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Патент USA US2114515

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April 19, 1938.
2,114,515
J. G. ALTHER
- CONVERSION OF HYDROGARBON 01L;
Filed June 12, 1935
FRACTIONIATOR
FURNACE 25
FIG.
e9;
'
a; 1
s
a1
INVENTOR
JOSEPH G. ALTHER
BY
ATTORNEY
"
Patented Apr. 19, 1938
2,114,515
UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFIQE
2,114,515.
CONVERSION OF HYDROCARBON OILS
Joseph G. Alther, Chicago, Ill‘., assignor to Uni- '
versal Oil Products Company, Chicago, 111., a
corporation of Delaware
'
Application June 12, 1935, Serial No. 26,189
9 Claims. (01. 196—58)
This invention refers to an improved. process
for the selective conversionof relatively low
boiling and high-boiling hydrocarbon oils to pro
duce high. yields. of desirable light distillate such
5 as motor fuel of good antiknock value.
I! am awarev that many processes have been
proposed for the selective conversion. of. rela
tively low-boiling and high-boiling hydrocarbon
oils, many of which employ separate heating coils
10' for the differentoils. and which, in many cases,
employ a reaction chamber to which the heated
products from both. heating coils are supplied.
and wherein said heated products are, subjected
to continued conversion- The object of employ
15. ing separate heating coils for the relatively low
boiling and relatively high-boiling oil is to per
mit the use of independently controlled conver
sion conditions of temperature, pressure‘ and‘ time.
for the different oil components. However, it is
20 common practice in such selective cracking oper
ations employing a single reaction chamber com
mon to both heating coils to commingle the two
streams of heated products from both heating‘
coils either before or immediately‘ after their in
v troduction into- the reaction chamber. This prac
tice may be satisfactory in case it is desirable
to retard conversion of the low-boiling. oils (which.
is usuallyv the highest temperature stream) and
to increase conversion. of the high-boiling oils
30, in the‘ reaction chamber. This. in turn necessi
tates controlling the conversion conditions in the
light oil heating coil so that substantially all of
the conversion to which the light oil‘ is subjected
occurs in this‘ zone and. controlling the conversion
35 conditions in the heavy oil heating coil so that
a, substantial degree of continued conversion of
the heavy oil may occur in the reaction cham
ber. Obviously this necessitates careful cor
relation of the conditions in the two heating coils
40. with each other and with the conditions main
tained in the reaction chamber.
It is the object of the present invention to pre
vent comm-ingling of the two streams of heated.
products from the light oil and heavy oil heat
ing coils prior to or immediately after their in
troduction into the reaction chamber so as to
obtain a substantial degree of continued conver
sion for one or both of'said streams in the re
action chamber without any appreciable e?ect‘
from the other stream. This is accomplished by‘
introducing each of the streams of heated prod
ucts intov the reaction chamber at a remote point
in this zone relative to the point of introduction
of the other stream.
55.
In the preferred embodiment of the present
invention the reaction zone to which the two
streams of heated products from the light oil and
heavy oil heating coils are supplied comprises
an elongated vertical reaction chamber.
The
stream of heated products from either the low- 5v
boiling or the high-boiling oil heating coil may
be supplied to the upper portion of the reaction
chamber, depending upon which stream it is de
sired, to subject to independent continued con
version in this zone, and the stream of heated
products'from the other heating coil may be in
troduced at any desired lower point in the re
action chamber, the commingled streams being
withdrawn from the lower portion of the cham
ber. On the other hand, one stream of heated 15
products may be introduced into the lower por
tion. of the chamber, the other introduced at any
desired higher‘point in this zone and the com
mingled vaporous components of both streams
withdrawn from the upper portion of the cham- 20
ber. In accordance with another modification
of the‘ invention the stream of heated products
from one heating coil may be introduced into the
upper ‘portion of the chamber, the stream of
heated products from the other heating coil in- 25
troduced into the lower portion of the chamber
and the vaporous components of two streams
commingled and withdrawn at the desired inter
mediate point in this zone.
In case the ?rst de
scribed method of operation is employed, both
vaporous and liquid conversion products may
be withdrawn in commingled state from the lower
portion of the reaction chamber or separation
thereof may be accomplished therein and the
vaporous and liquid products separately with
drawn.
