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April 19, l1938.
2,114,416
J. F. DONNELLY
vPROCESS FOR PYROLYSIS` OF?> LIQUID HYDROCARBONS
Filed March 30, 1934
4 Sheets-Sheet l
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April 19, 1938-.
�114,416
' J. F. DONNELLY
PRocEss 'FOR PYRoLYsIS oF LIQUID HYDRocARBoNs
Filed March 50, 19554
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April 19, 1938. ,
J. F. DONNELLY
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P醥cEss F覴'PYROLYSIS oF LIQUID HYDRocARBoNs
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PR覥ESS FOR `>PYRQgJYSIS OF LIQUID HYDROCARBONS
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UNITI-:p__ .STATES ' PATENT-玱mer '
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HYDBOC
' Joseph F. Donnelly, Lemont, Ill.
_
>.lamination Maren so, 1934, sen-1u No, 71s,1s1
130mm- (cl. 19e-4s)~
_ IMy _inventionrelates 'to a process for _the py
wherein-_separation oi?l high boiling and low boil
rolysis of hydrocarbons and particularly to the
fractions is- effected, 'the ydesired separation
heat treatment of petroleum hydrocarbons of ing
beingc?ontrolled
supplying relatively cold oil,
complex character, whereby suchihydrocarbons` preferably crude by'
gasoline, naphtha> or kerosene, "
5 are converted into lighter hydrocarbons and' re
intol the top of said separator through trim line .5.
sidual products of solid character. More partic
8, _supplied from any suitable source. ` I prefer tov
ularly, my invention relates to a process whereby herein separate out- as liquid all fractions having
heavy hydrocarbon oils are converted into lighter _boilingpoints over approximately 650� F,- The
hydrocarbon oils, together with the formation of
coke through the pyrogenic treatment of hydro- _
>carbon oils.-
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_
fractions having boiling points under 650'? F._remaining as'vapor are then passed through coil 1, mi
in furnace 8, _where they are heated to a tempera
An- object of my invention is to produce com
mercial products which may be. exempli馿d by the
production of liquid hydrocarbons, such as gaso- _
ture sumcient to eil?ect carbonization rof decom
posable oil. being applied to the-agitated carbon
bed 9, contained in semi-circular shell 9? of the
carboniz閞 Ill. For illustration the~productsleav-> _15
line, Diesel-engine distillate fuel, furnace oil, gas
oil, lubricating -oil distillate, etc.. kand heavier re-- ing coil 1, will range from 800� F. to 1200� F., or l
sidual products such as fuel oil, together with higher, depending on the amount of heat to be
solid end products such as coke.
_
'
1
transmitted thereby. to the carbonizer I0. The
Another object'of my invention is the produc
_
n tion of coke by progressive building up of sepa- �
rated ,coke _masses by progressive pyrogenic de
composition of heavy hydrocarbon oils deposited
upon the surfaces of the maintained separated
u
charcoal'or the like, or with .metallic masses of
position.
invention is to treat coals so as to recover- the vol
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within wider or narrower limits than shown with
y
out departing' from the fundamentals >of the proc
Figure 3 is an?end elevation partly in'section
ess.
?
_
a modified
Figure 4 isform
an end
of the
elevation
app遞ratus
partly
shown
in. section
in Figof
n
_'
amples to promote a better 'understanding of the ?35
lteaching of the invention, Aand may be employed
Figure 2 is a side elevation partly in section of
a preferred apparatus for carrying out the inven
`
_
lustrative purposes, and are intended only as ex
lconjunction'with apetroleum refining process.
~
v
It is to be understood that the specific tempera
tures and?pressures etc., herein given are for il-i
Eigure 1 is a processing flow diagram and shows
one method of applying the present inventionin
ure 3.
_
after described, before supplying decomposable 3o
oilthereto.
ferred form thereof in the drawings, in which
of the apparatus shown in Figure?2.
