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Патент USA US2114431

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April 19, 1938.
2,114,431
1_. RosEMAN
LOCKING STU-D AND SOCKET SNAP FASTENER
Filed May 7. 1957
4 Sheets-Sheet l
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«la| l
VENTOR
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.
TORNEY
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April 19, >1938.
2,114,431
L. ROSEMAN
LOCKING STUD AND SOCKET SNAP FASTENER
-4 Sheets-Sheet 2
Filed May 7, 1937
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BY
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April 19, 1938.
2,1 l4,431
L. RosEMAN
LOCKING STUD AND SOCKET SNAP FASTENER
Filed May 7, 1957
-4'Sheets-Sheet 3
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INVENToR
BY
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ORNEY
April 19, 1938.
l.. ROSEMAN'
v'2,114,43î
LOCKING STUD AND SOCKET SNAP FASTENER
Filed May '7, 1957
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4 Sheets-Shee’? 4
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i; ÉÈVENTOR
BYj
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TORNEY
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Patented Apr. 19, 1938
2,114,431
UNETED STATES PATENT GFFlCE
2,114,431
LOCKING STUDy AND SOCKET SNAP
FASTENER
Leo Roseman, Newark, N. J.
Application May 7, 1937, Serial No. 141,192
12 Claims. (Cl. 2-265)
This invention relates in general to snap fas
ment, whereby the socket element shall be in
teners of the head and socket type, and par
ticularly to such fasteners especially adapted for
visible and the gap shall be held open even after
use on garments such as corsets, brassières, shirts,
5 leggings, and surgical stockings, or on other ar
ticles such as garment bags, draperies and the
like.
erly engaging the stud element with the socket
element shall be reduced to the minimum.
Another Objectis to provide a socket element
The present invention is related to that shown
and claimed in my copending application, Serial
10 No. 106,325, filed October i9, 1936, wherein the
complementa] fastener elements are connectible
in the general planes of the garment or article
edges in a single movement in directions ap
‘_ proximately perpendicular to said edges with ther
l5' edges in approximately abutting relation, and the
complemental fastener elements are positively
locked against accidental disconnection. The
fastener disclosed in that application also per
mits disconnection of all ccmplemental fastener
20 elements quickly at one time and in one simple
continuous movement or pulling apart of the
edge portions of the garment or article from one
end toward the other in directions at angles to
v the general planes of said edge portions similar
25 to the movement incident to ripping or tearing of
textile fabric.
The fastener disclosed in the above-mentioned
copending application includes a stud element
_ secured on one edge portion of the garment or
304 article and a socket element secured on the
other edge portion, the stud element being pro
vided with a shank having a head formed with a
lateral shoulder or projection, and the socket
velement is approximately flat, comprising a sin
35 - gle piece of spring sheet metal folded upon itself
to form a pair of opposite spring jaws movable
apart in a direction approximately perpendicu
lar to the plane of the respective garment edge
portion and one jaw formed with a recess or open
40 ing to receive and interlock with said shoulder
of the stud element when the latter is inserted
between the jaws. Also the fastener elements are
secured between plies of fabric stitched together
with gaps between them, the opening between
45 the jaws of each socket element facing outward
ly through one gap in the corresponding edge
portion to receive the shank of a stud element
which projects from the other edge portion.
One object of the present invention is to pro
50 vide a fastener of the general character described
wherein the socket element shall embody novel
and improved features of construction for ac
curately guiding the head of the head of the stud
element through the gap between the plies of
55 fabric and into said opening in the socket ele
laundering of the fabric and difñculty in prop
of this character which shall have a novel and
improved guide for the head of the stud’element
that shall also serve toy reenforce the socket ele
ment, and shall permit the element to be made 10
thin and with a maximum of spring strength to
effectually resist accidental disengagement of
the stud element from the socket elements under
strains incident to use of the fastener.