In case either of the two last described
methods of operation, is employed, separation of
vaporous and liquid conversion products may be
accomplished in the reaction chamber, the liq
uid conversion products being withdrawn from
the lower' portion of this zone and the vaporous
products being removed, as the case may be, from
the upper portion or from an intermediate point
in this zone.
In one embodiment, the invention comprises 45
subjecting a stream of hydrocarbon oil of rela
tively low-boiling characteristics and a separate
stream of hydrocarbon oil of relatively high-boil
ing characteristics each to independently con
trolled conversion conditions of elevated tempera
ture, super-atmospheric pressure and conversion
time in a separate heating coil, introducing the
stream of heated low-boiling oil into the upper
portion of an enlarged vertical reaction cham
ber maintained at a substantial superatmospheric
2
2,114,515
pressure, introducing the stream of heated rela
tively high-boiling oil into the lower portion of
the same reaction chamber, withdrawing non
vaporous liquid conversion products from the
lower portion of the reaction chamber, com
mingling vaporous components of both streams
of heated products at an intermediate point in
the reaction chamber and withdrawing the com
mingled materials therefrom, subjecting the va
porous conversion products to fractionation and
condensing and collecting fractionated vapors of
the desired end-boiling point as the ?nal light
distillate product of the process.
The accompanying diagrammatic drawing il
15 lustrates one speci?c form of apparatus in which
the process of the invention may be accomplished
as well as two alternative arrangements for con
necting the reaction chamber with the rest of
the system.
Figure 1 of the drawing is a side elevation of
20
the cracking plant;
.
Figure 2 illustrates a reaction chamber similar
to that shown in Figure 1 with a different ar
25
rangement of connected lines; and
Figure 3 illustrates another modi?cation of the
method of connecting the reaction chamber to
the rest of the system which is also within the
scope of the invention.
Referring particularly to Figure l of the draw
30, ing, hydrocarbon oil charging stock for the proc
ess is supplied through line I and valve 2 to pump
3 by means of which it is fed through line 4 and
may be directed, all or in part, through line 5 and
valve 6 into fractionator ‘l or it may be supplied,
ponents of the same stream in the lower portion
of the reaction chamber to be withdrawn there
from, as will be later more fully described, while
its vaporous components pass upward through
the chamber and commingle at an intermediate
point in this zone, with the vaporous components
of the stream of heated products from heating
coil l5, commingled materials being withdrawn
from said intermediate portion of the chamber
through line 32 to subsequent portions of the 10
cracking system, as will be later more fully de
scribed. The stream of heated products supplied
to the upper portion of chamber 3| may, when
desired, be directed against the inner surface of
the wallsof the chamber by means of a suitable 15
spreader ?ange or spray arrangement such as
indicated, for example, at 33 whereby their liquid
components which are thus brought in contact
with the walls of the chamber may ?ow down
ward thereover to the lower portion of the cham 20
ber to be withdrawn therefrom together with the
liquid components of the stream of heated prod~
ucts supplied to the lower portion of the cham
ber. The liquid conversion products thus col-v
lected in the lower portion of chamber 3| may 25.
be quickly removed from this zone through line
34 and valve 35 to cooling and storage or else
where, as desired, or they may be directed, all
or in part, through line 36 and valve 31 into
vaporizing chamber 38, wherein they are sub 30V
jected to further vaporization in order to increase
their viscosity and ?ash point and to recover
desirable low-boiling components thereof by va
porization, due to the substantially reduced pres
35. depending upon its characteristics, through line
3, valve 3 and line l3 to light oil heating coil [5
sure maintained in chamber 38 relative to that
employed in the reaction chamber. The vapor
or from line 8 through line l6, valve l1 and line
23 to heavy oil heating coil 24. The other oils
which may be supplied to the light oil and heavy
40 oil heating coils will be later more fully described.
Heating coil 15 is located within, a furnace 25
of any suitable form and the relatively low-boil
ing oil supplied to this zone is heated therein to
the desired conversion temperature, preferably
45 at a substantial superatmospheric pressure and,
in the particular case here illustrated, the result
ing products are discharged in a continuous
stream from heating coil 15 through line 26 and
valve 2‘! into the upper portion of reaction cham
ous conversion products separately withdrawn,
50
ber 3|.