?_
fe'ct decomposition and carbonization. as herein
_ carrying out my_?proce? and illustrate the pre
'
_
The bed?� is preferably heated _suiliciently to ef
I have devised a.novel form of apparatus for
tion.
n
able volume, preferably sumcient to- adsorb the 25
decomposable liquid supplied thereto -for decom
and progressive manner. A further object of my
atile constituents thereof.
to any desired degree of molecular alteration.
20.
/頢emi-circular plate 9' is initially charged with
carbonaceous?solid particles. such as. coke, coal.
suitable size and?shape, t0 provide a bed of _suit- f ?
Another object of my invention is to produce
relatively uniform bodies ?of coke in an automatic
._
vapor or gasesin .coil 1 .may therein be subjected
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_ ? Pressure on the vapor separator may' be con- 40
trolled by regulating valves Il, I2 and I3, or Il,
and closing valves _I 5 and I6.- If desired, I'may
mix` fixed gas such as natural orcracking still
In carryingout my process` with the preferred gas, or light hydrocarbons, such as crude gasoline, �
form of apparatus herein shown,_crude oil or its -naphtha, etc., either as liquid
or vapor, with the. 45
derivatives, such as toppedr crude,籫as oil; or oil ' vapors entering heating coil 1, which
ymay therein '
derived from coal, shale, wood, vegetable or am
mal, etc., is supplied by pump I, from any suitable
source to'heat exchangers 2 and 3 where it is in- ,
directly heated by the hot vapors passing through
縝e subjected to any desired degree of molecular
alteration, same being supplied from any conven
ient source by pump, or compressor l1 Athrough
_
said heat exchangers. The preheated charge oil " valve Il. The highly heated gas and vapor is 50
is then .mixed with the eilluent from a highly passed by perforated pipes I9. >controlled. by _ '
heated cracking 0r distilling coil l2, as controlled- valves Il through-bed 9, to which it imparts heatA`
and partial pressure -eil'ect suillcient to effect _
by the adjacent valve l, the mixture being then. rapid
carbonization of the oil coating the surface _
l passed into high pressure vapor separator I,
of the particles composing the said bed.v
A?ist
? 2
The liquid remaining in the vapor separator 5,
is delivered by pump 20', to coil 2|, where it is
heated under pressure controlled by valve 22, to
a temperature sufl靋ient to effect vaporization in
vaporizer 23, of substantially all fractions having
boiling point lower than that necessary to pro
duce petroleum asphalt, the object being to ef
fect concentration of the highly' complex hydro
carbons inthe liquid residuum. The hot con->
10 centrated residuum is delivered through- valve 24,
to pump 25, from which it is delivered under rela
tively high pressure to distributing header 26,
controlled by valves 21, connected to distributor
pipes 26, which are equipped with spray nozzles
15 29 for spraying the oilbonthe highly heated bed 9.
If desired as an aid to the atomization and vapor
ization of volatile constituents of the oil being
sprayed on the carbonizing bed, from any suitable
source I may supply steam, gas, or light oil vapor
49', 50 and 56?. Distillate from separator 42,
controlled by valve 50?, bubble tower 40, stripper
46, or from an extraneous source or mixtures
thereof, is delivered by pump 5I, to the inlet of
coil 52, in furnace 53, where it is heated for suf
flcient time and to su耢cient temperature to effect
either distillation or'cracking in any desired de- -
gree and amount within practical operating lim
its of the balance of the system, and with par
ticular reference tothe process of the invention,
the eiiluent of coil 52, being controlled by valve
53' and enters separator 5, mixed with preheated
io
fresh charge oil as heretofore explained. While
I have shown .the present invention operating
in conjunction with a coil type cracking opera
tion it is to be understood, that the invention is
not limited to or dependent on conjunctive oper
ation with any particular type of distilling or
cracking process, but may be operated success
commingled therewith either at the point 29 or as > fully with several known cracking processes, or 20
shown through header 30 controlled by valves 3l.
If> desired, I may -heat the residuum above re
` ferred to in a furnace or other means'before en
if desired the process of the invention may be
operated independently as a separate unit.
