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Патент USA US2114456

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April 19, 1938.
A. POTT
'
2,114,456
METHOD OF PREPARING A POWDERED CABBONACEOUS MATERIAL FOR COMBUSTION ENGINES
Filed April 5, 1935
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“Rummy-mm
INVENTOR
ALFRED POTT
BY
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‘
‘
.
A
.
ORNEY .
Patented Apr. 19, 1938
, 2,114,456
UNITED STATES
PATENT ' OFFICE
2,114,456.
'
~
METHOD OF PREPARING A POWDEBEDICAR
BONACEOUS MATERIAL FOR CQMBUSTION
ENGINES '
Alfred Pott, Essen-on-the-Ruhr, Germany
Application April 5, 1935, Serial No. 14,793
In Germany October 17, 1934
' ~6 canine (01. 44-1)
This invention relates to a method of prepar
cause of the absence not only of incombustible "
ing carbonaceous powdered fuel material. for material but of constituents which tend to in
combustion engines, ‘particularly those of the
Diesel type. In such engines, air for combustion
crease the fuel’s heat capacity as well.
- ‘
‘ Various processes of manufacturing such ex
5 is compressed and thereby heated~to such an
extent that the fuel is automatically ignited at
tracts of goal, lignite, peat, etc. are known, us- .5.
ing organic solvent media at- elevated tempera
the desired moment. To this effect, in engines tures and, preferably, raised pressure during ex
using liquid fuel, the latter is introduced into the traction. All ‘these extracts of coal, lignlte, etc.
highly compressed and very hot air by means may be used for the purposes of the invention
10 of a ‘stream of more highly compressed air. In " provided they are .sufiiciently free or freed of in- ‘0
engines provided with pistons, the liquid fuel’ is
thus injected just before the piston approaches
the end of its stroke of compression. In engines
to be fed with powdered solid fuel material, how
15 ever, dif?culties have been experienced when the '
fuel was simply injected. No complete vcom- ‘
combustible residues. If the normal purity of
the extracts is still insufficient, ?ltration has to
be effected preferably underraised pressure and
at highly elevated temperatures.
Furthermore, in order to obtain great e?l- 15
ciency of the original fuel material, high yields
bustion of the fuel which apparently does not
ignite as readily as liquid fuel could be obtained;
of extracts are imperative. For this purpose, the -
among other reasons this may be to its relatively
tracts based on‘the following observation.
invention uses 'almethod of producing the ex- -
If
no larger size and heat capacity and its relatively
.e..g. coal is treated in an autoclave with a suit
smaller active surface compared with ?nestv ' able solvent medium, such as a mixture of lower
and higher- boiling oils, thereby gradually raise
ing the temperature and registering the rising
rial into the combustion air in ample time before pressure in the autoclave by means of an indica
drops of liquid fuel._ Therefore, it is advisable
to-introduce the powdered carbonaceous mate
25 the temperature of ignition is reached, in‘ order
to permit the fuel to be thoroughly heated.
In such engines another difficulty has been
encountered due to the ash content in the fuel
material. Ashes in amounts sufficient to grind
30 off the cylinder and piston surfaces remain in
the machine after combustion. ‘The lubricating
' oil circulating in the machine transports the ash
to other sensitive parts of the machine, result
ing in considerable wear within a short time of
35
operation.
.
-
I
tor, a sudden increase of pressure can be ob- 25
served‘at a vcertain temperature.‘ This is due to
the fact ‘that a decomposition of the material '
under treatment takes place whereby gases are
evolved. Therefore, if the temperature at a
subsequent treatment of material of the same 30
‘kind, with the same solvent media, remains a
few degrees centigrade below the temperature of
decomposition, so established by a previous treat
ment, a certain yield of extracts can be obtained.
However, no matter how long such treatment at 35
,
It is an object of the invention to present a this temperature might be extended, or how
carbonaceous powdered fuel material in a state oftendt might be repeated, the yield of extracts
of high purity, practically free from ash.
does not materially increase. After having ob
It is a further object of the invention to pre-‘ tained a ?rst yield of extracts in the way de
40 sent the powdered carbonaceous fuel material in scribed, the temperature of_ treatment may be 40
'
a state of high activity.