'
Relatively high-boiling hydrocarbon oil is sup
plied, as will be later more fully described, to
heating coil 24 wherein it is heated by means of
heat supplied from a furnace 28 of any suitable
55 form to the desired conversion temperature, pref
erably at a substantial superatmospheric pressure
and the heated products are discharged in a con
tinuous stream from this zone through line 29
and valve 30 and, in the case here illustrated,
60 enter the lower portion of reaction chamber 3|.
Chamber 31, in the case here illustrated, is. an
elongated, vertical chamber of materially in
creased cross-sectional area relative to the tubes
of heating coils l5 and 24 and this zone is pref?
65 erably operated at a substantial superatmos
as previously indicated, from a suitable inter
mediate point in chamber 3| through line 32 may
be directed, all or'in part, through valve 39 in
this line into chamber 38 or they may be sup
plied, all or in part, through line 40, valve 4|
and line 42 to fractionator ‘I.
.
In case chamber 38 is employed it is, as pre
viously indicated, preferably operated at a sub
45
stantially reduced pressure relative to that em
ployed in the reaction chamber by means of
which further vaporization of the liquid conver
sion products supplied to this zone is accom
plished. Final separation of vaporous and re
sidual liquid conversion products is also accom
50.
plished in chamber 38, the latter being removed
from the lower portion of this zone through line
43 and valve 44 to cooling and storage or else
where, as desired, while the vaporous conversion 55
products are directed from the upper portion of
chamber 38 through line 45, valve 46 and line 42
to fractionation in fractionator ‘I.
The components. of the vaporous conversion
products supplied to fractionator l, as previously 60
described, boiling above the. range of the desired
?nal light distillate product of the process are
condensed in this zone as re?ux condensate. The
total re?ux condensate may be collected within
the lower portion of the fractionator to be re 65
pheric pressure, which may be substantially the
moved therefrom through line H! and valve Hi to
same or somewhat lower than the pressure em
ployed in the preceding heating coil employing
pump 20 by means of which it is fed through line
2| and may be directed through valve 22 in this
the lowest pressure, in case diiferent pressures
line and through line l3 to further conversion in
are utilized in the two heating coils. When the
two streams of heated products from heating
coils i5 and 24 enter the reaction chamber in the
heating coil l5 or it may be directed from line 2|
through line 41, valve 48 and line 23 to further
conversion in heating coil 24. Re?ux condensate
may, on the other hand, be separated by frac~
tional distillation in fractionator ‘I, when so de
manner illustrated in Figure 1, liquid components
of the stream of heated products from the heavy
75 oil heating coil will separate from vaporous. com
40
sired, into selected relatively low-boiling and 75
2,114,515
high-boiling fractions, in which case only the
relatively high-boiling fractions are withdrawn,
as described, from the lower portion of frac
tionator 7, this material being directed from pump
29 through line 2i, line 41, valve 48 and line 23
to further conversion in heating coil 24. When
this method of operation is employed the rela
tively low-boiling fractions of the re?ux con
densate are withdrawn from one or a plurality
10 of suitable intermediate points in this zone, pro
vision being made in the case here illustrated for
directing the relatively low-boiling oil through
line It and valve I! to pump l2 by means of
which it is fed through line [3 and valve M to
15 heating coil I5 for further conversion.
When the charging stock for the process com
prises an oil of relatively wide boiling range, con
taining an appreciable quantity of both relatively
low-boiling and high-boiling fractions, it may be
20 supplied, in the manner previously described, to
fractionator l’ and separated in this zone, together
with the re?ux condensate, into selected relatively
low-boiling and high-boiling fractions for selec
tive conversion in the respective heating coils l5
65
70
not illustrated in Figure 2. Also, when desired,
vaporous and liquid conversion products may be
separately removed from the reaction chamber,
the liquid products being withdrawn therefrom, 1.0
either alone or together with a regulated portion
of the vapors, through line 63 and valve 64, while
the total or remaining vaporous products are sep
arately removed from a suitable higher point in
15
the chamber through line 13 and valve ‘l4.
Referring now particularly to Figure 3 which
illustrates another method of connecting reaction
chamber 3| which is entirely within the scope of
the present invention, the stream of highly heated
products from heavy oil heating coil 24 are di 20
rected through line 65 and valve 66 into the lower
portion of the reaction chamber wherein their
non-vaporous heavy liquid components separate
Fractionated vapors of the desired end-boiling
point are withdrawn, together with uncondens
the'liquid products are withdrawn from the lower
portion thereof through line B‘! and valve 68 to
able gas produced by the process, from the upper
chamber 38 or to cooling and storage or else
and re?uxing medium in this zone for assisting
fractionation of the vapors and to maintain the
desired vapor outlet temperature.