Adjustable equal-spaced mixing and separat
tering the carbonizer, in which case the residuum
will be heated to the maximum temperature with
out carbon fouling the heating means.
ing blades 54, are attached to hollow cooled shaft
The vapors leaving the carbonizing element IU,
prevent'the carbonaceous masses from being con
solidated into a solid and to remove therefrom
pass through heat exchanger 3, `thence between .'
the jacket and shell of the'carbonaceous solids
30 preheater 32, where it preheats the carbonaceous
solid material which is subsequently treated in
carbonizing element lli, or if desired the said
55, which rotates counter clockwise; the number
of revolutions for a given time being regulated to
carbonaceous particles that have -attained the
predetermined size, such particles being too large
to pass between the. blades will be carried thereby
-until an angle is reached where the particles will
vapor may be passed under reduced pressure1 di- - fall toward the shaft by gravity. The particles
'rectly to condenser 33, by opening valve 34, and will then be intercepted. by grid plate 56, attached
closing valves 35 and 31 and operating vacuum to hollowvcooled shaft 51, which will _now be oper
producing means 43', or the vapor leaving pre
ated from shaft 55er independently to elevate the
heater 32, may be passed to condenser 33 as plate 56, to permit the blades 54 to pass, and to
above, or to vaporizer 23, by manipulation of discharge _the carbon particles accumulated
valves 34, 35, 31 and 38, in a 'manner well under- '
thereon, which particles will descend into the ?`
stood to those skilled in the art. `Condensates
from exchanger 3 are delivered by pump 39 to
vaporizer 23, or may be delivered to the fresh
bottom of shell _I 0, whereiit will be conveyed vto
cooler 60, by screw convey'or 58, having a hollow
oil line entering exchanger 2, depending on its
pendently, valve 6| beingv open.
characteristics, or it may be withdrawn from the
driven through gear 59, by any suitable power
means, not shown. During this operation super
heated steam may be passed into the bottom of
drum 6|!k through valve 62, to prevent heavy oil
vapors from entering and condensing therein. It
being understood that drums i0 and 60, and all
otherv parts of the apparatus are well insulated
system. The vapor leaving vaporizer 23, passes
through exchanger 2, then to bubble tower 40,
where the desired degree of fractionation is ef
fected.
The fractionated vapors are condensed
in condenser 4i and the gases separated in'gas
separator 42. If desired elements 23, 46, 4|, 42
and 46, may also be operated under reduced
pressure by means 43?. From the foregoing, it
will be seen that the vapor from the carbonizer
I0 and from the vaporizer 23, may be fraction
55 ated and'condensed separatelyand under differ
ent pressures, or may-be commingled, fraction
ated and condensed together.V Condensates sep
arat鑔 inseparator 43, are preferably delivered
by >pump 44, to bubble tower 40 for retreatment,
60 or may be withdrawn from the system through
valve 44'. The* temperature of the tower 40, ~is
preferably controlled by trimming with conden
sate's from separator 42, delivered thereto by
pump 45. Products condensing in tower 40, are
65 separated therein into two fractions of different
boiling points, the _lighter fraction thereof being
withdrawn from .the upper-plates to a stripping
tower 46, where it is stripped of its most volatile
' fractions .which are returned as a vapor to the
tower -46 through line 41. The condensate that
accumulates in the bottom of the towers 40, and
46, constitutes selective differential boiling -point
cooled shaft and which n'iay be operated inde
Shaft 55, , is
where it is desired to prevent heat loss or con
densation. During the accumulation of carbon
in drum 60, valves 63, 64, 65 and 66 are closed.