A further object is to provide in a fastener of 15`this character, a socket element having novel and
improved means to cooperate with stitches for
securing the socket element >between plies of
fabric and positively hold the socket element
against turning and against displacement in
such a manner as to throw the stud receiving
opening out of alinement with the gap between
the plies, and to hold the fabric flat and un
wrinkled over the socket element; and thus to ~
provide in such a socket element laterally pro- 25
jecting lugs to be traversed by stitches, whereby
the element can be firmly secured between the
fabric plies with a continuous straight line of
stitches.
v
Another object is to provide such a socket ele- 30
ment having the free .edges of the jaws so formed
as to prevent catching or snagging of said edges
in the fabric plies and thereby ensure free move
ment of the jaws between the plies, and to cause
the jaws to be forced together with a wedge action 35
between the fabric plies to tightly grip the stud
element under forces applied to the socket ele
ment while the latter is connected to a stud ele
ment and the fastener is in use.
A further'object is to provide in a fastener of 40
the character described a novel and improved
stud element so constructed as to conform to
the curvature or angularity of the part over which
the fastener is applied, for example, the curves
of the body where the fastener is on a garment, 45
or the angular corners of a piece of furniture
where the fastener is used in a furniture cover,
whereby to ensure a smooth, close joint between
the connected edges of the garment or article 50
and to reduce the application of strains to- the
fastener which might accidentally disconnect the
complementa-l socket and stud elements. i
Other objects, advantages and results will ap
pear from the following description When read in 55
2,114,431
2
conjunction with the accompanying drawings in
which
Figure 1 is a composite plan View of the com
plemental socket element and stud element parts
of the fastener in separated condition, portions
of the fabric being broken away for clearness
in illustration.
Figure 2 is a plan view on an enlarged scale
of a socket element and complemental stud ele
10 ment connected together with the upper plies of
the fabric removed.
.
Figure 3 is a similar View of the opposite sides
of the complemental fastener elements.
Figure 4 is a transverse vertical sectional view
15 through the fastener with the stud element and
socket elements connected.
Figure 5 is a similar view showing the manner
of separating the stud elements from the socket
elements.
Figure 6 is a plan View of the parts shown in
20
Figure 5.
Y Figures '7 and 8 are horizontal sectional views
on the line l-B of Figure 4 looking in the oppo
site directions respectively.
Figure 9 is a transverse vertical sectional view
through the socket element part of. the fastener.
Figure 10 is a vertical longitudinal sectional
view on the line I0-I0 of Figure 9.
Figure 11 is a vertical longitudinal sectional
30 view on an enlarged scale taken on the line I I-I I
of Figure l.
Figure 12 is a transverse vertical sectional view
taken on the line I2-I2 of Figure l0.
Figure 13 is a view similar to Figure 11 taken
on the line I3--I3 of Figure 1.
Figure 14 is a front elevational view of the
socket element.
Figure 15 is a perspective view of one side of
the socket element viewing it from its rear end.
Figure 16 is a similar view viewing the socket
40
1element from its front end.
Figure 17 is a view similar to Figure 16 show
ing the opposite side of the fastener element.
Figure 18 is a rear elevational view of the
socket element.
Figure'19 is a transverse vertical sectional view
through a slightly modified form of the stud ele
ment part of the fastener.
Figure 20 is a composite perspective view of a
50 further modification of the fastener wherein the
stud element and socket element parts are dis
posed at right angles to each other as in a furni
ture cover, showing the fastener parts in sepa
rated condition.
Figure 21 is a sectional top plan View of the
55
fastener shown in Figure 20 with the fastener
parts connected together.
Figure 22 is a view similar to Figure 2 showing
a modification of the socket element.
Figure 23 is a view similar to Figure 3 showing
60
the socket element of Figure 22.
Figure 24 is a transverse vertical sectional view
through the fastener shown in Figure 22.
Figures 25 and 26 are views similar to Figures
65 22 and 23 of` a further modification.
Figure 27 is a transverse vertical sectional view
through the fastener shown in Figure 25.
Figure 28 is a detached perspective view of the
stud element shown in Figures l to 6 inclusive.
Figure 29 is a similar View of the stud element
shown in Figures 20 and 2l, and
Figure 30 is a View similar to Figure 16 showing
a modification of the socket element.
The invention contemplates the attachment of
.the
complemental stud elements and socket ele
75
ments directly to the edges of a garment or other
article to be connected or the attachment of the
socket elements and stud elements to fabric tapes
which are in turn secured to the edges. Re
ferring to Figures 1 to 13 inclusive, the reference
characters A and B designate the edge portions
of a garment or article to be connected, or a
fabric tape, said edge portions having secured
thereto respectively socket elements I and stud
elements 2.