60
dicated at 33 may also be employed, when desired,
to direct the liquid components of the stream of
heated oil from light oil heating coil I5 against
the walls of chamber 3 I ,‘although this provision is
from their vaporous components, the latter pass
ing upward through the reaction chamber While 25
portion of fractionator 1 to serve as a cooling
55
duced pressure vaporizing chamber 38. A suitable
spreader ?ange or spray arrangement such as in
and 2d.
portion of fractionator ‘I and are directed through
30 line 49 and valve 50 to condensation and cooling
in condenser 5!. Tne resulting distillate and gas
passes through line 52 and valve 53 to collection
and separation in receiver 54. Uncondensable
gas may be released from the receiver through
35 line 55 and valve 56. Distillate may be withdrawn
from receiver 54 through line 57 and valve 58
to storage or to any desired further treatment.
When desired, a regulated portion of the distil
late collected in receiver 511 may be recirculated by
40 well known means, not illustrated, to the upper
50
3
where, as desired. ' The stream of heated products
from light oil heating coil l5 are introduced into
chamber 3| at a suitable intermediate point
through line 69 and valve ll}, commingling adja
cent their point of introduction with the vapor
ous components of the heated products supplied
to the lower portion of this zone through line 65
and valve 66. A suitable spreader ?ange or spray
arrangement 33 may also be employed, when de~
sired, to direct the liquid components of the prod
ucts supplied to chamber 3i through line 69 and
valve 76 against the walls of the chamber so that 40
they will ?ow downward thereover and be re
moved from the lower portion of the chamber
together with the liquid components of the prod
ucts supplied thereto through line 85 and valve
Referring now particularly to Figure 2 of the , 66. The commingled vaporous products continue
drawing, which illustrates a different method of in their upward path through chamber SI and
connecting reaction chamber 3! with the other are withdrawn from the upper portion thereof
portions of the system: The highly heated prod
through line ll and valve ‘#2 to be directed either
ucts from the heavy oil heating coil 24 are di
to chamber 38 or to fractionator ‘l, or in part to
rected through line 59 and valve 60 into the up
both zones in a manner similar to that indicated
per portion of the chamber and may, when de
in Figure 1.
sired, be directed against the interior surface of
It will be understood, of course, that other
the walls of the chamber by means of a suitable modi?ed forms of apparatus embodying the fea
spreader flange or spray arrangement indicated tures and advantages of the present invention
as before at 33 whereby the heavy liquid com
will be apparent to those skilled in the art and
ponents are contacted with the walls of the cham
the present invention is therefore not limited to
ber and caused to ?ow rapidly downward there
the speci?c forms of apparatus illustrated and
over while the vaporous components pass down
described. In each of the three cases illustrated
ward through the vapor space in the chamber. and above described the point of introduction of
The stream of highly heated products from the the heated streams of low-boiling and high-boil
light oil heating coil l5 are directed through line ing oils may be reversed. It will also be under
SI and valve 62 into the chamber at a suitable in
stood that the various modi?ed forms are not to
termediate point which, in the case here illus
be considered equivalent but rather serve to ren
trated, is near its central portion. The vaporous der‘ the-process of the invention more ?exible
products from the heavy oil heating coil are and may be selected to suit requirements.
thereby commingled at a point in the chamber
The preferred range of operating conditions
adjacent line 6| with the highly heated products which may be employed to accomplish the ob
from the light oil heating coil l5 and the com
jects of the present invention in a process of the
mingled materials pass downward through the re
general character illustrated and above described
maining or lower portion of the chamber to be may be approximately as follows: A temperature
withdrawn, in commingled state and together with of the order of 800 to 950° F. may be employed
the heavy liquids which flow downward over the at the outlet from the heavy oil preferably with
walls of the chamber and momentarily accumu
a superatmospheric pressure at this point in the
late in its lower portion, through line 53 and valve system of from 100‘ to 500 pounds, or more, per
75 ‘35%, preferably being introduced therefrom into re
square inch.