When it is desired to empty the drum 60 of its
accumulated carbon, conveyor 58 is stopped, addi
tional _steam is- admitted through valve 62, 'to
thoroughly purge the drum of any vapors that
may be therein. When this is attained, as may
be determined by withdrawing vapors from the
top of the drum through a small water cooled
coil (not shown), attached thereto for the pur-?
pose, and testing the condensates thus obtained
for oil. When the drum 60 is sufficiently purged
of oil vapors to prevent danger of 駌e, then valve
?is open to the atmosphere,or maybedisposedof 65
as desired. Valve 63 may now be slightly opened
to 4admit a small quantity of cooling water
through a spray device. The cooling is continued
until the carbon has reached a temperature be
low its auto ignition point when exposed to the 70
atmosphere. It is then removed 'from the bot
tom of the cooler and conveyed to storage by any
Y. stocksY for reactive heat treatment -in the system,- ' suitable means not shown. It is to be understood
or eachn靉y be withdrawn from the system
through cooler 48, by manipulation of valves it,
'r
that the carbon may becooled` in any suitable
,manner before or- after removal. When the drum ?u
2,114,416
_
emptied it is ag'ain closed and steam is again
admitted through valve 82 and out through valve
I4, this operation being continued until all air
is expelled from the drum. " Any condensed wa
ter is withdrawn through drain valve B6, valve
54 is now closed and valve 6| is opened and con
_veyor 58 is again started.
Drum 60 ?is also
~ equipped with safety pressure valves not shown.
Fresh carbonaceous solid material to be treat-籣v
10 ed is suppliedfrom any suitable source to pre
heater 32, through> supply. means 61, valve ?68,
being closed. In the preferred method the pre
heater 32, is charged with small particles of coke,
3
mass as- results from present known 4methods of `
carbonization. Further, this method provides a?
continuous carbonizing process .for the produc
tion of predetermined size particles, thus elimi
nating the expense incident to manufacturing 5
briquettes from carbonaceous. material. How
ever,- if it is desirable tov produce very ?fine car
bon?iparticles, such as powder, it may be accom
_plished by this process. TheA operation will be
the same as when making the larger size particles
with the apparatus heretofore described, except,
the semi-circular carbon-bed plate 9'., will be
slotted or perforated in the area beneath the car
or coal, or other carbonaceous solid, and vis there- ' bon bed and between the
pipes _ I9 to permit 駈e `
in preheated to the maximum temperature ob
particles to fall through said plate. The plate 15
^ tainable from the vapors employed 'for preheat
ing, this preheating may be -done in any suitable
manner. Air is p鷕ged from the preheater 32,
by admitting superheated steam through valve
20 69, valve 10, being open, valve 1| and valve 12
being closed. Vapor or gas is purgedfrom the
' preheater 32 by'admitting spperheated steamv
56, will be permanently elevated during this op
eration. The shaft 55 andblades 54, will bero
tated at a speed to produce'an attritional grind
ing effect of the particles constituting the bed. 9,
'resulting in physical disintegration of generated 20
carbon, the operation _being conducted so that
_
the -
through valve 69, valves 'i0 and 12 >being closed,A rate of carbonization, and of carbon physical
disintegration are synchronized so that they'are
valve 1I being open. When the preheater'drum substantially
equal.
. `
_ _,
_
is completely~ purged of all air, valves 69, 10 and
When
making
very
fine
carbon
particles
I
may
12 are closed, valves 6_8 are opened, and screw
replace the carbonaceous material of bed 9, with
feed conveyor 13 is operated by any suitable mo
metal
of suitable size, preferably spheri
_tive means (not shown), to feed carbonaceous 'cal in particles
shape, to produce a carbonizing surface,
material -in a regulated manner to the carbon
? ous material vaporizable at the temperature pre
the blades 54 and shaft 55, being 'rotated atv
suf馽ient speed to cause physical disintegration
o_f the carbon formed on the surface of the metal
f oil sprayed thereon through spray no?zz1es'29.