__
.\45
_
w
raised, however, without causing decomposition,
‘It is still another object. of the invention to
i. e. the evolving of gases indicated by suddenly
render the combustion, calculated upon the
original solid fuel m'aterial, very effective.
.incr'easing'pressure. By the ?rst treatment all
the constituents capable of ‘decomposition at
According to the invention, no natural carbo
- the first. established temperature are extracted 45
“\ naceous powdered material but solid powdered ex
from the carbonaceous material and taken in
solution by the solvent medium, which protects
them against further decomposition, 'and av bal
ance of‘ solid carbonaceous material remains the
constituents of which are incapable of decompo- 50
tracts of such material is used as fuel. Due- to
their production, such extracts are free or freed
of ash and other impurities .to any desired de
50 gree, therefore, not leaving in the machine any
detrimental residues. Furthermore, the extracts
,bemg practically" pure carbon substance and
sition at this temperature.
If,~ however, the‘
'
temperature is gradually raised above the?rst
\ L" forming depolymerized and slightly hydrogen 'mentioned level, a temperature will again be
' ated products, such extractsare more active than reached at which decomposition, indicated by.v a
'55 the initial coal substance, all the more 'so be
sudden rise‘loi' pressure, reoccurs; Therefore, a 55
2 ,
2,114,456 .
“second extraction has to be effected at a temper
ature above the ?rst extraction temperature but
‘by a few degrees centigrade lower than the sec
ond, higher temperature of decomposition estab
lished in the way described. Surprisingly,‘ in this
second‘stage in which the balance of the solid
carbonaceous material is being‘ treated at a tem
perature higher than the ?rst one, a new sub
stantial yield of extracts will be obtained in ad
dition to that obtained during the ?rst treat
ment. In continuing this. procedure, one may
cautiously raise‘ the temperature more and more,
obtaining thereby additional yields of extracts
until a temperature has been reached at which
15 the last yield of extracts is achieved and no ad
ditional amounts of extracts are obtainable,
neither by repeating nor by extending the heat
treatment at the last and highest temperature
nor by further raising this temperature. In the
latter case neither’ a decomposition can be ob
served (nd sudden increase of- pressure occurs
any more) nor will additional extracts result.
This last temperature depends upon the compo
sition of the carbonaceous material under treat
25 ment, and this and all the foregoing tempera
tures of treatment, which are close to but below
the decomposition temperature of the carbo
‘so
with this coal that a ?rstdecomposition occurs
at 330° C. The constituents decomposing ‘at
about this temperature having been extracted,
the remaining solid carbonaceous material de~
composes a second time at 360° C., whereupon
after additional extracts have been made at this
second temperature range a third, fourth and
?fth decomposition temperature occurs at about
380°, 400° and 410° C., respectively. Therefore,
as the diagram shows, the coal had been heated
up to 330° C. when the ?rst extracts were made
which may remain in the solvent medium or
may be removed'from it. Thereupon the tem
perature has been gradually or stepwise increased
up‘ to 410° to 415° C., and a second, third, fourth 15
and ?fth extract were obtained at about 360°,
380°, ‘400° and 410° to 415° C., respectively. ‘As
shown in the diagram, no additional extracts
could be obtained at the sixth and seventh ex
traction, and therefore further raising of the 20
temperature'or continuation of the treatment at
about 410° C. is ineffective. -The ressure in
the autoclave was ultimately raised to about 70
to 90 atmospheres. No destruction of the solvent
medium took place because of this increased 25
pressure in spite of the temperature being sub
stantially above the normal boiling temperature
naceous material under treatment, are to be es
under atmospheric pressure of some parts of the
tablished for every individual, material in the
solvent media. Calculated upon the weight of
the original, not disintegrated coal material, by 30
way described hereinbefore.
.