45
50
55
60
65
The temperature employed at the 75
2,114,515
outlet from the light oil heating coil may range,
for example, from 900 to 1050“ F. and the pres
sure employed at this point in the system is
preferably of the order of 200 to 800 pounds, or
more, per square inch. Any desired substantial
superatmospheric pressure up to approximately
the same as that employed at the outlet from the
communicating heating coil employing the low
der being chargeable, principally, to uncondensa
ble gas.
I claim as my invention:
1. In a process for the pyrolytic conversion of
hydrocarbon oils wherein relatively low-boiling
and high-boiling hydrocarbon oils are each sub
jected to independently controlled conversion
conditions of cracking temperature, superatmos
employed in the reaction chamber ranging, for
pheric pressure and conversion time'while pass
ing in a restricted stream through a heating coil, 10
the low-boiling oil being heated to higher crack
ing temperature than the high-boiling oil, the
separate streams or“ heated relatively low-boiling
example, from 100 pounds, or thereabouts, per
and high-boiling oils introduced into an enlarged
est pressure may be utilized in the reaction cham
10 ber. When a vaporizing or ?ash distilling cham
ber is employed it is preferably operated at a
substantially reduced pressure relative to that
operations of the invention as it may be accom
plished in an apparatus such as illustrated and
vertical reaction chamber also maintained at sub 15
stantial superatmospheric pressure, resulting
vaporous conversion products separated from
liquid conversion products in the reaction cham
ber and the former subjected to ‘fractionation for
the recovery of desirable light distillate bycon 20
densation of the fractionated vapors, the improve
ment which comprises introducing the stream of
heated relatively low-boiling oil into said reaction
above described, charging stock which comprises
chamber at a point a substantial distance remote
15 square inch down to substantially atmospheric
pressure. The fractionating, condensing and
collecting portions of the system may utilize pres
sures substantially the same or somewhat lower
ran the pressure employed in the preceding
20 stage or" the system.
As a speci?c example of one of the many possible
a Mid~continent topped crude of about 30° A. P. I.
gravity is supplied to the fractionator of the sys
tem and there separated, together with the re?ux
condensate formed in this zone, into selected rel
atively low-boiling and high-boiling fractions.
30 The low-boiling fractions of the charging stock
and re?ux condensate, 90 per cent or thereabouts
of which boil within the range of approximately
400 to 600° F. are subjected in the light oil heat
ing coil to an outlet coversion temperature of
to U! approximately 950° F. at a superatmospheric
pressure of about 500 pounds per square inch and
the highly heated products are introduced into
the upper portion of the chamber in the manner
illustrated in Figure 1 of the drawing. The high
40 boiling fractions of the charging stock and reflux
condensate are subjected in the heavy oil heating
coil to an outlet conversion temperature of ap
proximately 920° F. at a superatmospheric pres
sure of about 350 pounds per square inch and the
45 highly heated products from this zone are intro
duced into the lower portion of the reaction cham
ber.
The reaction chamber is maintained at a
superatmospheric pressure of approximately 350
pounds per square inch.
The non-vaporous
liquid conversion products which momentarily
collect within the lower porton of the reaction
chamber are quickly removed therefrom and in
troduced into a reduced pressure vaporizing
chamber operated at approximately 50 pounds
55 per square inch superatmospheric pressure.
Va
porous conversion products from the light oil
and heavy oil heating coils are commingled near
the central portion of the reaction chamber, with
drawn therefrom and also introduced into the re
60 duced pressure vaporizing chamber.
Residual
liquid remaining unvaporized in the vaporizing
chamber is withdrawn therefrom to cooling and
storage as the ?nal residual liquid product of the
process. The vaporous products from the vapor
65 izing chamber are subjected to fractionation for
the formation of said re?ux condensate and the
fractionated vapors have an end boiling point of
approximately 400° F. are subjected to condensa
tion and the resulting distillate recovered. This
70 operation will produce, per barrel of charging
stock, about 62 per cent of motor fuel having an
octane number of approximately '70 and approx
imately 26 per cent of good quality residual liquid
75 suitable for sale as premium fuel oil, the remain
from the point of introduction thereto of the 25
stream of heated high-boiling oil, removing the
separated vaporous conversion products from
the chamber at a point intermediate the points
of introduction of said streams thereto, and sep
arately removing the liquid conversion products 30
from the lower portion of the chamber.