From the foregoingit will be seen that the con
vapors from the?carbonizinggapparatus lll. Such
centrated substantially carbon saturated oil to
?be decomposed; in heated condition is sprayed in
izing bed to sweep away the?vapors generated by
izing bed 9 as required.` Valve ?Il is open and
any volatile matter contained in the carbonace
particles. If desired, the carbonizing apparatus
vailing in the preheater will be 'vaporized and re
moved from the preheater through valve 1I. Thel .i0 may be directly heatedby a fur-nace as shown
finely divided preheated carbonaceous materialV in Fig. 4, in which case- the processing operation
may be the same as .heretofore described, orit
fed to thecarbonizing bed 9,' will serve as nuclei may
be conducted without passing hot oil vapors, ?
for the progressive building up thereof into pre- _
gas or steam through the .carbonizing bed 9, in
determined- sizeparticles by _the carbonization vwhich
case Iprefer to employ light oil vapors,
on its surface of the complex constituents of the gas, _or steam to aid in removing the generated
駈elydividedform, onto the material composing
_the carbonizirig bed 9," and the highly heated
`vapors or gases from an extraneous-source are
passed through the bed thus imparting to the
vapor, gas or steam may ent r above the carbon
the> bed - and released
bythe decomposable oil>
supplied. through nozzles 29.` The vapor, gas or
steam above referred to may be supplied by pipes
not shown. paralleling oil distributing pipes 28,
- decomposable oil coating the surfacesand in the _ said vapor, gas or steam being of� sufficient tem
perature that it will not cause material condensa
55
interstices -of the particles?composin'g the _bed
su駃cient heatv and partial pressure effect to _tion of generated vapors.- While I have herein
rapidly vaporize volatile constituents and eil?e'ct described carbonization with the use `0i? vapor,
or other iiuid, it'is to be understood that while
carbonization of _complex fractions contained in _gas
I prefer the use of such, its use is not absolutely
or sprayed on the bed 9. It will be?obvious that essential to effect ycarbonization with the appara
the higherthe temperature of the decomposable`
oil before contacting the carbonizing bed, _and
tus shown in Fig; 4. ' Further, while I prefer to
operate the process ina substantially continuous 55�
manner _as heretoforedescribed, ,it is within the
steam _passing through the bed, the more- acceler
ated will be the rate of decomposition and carbon- . scope of the invention to operate the-process as
_ the higher the temperature of the vapor, gas, or.
ization of the material constituting the bed or
being sprayed thereon?.` I1' the nature of ?thema-_
terial to be- decomposed and carbonized _is such
a batch operation,_in which case using the car- .
bonizing apparatuses shown, the element 56.
would not be in use during carbonization, and the
?that it is impracticalto preheat the_ same directly.~ _' blades 54 anclv shaft 55, would be rotated or os
I prefer to dilute such material before preheat
ing, with a solvent of relatively low boiling tem
perature, then preheating the mixture to its max
?cillated to prevent consolidation of the carbonace
ous masses, I may employ a carbonizing element
I0, of simple -cylindrical shape, the'v balance of
the apparatus and the op?era-tionin each case be-y
65
imum temperature >without- fouling. the preheat
ing element with carbon, then introducing the f ^ ing substantially as heretofore` jdescribed.` ' ?
preheated mixture into the carbonizer. ,As aj. >It is to be understood Athat carbonization maybe-__ ~
_solvent or diluent; I prefer?to use a liquid hydro-_ conducted withoutsubstantial molecular altera- taking placein coil T_or 52, the essential con
70. carbon thatwill vsubstantially completely vapor -tion
dition in such case being that the material heatedr
ize when released through the nozzles 29.
By
thisl method of carbonization of decomposable' in these' coils lis of sumcient 'volume and attains
gi?lui?d there results a _final carbon product having sufficient temperature therein to accomplish the
desired degree of vaporization and superheat
`desix頻ml靑頰?cteristics~such 縜`s a v'high degree necessary to perform the functions intended by
of mass density, in_contradistinction to porous
_
_'its _use in the- process.v
, ,-
_
_
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_
'my
2,114,416
' 4
. vIt is to be understood that heat and pressure
measuring instruments will be used at all points
in the unit where desirable. The unit will also be
equipped with sampling devices where needed,
also with safety pressure devices. In Figs. 2,v 3
ing out of the released vapors preferred frac
tions, and returning to the process less preferredf
fractions for pyrolysis as aforesaid.