If but a small amount of gases is evolvedv the ?rst extraction about 37% extracts were ob
thereby and depending upon the nature of the ' tained, by the second extraction additional 8%,
material, the treatment may also be performed with additional yields at further extractions so
at about‘ the various decompositiontemperatures, that the entire yield of extracts amounted to
35 provided the decomposition of a small partvof about 74%. The remaining solid material con 35
the constituents ‘is of no consequence.
sisted of _colée and ash not capable of further
From this it results that the. extraction may be disintegration. ‘As a matter of fact, depending
effected at elevated temperatures which are step
upon the nature of the coal under. treatment,
wise or gradually raised so that they. are close yields up to 94% may be obtained in this way.v
40 to the decomposition temperature of the solid Thus, any and all combustible constituents are 40
carbonaceous material under treatment and in
extracted from the fuel material, and the high;
creased with the increasing amount of substance est e?iciency is achieved as far as the given solid
extracted from the material and taken in solu
fuel material is ‘concerned.
tion ‘by the solvent media used. The pressure
The extracts so obtained are highly active.
The extracts being solid at normal temperature 45
45 under which, the treatment is performed is usu
ally the normal pressure originating at the tem
up to about 200° C. and'over, coal extracts up to
perature applied for} the treatment performed in
a closed vessel (autoclave).
Additional pressure
may be applied, however.
about 230° to 250° 0., they can be conveniently
separated from the solvents by gradually cooling
the solvents still containing the dissolved extracts.
50 ' As solvent media, among others, hydrogenated
and/or acidic organic oils, alone or in mixture,
If some undesired amounts of ash and other 50
may be used. By way of‘example only, a~mix
tureof 40 parts naphthalene, 40 parts tetraline
not disintegrated parts of the carbonaceous ‘ma
_terial remain in the extracts, they may be sepa
rated by centrifugalization or ?ltration or. by al
and 20 parts of a tar phenol boiling at about
lowing the solution to stand so that the heavier
55 230° C., or a mixture of tetraline and phenols in solid particles may precipitate. If, due to the 55
a ratio of e. g. 1:1, or anthracene oil alone, or ‘extremely ?ne dispersion of the impurities re
‘in mixture with phenols or other oils such as ferred to ‘none of these methods succeeds, then'
tetraline or benzole, may be used.
i
-
In the drawing, a diagram is shown for the
60 treatment of a long-?aming coal with a solvent
medium consisting of 40 parts naphthalene, 40
parts tetraline and 20 parts tar phenols obtained
by distillation of coal between"180° to 230° C.
The long-?aming coal has‘ been powdered or
65 suitably broken up and then mixed with the sol
vent medium. The amount of solvent medium
applied depends upon its nature and that of
' the carbonaceous material to be extracted.
The
weight of the solvent medium may be, for in
70 stance, equal to that of the carbonaceous mate
rial, or it may be higher or lower.
1
the extracts still dissolved in the solvent medium
may be ?ltered under raised pressure and. at
highly. elevated temperature. Thereby practi
cally pure extracts are obtained, the content of
undesirable solid particles being substantially
below 1% and, as a great number of investiga
tions have proven, amounting to only a few
tenths of one per cent down to less thanyone tenth
of one per cent. For this ?ltrationja/ny suitable
?lter and ?lter material may be used. ~The solid‘
‘residue of extraction of carbprihceous material is
most suitable as ?lter materiallfor the extracts.
obtained therefrom. As average ‘temperatures 70'
for this ?ltering 150° to_170° _C., may be men
tioned, but higherv or lower temperatures may
autoclave provided with a stirring device and’ be applied. As the lowest limit a temperature
treated therein for about three to four‘ hours. range of about ‘75° to 100° C. may be given. The
75 It has been established by special experiments - pressure may be chosen above about 5 atmos 'I
The coal and the solvent are deposited into an
3
2,114,456
of decomposition of the carbonaceous material
pheres per square centimeter and very good re
sults have been obtained within the range of 10
to 20 atmospheres. In this way extracts are ob
under treatment and raised until no additional ,
.yields of extracts are obtained, said extracts sep
tained which are both easily and fully combusti- - arated from the solid residues and powdered.
3. A carbonaceous fuel material for combus
ble and extremely pure.