2. In a process for the pyrolytic conversion of
hydrocarbon oils wherein relatively low-boiling
and high-boiling hydrocarbon oils are each sub
jected to independently controlled conversion 35
conditions of cracking temperature, superatmos
pheric pressure and conversion time while passing
in a restricted stream through a heating coil, the
low-boiling oil being heated to higher cracking
temperature than the high-boiling oil, the sepa 40
rate streams of heated relatively low-boiling and
high-boiling oils introduced into an enlarged
vertical reaction chamber also maintained at sub
stantial superatmospheric pressure and wherein
substantial further conversion is effected, the re 45
sulting vaporous and liquid conversion products
separated and the former subjected to fractiona
tion for the recovery of desirable light distillate
by condensation of the fractionated vapors, the
improvement which comprises introducing the 50
heated stream of relatively low-boiling oil into
the upper portion of the reaction chamber, in
troducing the stream of relatively high-boiling
oil into the lower portion of the reaction cham
ber, withdrawing liquid conversion products from 55
the lower portion of the reaction chamber and
separately removing vaporous components of
both streams from a point in the reaction cham
ber intermediate the points of introduction of said
low-boiling and high-boiling oils.
3. In a process for the pyrolytic conversion of
hydrocarbon oils wherein relatively low-boiling
and high-boiling hydrocarbon oils are each sub
jected to independently controlled conversion
conditions of cracln'ng temperature, superatmos
pheric pressure and conversion time while pass
ing in a restricted stream through a heating coil,
the low-boiling oil being heated to higher crack
ing temperature than the high-boiling oil, the
separate streams of heated relatively low-boiling
and high-boiling oils introduced into an enlarged
vertical reaction chamber also maintained at
substantial superatmospheric pressure and where
in substantial further conversion is effected, the
resulting vaporous and liquid conversion prod 75
~2,114,515
'llC?S separated and the former subjected to fractionation ‘for the recovery of desirable light dis
s10
stream-through a heating coil, simultaneously
heating a stream of the lighter oil to higher
,till'ateby. condensation of the fractionated va
cracking, temperature under pressure in a second
pors, the improvement which comprises introduc
ing the stream of heated relativelylow-boiling
oil into the upper portion of the reaction cham
heating coil, introducing the heated light oil
stream into the upper portion of an enlarged ver
tical reaction chamber maintained under super
ber, causing the liquid components thereof, to flow
atmospheric pressure, introducing the heated
downward over the interior surfacev of the walls
heavy oil streamat a substantially lower point in
the chamber, separating vaporous from liquid
of the chamber to its lower portion, causing the
vaporous components .thereof to pass separately
downward in the reaction chamber, introducing
the heated stream of relatively high-boiling oil
into the lower portion of the reaction chamber,
separating vaporous and liquid components
15 thereof in this zone, causing the vaporous com
ponents thereof to pass upward in the reaction
chamber, commingling the vaporous components
of both streams intermediate their points of in
troduction into the reaction chamber, removing
20 the commingled vaporous products from the
chamber and separately removing liquid com
ponents of both of said streams from the lower
portion of the reaction chamber.
4. In a process for the pyrolytic conversion of
25 hydrocarbon oils wherein relatively low-boiling
and high-boiling hydrocarbon oils are each sub
j ected to independently controlled conversion con
ditions of cracking temperature, superatmospheric
pressure and conversion time while passing in a
30 restricted stream through a heating coil, the low
boiling oil being heated to higher cracking tem
perature than the high-boiling oil, the separate
streams of heated relatively low-boiling and high
boiling oils introduced into an enlarged vertical
jCOl’lVBI‘SiGII ‘products in the chamber, removing 10
the separated vaporous products from the cham
ber at a point intermediate the points of intro
duction of said streams thereto, and separately
removing the liquid conversion products from
the lower portion of the chamber.
15
'7. The process as de?ned in claim 6 further
characterized in that the heated heavy oil stream
is introduced to the upper portion of the cham
ber while the heated light oil stream is introduced
at a substantially lower point in the chamber.
