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Патент USA US2114382

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April 19, 1938.
E_ |_ HUFF
Filed Oct. 22, 1957
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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BY 5,444? M/z/M
April 19, 1938.
Filed Oct. 22, 1937
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Patented Apr. 19., 1938
PATENT- orrlca
Edward I. ma, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Application October 22, 1937, Serial No. 170,332
3 Claims. (Cl. 263-52)
My invention relates to the annealing of metal,
and consists in an. annealing furnace and ameth
od of operation, particularly adapted to the an
nealing of l?at sheets of steel. Theobjects are
5 economy in furnace construction and in opera
tion, and excellence‘of product.
The invention is illustrated in the accompany
ing drawings. Fig. I is a view of a furnace of the
_ invention,‘ partly in“ plan from above and partly
in horizontal section; and Fig. II is a view of the
shown in Fig. II. A rectangular block 5, arranged ‘
within the margins of pan 3, may rail'ord support
for a rectangular stool '6, upon which the chargev
S immediately rests.
In usual‘way conduits 40 may extend through
the hearth and open into the enclosure beneath
the mu?ie, for introducing and removing gases, to
establish ' and
around the sheets S.
The all-inclosing outer wall of the furnacecon 10
furnace in vertical section and to larger scale, 'sists in a box-like hood, constructed essentially
the plane of‘ section being indicated at II-—1I in
F18. I.
Referring to the drawings, the furnace is of
mufile type and includes an outer heat-insulating
wall I and roof l0‘, and an inner heat-conducting
muille 2. The muffle is 'a thin-walled shell of
metal. ‘It is vspaced from, the side walls and roof
of the furnace, and in such space the heat-afford
~20 ing?ames may be developed. Within the mu?ie
2 the material to be treated is enclosed.
In modern practice ingots and billets ,of. steel
are reduced in continuous operation to highly at
tenuated sheets. On the completion of the roll
) ing operation, ‘the sheets, trimmed to particular
size or not, are arranged in stacks and subjected
to\tlie requisite ‘annealing operation.
The operation of annealing consists in heating
the material to a peak temperature and cooling
\ it again; and, while rate of heating, peak tem
of heat-insulating brick, externally braced and
reinforced by means of structural steel. Other-'
wise closed, it is operi at bottoninand is applicable
to and removable from the stationary and hori- '
zontally extending hearth 4. The walls of insu-v
lating material are built within a supporting shell
I I _of sheet metal, and this shell of metal, extend
ing downward, enters a channel llll formed-in the
hearth, wherein luting IL is provided (Fig. II).
As shown, the box-like hood is provided with a
perforate lug 22,'f_or the attachment to it of rals- _
ing and lowerlngmechanism.
When the movable parts of the furnace are assembled over the packof sheets S seated on the 25
hearth-stool 6, there is, ‘as has been said, a space
between the walls of the ,mu?ie 2 and-the walls .
I, ,III of the hood. In accordance with the inven
tion, the spaces or regions C, C between the op
posite side walls of the mu?le and the side walls of 30
perature, time at peak, and rate of cooling must, I the hood are employed as the primary, if not the
sole, combustion chambers for the fuel. Burn-_ certain standard, there is a margin of tolerance; ers ‘l are‘ arranged in each of the opposite end
and if throughout all its extent each sheet in its . walls of the elongate and ‘relatively narrow hood;
3:, treatment be brought within such margin, the ' in service these burners direct burning columns of 35
fuel and air into the regions C, C; in each of the
- product will be of uniform quality. In the opera
tion of the furnace of my invention the'material elongate and relatively narrow regions C‘, C on
is so brought within themargin of tolerance, and opposite sides of the mu?le 2 the burning columns
the annealed product is of uniform and‘ standard are directed inward, ~ toward the vertical mid
-plane of the furnace, and the walls of mu?le are 40
‘~10 quality.
heated. Observation ports 8 may be provided in
' The muille 2 is of usual structure in that it
‘ in order to attain desired results, conform to a
consists of‘integral and imperforate side and top
walls, is open at bottom, and is adapted’to rest
upon a horizontal base; enclosing the material to
13 be treated-a stack of sheets 8 in this case. The
proportion'ing of the muii‘ie to the stack is a matter
that admits of variation, and itwill be under
stood that insuch particulars the showing is ex
emplary merely.
‘>0 ,
The muille in the assembly rests upon a pan 3,
the walls, above the burners.
Each of theopposite side walls i of the hood
includes a series of ?ues 9 that, extending verti
cally, open at their upper ends into horizontal
stack-?ues 90, embodied in the upper refractory
body or roof of the hood. And each ?ue 90 opens
into the atmosphere by way of an outlet 99 which
may comprise a short stack, or be, connected to
a relatively tall stack. The hearth 4 includes a
and the pan 3 horizontally upon the hearth 4 of‘. series of transverse ?ues l2 that establish com
the furnace. The pan is doubly ?anged at its _munication between the combustion zones C, C
margin (cf. double ?ange 30), and the lower and the side-wall ?ues 9. Each hearth ?ue l2
- edge of the muille engages the bottom of the pan opens at one end upward through thev floor of the
zone or region/C1?’