These extracts being solid at normal and ele
vated temperatures up to certain limits men
tioned above, are now to be powdered in any
tion engines consisting substantially of powdered
solid extracts obtained from solid carbonaceous
material by treating it in closed vessels with sol
vents at gradually increasing temperatures and
correspondingly rising pressures, said tempera 10
tures lying close to the increasing temperatures
of decomposition of the carbonaceous material
suitable way and to any desired ?neness. Ball
mills may be used and the treatment therein ex
tended sui?ciently long to obtain the desired size
of
powder.
.
-
'
~
under treatment and raised until no additional
As an engine suitable for the powdered car
yields of extracts are obtained, said extracts sep
arated from the solid residues by ?ltration under 15
elevated temperatures above about 75° C. and
under raised pressure above about 5 atmospheres
per sq. cm., and ‘thereupon powdered.
4. A carbonaceous fuel material for combustion
engines consisting substantially of powdered solid 20
extracts obtained from solid carbonaceous ma
terial by treating it ‘in closed vessels with solvents
bonaceous extract according to the invenion the
15 motor described in the periodical “Oel und
Kohle’_’, December 1933, pages 135, 136, may be
referred to. This motor uses an additional
chamber in which measured quantities of pow
dered solid fuel are delivered ahead of each com
20 pression stroke of the piston. The chamber is in
open connection with the cylinder so that the
compressed‘ and heated air enters'this chamber
at stepwise increasing temperatures and corre
and gradually heats the fuel deposited therein
until its ignition starts automatically and the
spondingly rising pressures, said temperatures
lying close to the increasihg temperatures of de 25
25 evolved gases of combustion expand into the cyl
composition of the carbonaceous material under
inder, injecting into it simultaneously the still
' treatment and raised until no additional yields
- burning fuel.
It is to be understood, however, that the inven.
tion is not limited to the use of this or any other
30 type of a reciprocating or‘ continuously turning
engine adapted to be operated with powdered
of extracts are obtained, said extracts separated
from the solid residues by ?ltration under ele
vated temperatures above about 75° 0.,‘ and un 80
der raised pressure above about 5 atmospheres
'
5. A method of producing carbonaceous fuel
It is further to be understood that the fuel ma
terial according to the invention may be used as - material for combustion engines comprising the
solid fuel material.
,
-
per sq. cm., and thereupon powdered.
35 such alone or in admixture to any other powdered . steps of extracting solid carbonaceous material
with solventsin closed vessels at increasing tem
solid or even liquid fuel material.
In the appended claims the term "so1vent”
comprises any suitable solvent medium for the'
constituents to be extracted, or any mixture of
40 such solvent media.
What I claim is:
‘ 1. A carbonaceous fuel material for combus
peratures and correspondingly rising pressures,
said temperatures lying close to the increasing
temperatures of decomposition of said car
bonaceous material, and raised until no addi
tional yields of extracts are obtained, separating
the extracts thus obtained from the solid residues
of said material, allowing said extracts to solidify,
and thereupon powdering said solid extracts.
6'. A method of producing carbonaceous fuel
vents at gradually increasing temperatures and ' material for combustion engines comprising the
steps of extracting solid carbonaceous material
correspondingly rising pressures, said tempera
tures lying close to the increasing temperatures with solvents in closed vessels at increasing tem-,
of decomposition of the carbonaceous material peratures lying'close to the increasing tempera
50 under treatment and raised until no additional tures of decomposition of said carbonaceous ma
tion engines consisting substantially of powdered
solid extracts obtained from solid carbonaceous
45 material by treating it in closed vessels with sol
yields of extracts are obtained, said extracts sep
arated from the solid residues and powdered.
2. A carbonaceous fuel material for combus
tion engines consisting substantially of powdered
55 solid extracts obtained fromv solid carbonaceous
material by treating it in closed vessels with sol
vents at stepwise increasing temperaturesand
correspondingly rising pressures, said tempera
tures lying close to the increasing temperatures
terial, and raised until no additional yields of
extracts are obtained, separating the extracts
thus obtained from the solid residues of said ma
terial by means of ?ltration at elevated tem
peratures aboveabout 75° C. and raised pressure
above about 5 atmospheres per sq. cm., allowing
said extracts to solidify, and thereupon powder
ing said solid extracts.
AIFRED P011‘.
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