As shown, the fastener elements are 10
secured between the undersides of the garment
edge portions or fabric strips A and B and other
fabric strips 3, whereby the fastener elements
are disposed between plies of fabric.
Each socket element includes a single piece of 15
spring sheet material folded upon itself as at 4
to form an approximately rectangular flat base
having two opposed jaws 5 and 6 one of which has
an opening or recess -I adjacent the free front
edge of the jaw and intermediate its width, while 20
the other jaw has a transverse groove or channel
ß comprising a corrugation which extends in
wardly from the free edge of. said jaw beyond the
opening, recess or catch 'I in the other jaw to
receive and guide the head of the complemental 25
stud element into the recess or opening 1.
This
corrugation 8 also reenforces the jaw 6 against
flexing between its free edge and its juncture
with the other jaw 5, so as to ensure the spring
action of the jaws occurring at the juncture 4 of 30
the jaws and thereby provide maximum spring
strength to effectually resist accidental disen
gagement of the stud element from the socket
element under strains incident to use of the
fastener. Also the corrugation with the groove 35
facing the other jaw provides a clearance or space
for the stud element so that the main portions
of the jaws may be arranged close together and
thereby make the socket element of. minimum
40
thickness.
Preferably one jaw 6 is narrower than the
other; in other words, the ends of the jaw 6
terminate short of the ends of the jaw 5 as
shown in Figure 17, as described and claimed in
my co-pending application Serial No. 113,815. 45
Also, at least one jaw, in the present instance
the jaw 5 has a pair of lugs S projecting from
the rear edge of the jaw in a common plane
therewith, and if desired both ends of the jaw
may have lugs as shown in Figure 3€) where
lugs I0 are shown at the front end of the jaw 5
for the purpose about to be described.
It is also desirable that the portions of the
front edges of. the jaw 6 at opposite sides of the
55
corrugation 8 recede longitudinally as at II.
The socket elements are secured on the edges
of the garment, tape or other article, preferably
in equidistantly spaced relation longitudinally of
said edges, with the openings between the jaws
facing toward the edges and through openings 60
or gaps between the plies or" material. A line of
stitches I2 runs longitudinally of said edge of the
piece of material adjacent or in abutting relation
to the front free edges of the jaws of the socket
elements and penetrates the plies of the piece at 65
opposite sides of the socket elements, said line of
stitches preferably including superposed reen
forcing stitches I3 at opposite sides of the groove
or corrugation 8 of each socket element so as to
leave a gap or opening I4 between the plies of the 70
pieces in alinement with said groove 8 to receive
the head of the complemental stud element.
These stitches draw the plies of material tightly
over the free front edges of the socket elements
and the corrugation 8 maintains the gap in open 75
2,114,431
condition even after laundering of the fabric ma
terial so as to constantly ensure a free opening for
the insertion of the head of the stud element.
Another line of stitches I5 runs longitudinally
of the piece of material adjacent or in abutting
relation to the rear end of each socket element
and includes tying stitches I6 passi'ng through
the plies of material and traversing the lugs 9.
In this way, the socket elements are firmly se
10 cured in position between the plies of material
against turning over and against sliding such as
would throw the guide grooves 8 out of alinement
with the corresponding gaps I4. Where the sock
et element has the lugs IIJ at the free iront edge
15 of one jaw, the reenforcing stitches I3 traverse
the lugs Ii), and these lugs serve both to firmly
secure the socket element against sliding or turn
ing between the plies and also hold taut the ma
terial of the plies at opposite sides of the gap I4
so as to prevent loosening or buckling of the ma
terial of the plies at the gap in such a manner
as to allow the stud element to enter between the
socket element and the plies.
Due to the jaws 6 being narrower than the jaw
25 5 and also due to the lugs 9 in a common plane
with the jaw 5, when the socket element is
stitched between the plies of fabric the plies are
` drawn about the socket element as shown in
Figures 5, l2, ,and 13 so that the plies overlying
30 the wider jaw 5 are smooth and the socket ele
ment does not form a bulge or protuberance in
the face ply; substantially the entire bulge re
sulting from the fastener element is formed in the
plies overlying the narrower jaw 6.