4. A process for the pyrolysis >of 'relatively
heavy hydrocarbons which comprises discharging
and 4, I have shown a method for cooling the
such hydrocarbons on ccarbon particles of limited
various shafts employed in carbonizer |0,_ in
maximum and less size disposed in a coking zone
volving the construction of said shafts in hollow wherein said particles are mechanically agitated
lform through which a stream of cooling 駏id is, and classified at the coking temperature of said
10 circulated. Lines containing valves l5. I6 and 65, hydrocarbons, dissociating the latter into vapors
are used only when starting or stopping opera
and carbon, progressively depositing ?said carbon
tions, at which time these valves are manipulated on said particles, respectively releasing and with
to permit flow through the respective lines as in
drawing from said zone said vapors and accreted
dicated by" arrows. It is to be understood that carbon' particles exceeding said maximum size?
16 the process of this invention may be carried out while effecting inorescence of carbon particles of
as herein described when using heated fluids such >less size, dephlegmating and condensing out of
' as i?iue gases, hydrocarbon gases, including Water
the released vapors preferred fractions, and rc
gas, hydrocarbon vapors, inert gases, steam, etc., turning to the process less preferred fractie
or mixtures thereof. The invention is not limited
20 in its application to the specific apparatuses
shown, which are only of preferred form capable
?of carrying out the invention, the size, shape,
material or arrangement of the apparatus em
ployed being immaterial, so long as the results
25 obtained thereby are in accordance with the
processing principles herein taught.
Having described my invention, what I claim
is:
?
,
l. A process for the pyrolysis of hydrocarbons
30 which comprises subjecting a limited quantity
of solid carbonaceous matter substantially re
ducible to carbon by pyrolysis to a carbonizing
temperature in a closed zone under disintegrative
for pyrolysis` as aforesaid.
'
5. A process for the pyrolysis of petroleum hy 20
drocarbons which comprises discharging such hy
drocarbons on coke particles of limited maxim'um
and/less size disposed in a coking zone wherein
said particles are mechanically agitated and
classified at the coking temperature of said hy
drocarbons, dissociating the latter into gasoline-`
containing vapors and carbon, progressively de
positing said carbon on said particles, respectively
releasing and withdrawing from said zone said
vapors and accreted carbon particles exceeding
said maximum size while effecting inorescence
of coke and carbon particles of less size. de
phlegmating and condensing out of the released
mechanical classification and producing carbon . vapors gasoline, and returning to the process non
gasoline fractions -for pyrolysis as aforesaid,
35 particles of restricted size, discharging said hy
drocarbons on said particles maintained in said
6. A process for the pyrolysis of petroleum hy- '
zone at the lcoking temperature of said hydro
carbons and producing cracked vapors while
progressively depositing carbon on said particles,
40 .respectively releasing and withdrawing from said
zonelsaid vapors and accreted carbon particles
exceeding said restricted size, dephlegmating and
condensing out of the released vapors preferred
fractions,> and returning to the process less pre
ferred fractions for pyrolysis as aforesaid.
,
2. 'A process for the pyrolysis of hydrocarbons
which comprises subjectinga limited quantity of
carbonaoeous mattersuch 'as coalto a> coking
temperature in a closed zone under disintegra
tive mechanical classification and producing coke
'particles of restricted size, discharging said hy
drocarbons on said particles maintained in said
zone at said coking temperature and producing
drocarbons which comprises discharging such hy
drocarbons on coke particles of limited maximum
and less'size disposedina coking zone wherein said
particles are maintained under mechanical agi
tation and classification at the `coking tempera
ture of said hydrocarbons through indirectly ap
_ plied heat, dissociating said hydrocarbons into
gasoline-containing vapors and carbon, progres
sively depositing said carbon on said particles, 45
respectively releasing and withdrawing from said
zone said?vapors and carbon accreted particles
exceeding said maximum size while effecting in
`crescence of coke and carbon particles of less size,
dephlegmating and condensing out of the re
leased vapors gasoline, and returning to the
process non-gasoline fractions for pyrolysis as
aforesaid.