.55 between these ?anges, and luting Lis applied, as hearth 4 into the combustion
on ones side of the mu?le 2, and, extending from
such opening through the body of the hearth,
communicates at its opposite end with ‘one of the
vertical wall ?ues 9. The arrangement of ?ues
l2, 9 is staggered; that is, one ?ue l2 opens into
the region C on the left-hand side of the mu?ie
2 and extends to a ?ue 9 in the right-hand side
wall of the hood, while the next ath'acent ?ue I2
extends from the region C on the right of the
while} precise registry of ?ues 9 and I2 may be
effected, it is not required. The luting LL seals
the clearance 20 from the outer atmosphere, while
the wall of the hood carries a continuous shoulder
2| that overlies the upper peripheral corner of
the hearth and blanks direct communication be
tween theclearance 20 and the combustion cham
bers C, C within the furnace. Thus, the desired
organization of hearth and side wall ?ues is per- .,
10 mu?le to a ?ue 9 in the left hand wall'of the _ missible in a furnace of the removable hood type.
hood. Thus, a system of hearth ?ues, arranged
I claim as my invention:
in spaced-apart relation longitudinally of the fur
1. The herein described method of operating a _
nace, interconnects the combustion zones 0 with
the ?ues in the opposite side walls of the hood.
It will be perceived that the burners ‘I are lo
cated below the horizontal mid-plane of the
furnace, with the consequence and effect that
the ?ames, springing from the opposite ends of
the regions C, sweep horizontally, adjacent to the
hearth of the furnace, toward the centers of such
regions C. In the operation of the furnace, the
horizontally ?owing columns of burning fuel and
hot gases are drawn downward into the mouths
of hearth ?ues l2, that are spaced longitudinally
25 of the course of ?ow. Straying streams of hot
gases, meandering upward over the side walls of
the mu?le and spreading laterally over its end
walls, meet and mingle over the top wall of the
mu?le and beneath the closed roof ll! of the hood,
hnd these idly ‘meandering streams distribute
heat, by conduction and convection, to the upper
side, end and top walls of the mu?le. The main
bodies of the burning fuel and hot products of
combustion are drawn immediately from the re
35 gions C, C into the ?ues I2, and are led trans
versely through the hearth and introduced to the
hood-type annealing furnace including a stack
of metal sheets seated upon the furnace hearth
and enclosed within a mu?ie, which method in
eludes introducing burning columns of fuel into »
the regions between mu?le and the opposite side
walls of furnace hood, drawing the burning fuel
and products of combustion on opposite sides of.
the mu?ie downward from the course of fuel de
livery, and, while some of the burning fuel and
hot products meander upward on opposite sides
of the mu?‘ie and meet and mingle over the top '
of the mu?ie and under the roof of the furnace
hood, leading the downwardly drawn products
transversely through the hearth upon which said
stack of sheets is seated, and then removing such
products upward through the side wall of the
hood which lies on opposite side of the mu?le from
that from which said products enter said hearth. 30
2. An annealing furnace including a hearth for
supporting the material to be annealed, a mu?le
enclosing the material on the hearth, and a hood
applicable to and removable from said hearth,
said hood having refractory side walls spaced
from the walls of said mu?le, means for intro
?ues 9 in the side walls of the hood, whence the ' ducing burning columns of fuelyinto the regions
hot gases rise into the horizontal ?ues 99 and between the side walls of said hood and said
‘exit by way of stacks 99.
mu?le, ?ues in the opposite side walls of said
The heat thus generated in the furnace‘ is con
centrated, immediately above and within the
hearth upon which the charge S is seated, and
the heat given up to the side walls I of the hood
so far augments the insulating and refractory
capacity of these walls that conduction and con
vection of heat over and through the upper walls
of the mu?le, and conduction of heat immediately
from the hearth to the base of the charge, be
come effective to elevate and hold all portions of
50 the charge at desired temperature. The requisite
heating of the charge is obtained rapidly and
with uniformity throughout the entire charge.
In such operation of the furnace the method of
my invention is practiced, and by virtue 'of the
55 structure described I achieve advantages in a
hood-type furnace that hitherto were only real
ized, if realized at all, in a stationary furnace of
large and costly construction.
An important detail of construction remains for
hood, ?ues extending transversely through said
hearth, certain of said hearth ?ues communicat
ing with the region of combustion on the right
hand side of said mu?le and extending to and
opening into the ?ues in the left-hand side wall
of said hood, and other of said hearth ?ues es
tablishing communication between the combus
tion region on the left-hand side of said mu?le
and the ?ues in the right-hand side wall of said
3. An annealing furnace including a hearth for ,
supporting the material to be annealed, a muffle.
enclosing the material on the hearth, and a hood
applicable to and removable from said hearth,
said hood having refractory side walls spaced
from the walls of said muil'ie, means for introduc
ing burning columns of fuel into the regions be
tween the side walls of said [hood and said muille,
?ues in the opposite side walls of said hood, ?ues
extending transversely through said hearth,‘cer- '
tain of said hearth ?ues communicating with 00
the region of combustion on the vright-hand side
of said mu?le and extending to and opening into
the ?ues in the left-hand side wall of said hood,
and other of said hearth ?ues establishing com
’munication between the combustion region on
the left-hand side of said mu?le and'the ?ues in
‘the right-hand side‘ wall of said hood, and stack
?ues- embodied in the upper structure or roof of‘
consideration. It will be perceived that the base
of the hood ?ts over and peripherally'encom
passes the upper body portion of the hearth 4.
Each ?ue l2, opening upward at one end through
the ?oor of the hearth, as already mentioned,
65 terminates at its opposite end in the side stu'face
of the hearth which 'is embraced by the basal wall
portion of the hood. There is a clearance 29
(Fig-II) between the body ofthe hearth and such
basal wall of the hood, and into this clearance the said hood, into which stack-?ues said ?ues in the
70 lower ends of the wall ?ues 9 of the hood open side walls of said hood open. ‘
and communicate with the hearth ?ues l2. Thus,
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