35
Each of the stud elements 2 in includes a sub
stantially flat base Il formed of suitable material
and having a shank 20 projecting from one edge
thereof having flat sides 2l and a rounded head
22 with a shoulder 23 projecting approximately
40 perpendicularly to the plane of the flat sides 2|,
said shoulder merging into the edges 24 of the
shank. Also, the base Il preferably has beveled
edges i8 for the same reason that the jaw 6 of the
socket element is narrower than the jaw 5.
The bases of the stud elements are secured be
tween the plies of the corresponding garment
edge or tape in any suitable manner, for example
in the same manner as the socket elements are
secured, the shanks of the stud elements pro~
jecting from the edge of the corresponding piece
of material as clearly shown in Figures 1 and 4.
Each stud element is complementa] to one
socket element and in connecting the comple
mental stud elements and socket elements, the
edges of the respective pieces of material are
moved edgewise toward each other so as to insert
the heads of the stud elements between the jaws
and in the grooves 8 of the corresponding socket
elements, the jaws being sprung apart as said
heads are inserted and then snapping over the
shoulders 23 to cause interlocking engagement of
the edges of the openings or catches '1 with the
respective shoulders 23. Due to the relative
narrowness of the jaw 6 and the receding front
edges il of said jaw, the spring action of they
free and unobstructed by frictional en
gagement of the front edges of the jaws with the
fabric. The stud elements and socket elements
are thereby positively interlocked with each other
and will eifectually withstand all strains tending
to pull the edges apart in their own planes which
is especialiy important in tight-fitting garments,
such as corsets. The guide grooves 8 eifectually
guide the heads of the stud elements into the
openings
and ensure that said heads shall be
3
properly engaged with the corresponding open
ings without danger of the heads being inserted
between the jaws and the respective plies of ma
terial or inserted between the jaws out of aline
ment with the respective openings 1.
Preferably the shanks 2B of the stud elements
will be disposed at angles to the planes of the
respective bases I'I so that the socket element and
stud element parts of the fastener may accurate
ly conform to the curvature or angular formation 10
of the surface with which the fastener contacts
when in use, for example the curves of the body
or the corners of a piece of furniture.
For ex
ample, in Figures l to 6 inclusive the Shanks of
the stud elements are 4so disposed as to conform 15
to curves of the body as when the fastener is
used in a corset, while in Figures 20 and 21 the
Shanks ofthe stud elements are approximately
perpendicular to the corresponding bases so that
the two complemental parts C and D of the fas~
tener may be disposed perpendicularly to each
other as in a corner joint of a furniture cover.
In Figures 1 to 6 inclusive the stud elements are
shaped to conform to a convex curve, but the ele
ments may also be shaped to conform to a con
cave curve as shown in Figure 19.
25
The shape of
the stud elements as described has the further
advantage in preventing such relative tilting of
the fastener elements as would pry open or ex
cessively spread the jaws of the socket elements
under strains when the fastener is in use on
curved or angular surfaces. Moreover, the struc
ture ensures a smooth joint between the two
parts of the fastener.
The receding portions I I of the edges` of the 35
jaws 6 permit the fabric to be more snugly drawn
about the corrugation 8 and accurate-1y shape the
gap to receive the stud. For the purpose of pre
venting cutting of the fabric cfr stitches the’free
edge of the jaw t which is parallel to the edge of
the piece of material is preferably returned upon
itself as at 25. This structure has an additional
important function as described and claimed in
my co-pending application Serial No. 113,815 in
that when the comple-mental fastener elements
are connected together and the fastener is in use,
the forces applied to the socket elements tend
ing to separate the edges of the pieces of material
will draw the free edges of the jaws 5 and 6
of the fastener elements with a wedge action into 50..
engagement with the plies of fabricl between
which the socket elements are mounted, so as to
tightiy force the jaws into interlocking relation
with the corresponding stud elements.