20
8. In a process for the pyrolytic conversion of
hydrocarbon oils wherein relatively low-boiling
and high-boiling hydrocarbon oils are each sub
jected to independently controlled conversion
conditions of cracking temperature, superatmos
25
pheric pressure and conversion time while pass
ing in a restricted stream through a heating coil,
the low-boiling oil being heated to higher crack
ing temperature than the high-boiling oil, the
separate streams of heated relatively low~boiling 30
and high-boiling oils introduced into an en
larged vertical reaction chamber also maintained
at substantial superatmospheric pressure and
wherein substantial further conversion is effected,
the resulting vaporous and liquid conversion 35
35 reaction chamber also maintained at substantial
superatmospheric pressure, the resulting vapor- V products separated and the former subjected to
ous and liquid conversion products separated and
the former subjected to fractionation for the re
covery of desirable light distillate by condensa
40 tion of the fractionated vapors, the improvement
which comprises introducing the heated stream
of relatively high-boiling oil into the upper por
tion of the reaction chamber, introducing the
stream of relatively low-boiling oil into the lower
45 portion of the reaction chamber, withdrawing
liquid conversion products from the lower portion
of the reaction chamber and separately remov
ing vaporous components of both streams from
a point in the reaction chamber intermediate the
50 points of introduction of said low-boiling and
high-boiling oils.
5. A process for the conversion of relatively
heavy and light hydrocarbon oils which comprises
heating the heavier oil to cracking temperature
55 under pressure while ?owing in a restricted
stream through a heating coil, simultaneously
heating a stream of the lighter oil to higher
cracking temperature under pressure in a second
heating coil, introducing the heated oil streams
60 into an enlarged vertical reaction chamber main
tained under superatmospheric pressure, the
heated light oil stream being introduced to the
chamber at a point a substantial distance remote
from the point of introduction of the heated
65 heavy oil stream, separating vaporous from liquid
conversion products in the chamber, removing
the separated vaporous products from the cham
ber at a point intermediate the points of intro
duction of said streams thereto and separately
70 removing the liquid conversion products from
the lower portion of the chamber.
6. A process for the conversion of relatively
heavy and light hydrocarbon oils which com
prises heating the heavier oil to cracking temper
75 ature under pressure While ?owing in a restricted
fractionation for the recovery of desirable light
distillate by condensation of the fractionated va-~
pors, the improvement which comprises introduc
ing the heated stream of relatively low-boiling 40
oil into the upper portion of the reaction cham
ber and passing the liquid and vaporous compo
nents thereof downward in the chamber, intro
ducing the heated stream of relatively high-boil
ing oil into the lower portion of the reaction 45
chamber, separating vaporous and liquid com
ponents thereof in this‘ zone, causing the vapor
ous components thereof to pass upward in the
reaction chamber, commingling the vaporous
components of both streams intermediate their 50
points of introduction into the reaction chamber,
removing the commingled vaporous products
from the chamber intermediate the points of in
troduction of the heated streams to the chamber,
and separately removing liquid components of 55
both of said streams from the lower portion of
the reaction chamber.
9. In a process for the pyrolytic conversion of
hydrocarbon oils wherein relatively low-boiling
and high-boiling hydrocarbon oils are each sub
60
jected to independently controlled conversion
conditions of cracking temperature, superatmos
pheric pressure and conversion time while pass
ing in a restricted stream through a heating coil,
the low-boiling oil being heated to, higher crack 65
ing temperature than the high-boiling oil, the
separate streams of heated relatively low-boiling
and high-boiling oils introduced into an enlarged
vertical reaction chamber also maintained at sub
70
stantial superatmospheric pressure and wherein
substantially further conversion is effected, the
resulting vaporous and liquid conversion products
separated and the former subjected to fractiona~
tion for the recovery of desirable light distillate 75
6
2;114,515
by condensation of the fractionated vapors, the
improvement which comprises introducing one
of the heated streams into the upper portion of
the reaction chamber and passing the liquid and
vaporous components thereof downward in the
chamber, introducing the other heated oil stream
into the lower portion of the reaction chamber,
separating vaporous and liquid components
thereof in this zone, causing the vaporous com
10 ponents thereof to pass upward in the reaction
chamber, 'commingling the vaporous components
of both streams intermediate their points of in
troduction into the reaction chambenremoving
the commingled vaporous products from the
chamber intermediate the points of introduction
of the heated streams to the chamber, and sep
arately removing liquid components of both of
said streams from the lower portion of the reac
tion chamber.
’
1
JOSEPH G. ALTHER.
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