,
_
_
cracked vapors while progressively depositing
7. A process for the pyrolysis of petroleum hy
carbon on said particles, respectively releasing ?drocarbons which comprises discharging such 55
and withdrawing from said zone said vapors and
` accreted carbon particles exceeding said restrict
ed size, dephlegmating and condensing out of the
released vapors preferred fractions, and returning
60 to the yprocess less preferred fractions for
pyrolysis as aforesaid.
-
? 3. A process for the pyrolysis of relatively heavy
hydrocarbons on a limited quantity of coke par
ticles of ycontrolled maximum and less size dis
posed in a coking zone wherein said particles
are maintained under mechanical agitation and
classification at the coking temperature of lsaid 60
hydrocarbons through heat exteriorly applied to
said zone, dissociating said hydrocarbons into
hydrocarbons which comprises subjecting a limit
:ed quantity of coal to a coking temperature in a
'gasoline-containing vapors and carbon, progres
sively depositing said carbon on said particles,
closed zone under -disintegrative mechanical respectively releasing and withdrawing from said 65
classification and producing coke particles of zone-said vapors _and -.carbon accreted particles
-limited maximum and less size, discharging said exceeding s__aid maximum size while effecting in.
hydrocarbons on said particles maintained in said crescence of coke and carbon particles ofrless
zone at said coking temperature and producing ` size, dephlegmating and condensing out ofthe
70 cracked vapors lwhile progressively depositing released vapors gasoline, and returning to the
carbon on said particles, respectively releasing v. process non-gasoline fractions for pyrolysis 'as
and withdrawing from said zone saidr vapors and -
accreted carbon particles exceeding said maxi
~mum size while effecting inorescence of carbon
75 particles of less size, dephlegmating andvcondens
aforesaid.
`
.
,
8. A process for the pyrolysis of relatively
heavy petroleum 'hydrocarbons "which comprises _.
discharging such' hydrocarbons on a-f?liinited 76
v
S
l�114,416
� quantity o`f coke particles of controlled maximum
carbons on coke .particles of limited
�
andfless- size disposed in a colnng zone wherein � and less size disposed in a coking zone wherein
said particles are maintained under mechanical 'said particles are maintained under mechanical
agitation and classification -at the coking tem-` agitation and classi馽ation at the coking tem
Ul perature of said- hydrocarbons through contact perature of said hydrocarbons through contact el
with heat'ed hydrocarbon vapor, dissociating said , with a lstream of hydrocarbon vapor substan
hydrocarbons into gasoline-containing vapors
` and carbon, progressively depositing said carbon
on said particles, respectively releasing and with
i10 drawing from said zone hydrocarbon vapors and
accreted 'carbon particles exceeding said maxi
mum size while effecting increscence of coke and
carbon particles of less size, dephlegmating and
, condensing out of the released hydrocarbon va-15 pors gasoline, -and returning to the process non
gasoline fractions for pyrolysis as aforesaid.
` 9. A_ process for the pyrolysis of relatively
heavy petroleum hydrocarbons whichcomprises
tially undecomposed at said coking temperature,
dissociating said hydrocarbons into vapor'scand
carbon, progressively -depositing -said carbon on
said particles and expelling from said zone said 10'
vaporsby said stream of heated hydrocarbon
vapor, withdrawing from said zone accreted car
bon particles exceeding said maximum sizewhilel Y
effecting increscence of coke and carbon- parti
cles of less size, dephlegmating `and condensing 15
out oftheA expelled hydrocarbon vapors pre
ferred gasoline fractions, and returning to the
process uncondensed hydrocarbon vapor and rel-l ' '
discharging such hydrocarbons on a limited atively,heavy residual fractions resulting from
dephlegmation for pyrolysis as aforesaid. 20
2o, quantityw of coke particles of controlled maxi- ' vsuch
12. A cyclicprocess for the pyrolysis of rela
mum and less size disposed in a coking zone
wherein said particles are maintained vunder mer tively heavy petroleum hydrocarbons into _gaso
line-containing light hydrocarbons and carbon
chanical agitation and classi馽ation at the cok
ing- temperature of said hydrocarbons through which comprises converting said relatively heavy
25 contact with a stream of heated hydrocarbon va
por substantially undecomposed at said coking
hydrocarbons into distillate and residual frac 縰
tions, discharging said residual fractions on coke ?