The c-omplemental socket elements and stud 55
elements may be separated in a continuous oper
ation by oppositely directed forces on the edges of
the pieces of material from one end toward the
other in directions at angles to the planes of said
edges so as to rotate the socket elements relative
ly to the stud elements about axes parallel to the
general planes of the pieces or the axes of the
Shanks of the stud elements and remove the
shoulders 23 of the stud elements out of the re
cesses 'i of the corresponding socket elements as
shown in Figures fi to 6 inclusive. Figure ‘i shows
the stud element connected to the socket element
while Figures 5 and 6 show the stud element ro
tated to move the shoulder 23 out of the opening
l. This relative movement of the edges of the
pieces of material is similar to that of ripping
60
65
‘
70
fabric or a seam and permits easy and rapid dis
connection or the edges of the pieces. This is
especially desirable in tight fitting garments such
as corsets, because only one edge need be pulled, 75
2,114,431
4
the other edge being held stationary by the body.
The separation of the fastener elements is further
facilitated by the spring frictional engagement
of the jaws with the tapered sides 24 of the stud
5 shanks which tends to eject the studs from the
socket elements after the shoulders 23 of the
heads have been rotated out of the openings l'
as shown in Figure 5.
The fastener elements when connected are held
10 against rotation by the edge portions of the pieces
of material and the engagement of the jaws 5 and
6 with the ñat :sides 2| of the stud shanks.
If desired, the fastener elements may be` sepa
rated frolm each other by a relative tilting or
15 hinge-like action which spreads the jaws apart
to release the head of the stud element from the`
catch 'l of the socket element.
With the invention, it will be observed that
when the fastener elements are connected all
metal is concealed and the edge portions: of the
two pieces of material may be brought into tight
abutting relation so as to avoid the necessity for
an underlying flap with its disadvantages and
„ annoyances.
Moreover, the edge portions of the pieces of
material when they are connected have their
outer sides cr faces' smooth and free from bulges
and in substantially the same plane or flush with
T each other so as to reduce the visibility of the
30‘ joint between the edges.
Instead of forming the jaw of the socket ele
ment with an opening or recess "l, the jaw may
have a tooth, lug or catch 26 stamped therefrom
s to engage the shoulder 23 of the stud element as
35’ shown in Figures 22 to 24 inclusive.
Moreover, if desired the lug or catch to engage
the stud element might be formed in the jaw i5
as indicated at 2l' in Figures 25 to» 2'? inclusive.
It will be understood by those skilled in the
art that the foregoing illustrates the now pre
ferred embodiment of the invention but that
many modiiications and changes may be made in
the details of construction of the socket element
and stud element and their connection to the
‘pieces of material without departing from the
spirit or scope of the invention.
Having thus described my invention, what I
claim is:
1. In a fastener, the combination of two pieces
of pliable material disposed in edgewise relation
and each comprising a plurality of plies with an
opening between them at their edges, a stud ele
ment secured between the plies of one of said
„ pieces with a head projecting from said opening
55"“in the edge of the piece between the plies thereof,
an approximately iiat socket element secured be
tween the plies of the other piece and having op
posed spring jaws with their free front edges
disposed at the opening between said plies to
60 receive the head of said stud element between
them, one of said jaws having a catch to receive
and interlock with said head of the stud element
and the other jaw having a guide channel facing
the first jaw and leading inwardly from the free’
said socket element is formed of a sheet of spring
metal folded upon itself to form the opposed jaws,
said jaws are approximately of the same length,
said groove comprises a corrugation in said jaw,
and the free edge o-f said jaw recedes longitudi
nally thereof from and at opposite sides of said
corrugation and from said edge of the corre
sponding piece of material while the free edge of
the other jaw is approximately parallel to said
edge- of the piece.
4. In a fastener, a piece of pliable material
comprising a plurality of plies having one edge of
one ply secured to the other with a gap between
the plies, `an approximately flat socket element se
cured between said plies and having opposed
spring jaws with their free front edges disposed
at said gap: to receive the head of a complemental
stud element between them, one of said jaws hav
ing a catch to receive and interlock with the
head of the stud element, stitches passing through
said plies close to the front and the rear edges of
said socket element, a plurality of lugs on said
socket element, and other stitches passing
through said plies and traversing said lugs.
