrodynamic and aero
dynamic ?uid flow which comprises arranging
the plates with adjacent marginal portions there
of disposed in overlapping relation; forming
registering perforations in said overlapping mar
10 ginal portions; depressing said plates in an area
surrounding said perforations to provide recesses
on their outer surfaces and protuberances on
their inner surfaces; inserting rivets provided
with preformed head portions having outer
15 anodic protective ?lms thereon in said perfora
tions with said head portions disposed entirely
within the recesses of the outermost of said
plates and spaced from the plane of the surfaces
of said outermost plates; and upsetting the inner
ends of said rivets to form inner head portions
engaging the protuberances on the innermost of
said plates, whereby-the anodic ?lm of said pre
formed head portions are preserved against
rupture.
25
5. The method of connecting the plates of a
structure subjected to hydrodynamic and aero
dynamic ?uid ?ow which comprises arranging
the plates with adjacent marginal portions there
of disposed in overlapping relation; forming reg
istering perforations in said overlapping marginal
portions; depressing said plates in an area sur
rounding said perforations to provide r
on their outer surfaces and protuberances on
their inner surfaces; insertins rivets having pre
formed head portions in said perforations with
said heads disposed entirely within the recesses
of the outermost of said plates and spaced from
the plane of the surfaces of said outermost plates;
and upsetting the inner ends of said rivets to
form inner head portions engaging the protuber
ances on the innermost of said plates, and con
forming closely with the con?guration thereof.
6. The method of connecting the plates of a
structure subjected to hydrodynamic and aero 10
dynamic ?uid ?ow which comprises arranging’
the plates with adjacent marginal portions there
of disposed in overlapping relation; forming reg
istering perforations in said overlapping margi
nal portions; depressing said plates in an area 16
surrounding said perforations to provide recesses
on their outer surfaces and protuberances on
their inner surfaces; inserting rivets having pre
formed vhead portions in said perforations with
said head portions disposed entirely within‘ the 20
recesses of the outermost of said plates with re
spect to both the width and depth thereof; up
setting the inner ends of said rivets to form inner
head portions engaging the protuberances on the
innermost of said plates, and coating the outer 25
surfaces of the outermost of said members and
the outer head portions of said rivets with a
corrosion resisting material, whereby an addi
tional quantity of said material will collect in -
said recesses adjacent to the line of contact be 30
tween said outer head portions and the outermost
of said plates.
'
_
NICHOLAS A. DRAIM.
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