temperature, dissociating said hydrocarbons into , particles` o1' hunted maximum and less size dis
posed in a coking zone wherein said particles are
gasoline-containing vapors and carbon, progres
sively depositing-said carbon on said particles,
' respectively releasing and withdrawing from- said
zone hydrocarbon vapors and accreted carbon
particles exceeding said maximum size while
' effecting increscence of coke and carbon parti
cles of less size, dephlegmating and condensing
, out of the released hydrocarbon vapors gasoline.
and returning to the proce?ss non-gasoline frac
' tions for pyrolysis as aforesaid.
maintained under mechanical agitation and clas
si馽ation at the coking temperature of said re
30
sidual fractions by contact with 'a stream of hy
drocarbonl vapor _derived from' said distillate
fractions and heated to the. oo_king temperature
of said residual fractions, dissociating said re-l
sidu'al fractions into gasoline-containing vapors 35
and carbon, progressively depositing said carbon
onsaid particles and expelling from said zone
10. A process for the pyrolysis of relatively. said vapors by said stream of hydrocarbon va- i
heavy petroleum hydrocarbons which comprises por., withdrawing'frcm saidl :one carbon accreted
discharging such hydrocarbons on a limited" particles exceeding said maximum -size while `ef-`-
quantity of coke particles of controlled maxi-?
fecting increscence of coke and carbon particles
mum and less size disposed in a coking zone of less size, dephiegmating- yand condensing out'
wherein said particles are maintained under me-` - of the expelled hydrocarbon vapors gasoline, -and
returning to the process non-gasoline fractions
' chanical agitationand classification at 籺hecok
ing temperature of saidhydrocarbons through from such vdephlegmation for further conversion
heat exteriorly applied to said zone and contact `and rproduction of residualfractions for pyrolysis
`witli'a stream of heated hydrocarbon vapor sub-fl
stantially undecomposed at said coking'tempera
ture, dissociating said hydrocarbons into gaso
as
aforesaid.
~
l
�
_
_
13.y A process for the pyrolysis of hydrocar
bons which comprises subjecting a limited quan- '
line-containing vapors and carbon progressively ~tity of solid carbonaceous matter> substantially
reducible to carbon by pyrolysis to a carbonizing
>depositing said carbonon said particles, respec
tively releasing-and withdrawing from said zonev ? temperaturev in a closed zone under disintegra
hydrocarbon vapors and accreted carbon parti
cles> exceeding said maxlmum'size while effect
tive mechanical .classi馽ation and producing car-y ?
bon particles of restricted size, discharging said _
ing increscence of coke and carbonv particles of
less size, dephlegmating and condensing out> of
hydrocarbons _on said .particles maintained in
said zone at the coking temperature of said hy
the released hydrocarbonvapors' preferred gas
drocarbons and producing cracked Avapors while '
. ,
oline fractions,- and returning to the process un ` progressively deposi g carbon on , said particles,
condensed hydrocarbon vapor- and relatively -_ respectively releasing and withdrawing from saidy
heavy residual- `fractigms resultingI from vauch de zone said vaporsv and accreted carbon particles
exceeding said restricted size, and condensing the
_phlegmation-,for pyrolysis as aforesaid.
released vapors. ~v
,
?_11, A.v process _for the pyrolysis of
-.heavy petroleum hydrocarbons which comprises
.
,
JQBEPB F. QONNRLLY.
-
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