5. The fastener set forth in claim 4 wherein ~
said lugs p-roject from‘the edges of one of said
jaws in a common plane therewith.
6. The fastener set forth in claim 4 wherein
the end edges yof one jaw terminate short of the
end edges of the other jaw and said lugs project
from the rear edge of said second mentioned jaw
in a common plane therewith outwardly of the
end edges of the first mentioned jaw.
7. In a fastener, the combination of two- pieces
of pliable material, each comprising a plurality C° Cl
of plies with an opening between them at their
edges, a stud element comprising an approxi
mately flat base secured between the plies of
one of said pieces and having a shank with a
head projecting from one edge of the base and 40
through said opening in the edge of said piece
at an angle to the plane of the base and said
piece,l and an approximately flat spring socket
element secured between the plies of the other
piece with spring jaws having their free edges 45
disposed at said opening in the corresponding
piece to receive said head and shank of the
stud element between them, one of said jaws
having a catch to receive and interlock with
said head of the stud element.
50
8. The fastener set forth in claim 1 wherein
said guide channel comprises a corrugation in
said jaw which reenforces the jaw against flexing
between its free end and its juncture with the
other jaw.
9. In a fastener, a piece of pliable material
comprising a plurality of plies, means securing
said plies together at spaced points adjacent one
edge of at least one ply to form a gap between
said plies at said edge, an approximately flat 60
socket element secured between the plies of said
piece and having opposed spring jaws with their
free edges disposed at said gap to` receive a com
plemental stud element between them, one of
65..edge of the jaw and said opening between the said jaws having a catch to- receive and interlock 65
plies to said catch for guiding the head of said with said complemental stud element and one
jaw having a corrugation forming a groove on
stud element into said catch.
2. The fastener set forth in claim l wherein the side of the jaw facing the other jaw and
said socket element is formed of a sheet of spring leading inwardly from the free edge of the jaw
70k vÍmetal folded upon itself to» form the opposed jaws, and said gap to said catch, said corrugation 70
and said guide channel comprises a corrugation forming a rib on the other side of said jaw,
whereby the free edges of said jaws and said cor
in said jaw which reenforces the jaw against flex
ing between its free end and its juncture with the rugation hold said plies apart at said gap to
' maintain the gap freely open to» receive said
other jaw.
75
75* 3. The fastener set forth in claim 1 wherein complemental stud element.
2,114,431
10. In a fastener, a piece of pliable material
comprising a plurality of plies having one edge
of one ply secured to the other with a gap be
tween the plies, an approximately ñat socket
element secured between said plies and having
opposed spring jaws with their free front edges
disposed at said gap to receive the head of a
complemental stud element between them, one
of said jaws having a catch to receive and inter
10 lock with said head of the stud element, said
socket element having a plurality of lugs pro
jecting from the free front edge of at least one
jaw at opposite sides of said gap between said
plies, and stitches passing through the plies
15 of said piece of material and traversing said
lugs, whereby to hold taut the plies at opposite
sides of said .gap and prevent lateral displace
ment of said socket element out of alinement
with said gap.
20
11. In a fastener, a piece of pliable material
comprising a plurality of plies having one edge
of one ply secured to the other with a gap be
tween the plies, an approximately ñat socket
element secured between said plies and having
25 opposed spring jaws with their free front edges
disposed at said gap to receive the head of a com
5
plemental stud element between them, one of
said jaws having a catch to receive and interlock
with said head of the stud element, said socket
element having lugs projecting from the free
front edges of one jaw at opposite sides of said
gap and having other lugs projecting from other
edges of the element, and means securing said
socket element between said plies including
stitches passing through said plies and travers
ing said lugs.
10
12. In a fastener, a piece of pliable material
comprising a plurality of plies, means securing
said plies together adjacent one edge of at least
one ply to form a gap between said plies, and a
ñat spring socket element having a spring socket 15
to receive and interlock with a complemental
stud element, said socket element being secured
wholly between said plies with the mouth of said
socket adjacent and opening through said gap,
the edges of said socket element at its mouth 20
abutting said plies at the sides and ends of said
gap to hold the plies apart at said gap and main
tain the gap freely open to receive said-stud
element.
LEO ROSEMAN.
25
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