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Патент USA US2114521

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April 19, 1938.
c, Q BROWN
2,114,521
METHOD OF COMPLETING WELLS
Filed June 8, 1956
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Patented Apr. 19, 1938
r 2,114,521
UNITED * STATES ~ PATENT OFFICE
2,114,521
METHOD or COMPLETING WELLS
Cicero C. Brown, Houstom'Tex.
Application June s, 1936, Serial No. 84,073
6 Claims. (Cl. 166-21)
My invention relates to a method of completing
wells for production and has particular reference
to the cementing and the steps taken to complete
the well after the cementing operation has been
performed.
the wall of the well down to the lower end of the
casing, This casing has been cemented as shown
at 2 so as to close off the entrance around the
lower end of the casing of any fluid from above
the same outside the vcasing. The well has then
It is an object of the invention to devise a ‘ been drilled down through the casing making a
method of cementing the well so as to entirely
hole of small diameter as shown at 3.
close off the entrance of- any ?uid whatever to
the well bore and to then open up communica
tion from the formation through the wall of the
well to the interior thereof.
It is a further object to provide a means for
cementing the well without the use of an un
smaller hole a liner is set.
necessary amount of cement.
I contemplate
15 forcing the cement around the lower end of the
In this
The hole has been
drilled down through a producing (formation
which is indicated at I, and the liner shown at 5
extends through the formation and has at its
lower end a set shoe 6 of ordinary construction.
In lowering the liner through. the casing to
its position at the bottom of the well I employ the
setting tool shown best in Fig. 1. A string of pipe 15
‘I, which may be a'drill stem, is secured at its
casing or liner without the necessity of ?lling the
whole interior of the casing with cement in so _ lower end to a collar 8. This collar is internally
doing.
threaded at its lower end for connection at 9 to a
It is a further object of the invention to pre
nipple l0.
‘
vent the mixing of the cement and the mud in
The
nipple
l0
extends
beyond
the collar a suit- '
20
the well and thus avoid impairing the e?iciency able distance and is threaded to receive a clamp
of the cement.
ing collar ll. Above the threaded area the outer
I further desire to arrange the completing of face of the nipple is provided with an annular
the well so that there will be a minimum of shoulder l2, which is upwardly inclined to fur
danger of blowout in the ?nishing operations.
nish a support for a plurality of latching dogs
With reference to the drawings herewith, Fig.» 83. Spaced above the shoulder l2 a collar I4, is
1 is a central longitudinal section through a well screwed on the outer surface of the nipple and is '
casing showing a portion of the setting tool partly held rigidly in position by a locking screw iii.
in elevation and partly in‘ section.
The lower end of the collar it has an outer,
,
Fig. 2 is a similar view showing the lower end downwardly extending ?ange i 6 under which the
30
of the casing or liner with the back pressure upper'ends of the latching dogs may engage, as
valve and setting sleeve in connection therewith.’ will be understood from the drawings.
Fig. 3 is a view partly in section and partly in
on the outer surface of the collar 86 is an an
elevation showing the setting tool connected with nular recess to receive a packing ring ll of rub
the setting sleeve at the lower end of the well in \ her, or similar compressible packing material, the
the desired position when the well is being ce “upper end of which is grooved so as to be expand
mented.
ed by fluid pressure from above.
Fig. 1i is a side elevation of 1 the liner and set
.“detween the collar ill and the coupling 8 1 pro
shoe, certain parts being broken away for greater
40 clearness.
‘
vide an anti-friction bearing race including a
lower ring it, an upper ring l9, and an inter
Fig. 5 is an assembly view showing the ap
mediate row of balls 26.
paratus employed, in position in the well.
The latching dogs l3 have their lower ends
I have illustrated my invention as adaptedv
extending
downwardly below the shoulder and
for use where a casing is set in the well and‘ the
Well extended beyond the casing down tov the have outer downwardly inclined shoulders ‘ii to 45
producing formation and a liner is set from the be clamped between the upper tapered surface
casing down to the lower end of the well. This is 22 of the clamping collar H and the interior of
a very common method of equipping the well, but the setting collar with which it is to engage.
The setting collar is shown best in Fig. 2 but
I Wish it to be understood that the invention is
not con?ned to the use of a casing and liner, it reference is made particularly to Fig. 3 in showing 50
being possible to set the liner all the way from the engagement between the setting tool and the
the surface and where such construction is used setting sleeve. The setting collar has an upwardly
the method of handling the well is the same.
extending barrel 23 and its lower end is inclined
With reference‘to Fig. 5, I have shown the well inwardly and reduced both in external and in
as equipped with a casing l, which reenforces ternal diameter. At its lower end it is extended 55
2
-a,114,sa1
outwardly and‘ threaded at 24 for engagement
within the set shoe 3.
.
_
.
i
The upper end of the barrel 23 hasa seat 28
upon which the lower ring ll of the'bearing race
may engage and be supported.
Spaced below
this upper end there is an interior shoulder 21
beveled to engage with the outer shoulders 2i
upon the dogs 13.
’
’
>
Below the Shoulder,“ and spaced therefrom
10 is an inwardly extending key or ridge 28 which
is adapted to engage with outwardly extending
key or ridge 29 upon the clamping collar II.
The interior of the reduced lower end of the
setting sleeve is formed with a packingmember
30 having'its lower end cleft to permit the en?
trance of pressure ?uid to assist in sealing the
same against the inner lower end of a nipple l0.
Below the sealing ring 30 and within the cylin
drical portion of the setting sleeve. is an annular
20 recess 3| in which is housed a spring ring 32. Said
ring is to be understood as a split ring similar
to the'ordinary metal piston ring. Its upper end
is beveled inwardly so that when it is engaged by
_a plug such as shown at‘ 33 it will be forced out
25 wardly into the recess to allow the passage of the
plug and then will move inwardly to engage
within a latching recess 3| in the plug.
The lower end of the setting sleeve is formed
into a seat to receive theback pressure valve 34,
a seal is formed between the setting tool and the
setting sleeve due to the upper packing ring vI‘I
and the lower packing ring 33.‘ There will be no
escape of liquid around the connection ‘between
the setting tool and the sleeve, as-will be clearly
understood. The anti-friction bearing at 20 is of
use in the rotation of the setting tool in movingthe
clamping collar ll into position such as has just
been described. The lower ring I! of the race
way will set frictionally against the upper end
of the setting sleeve and will be held stationary
while ‘the tool is being rotated. This furnishes a
support which limits the downward movement
of the setting tool to the proper level and also
allows more ready rotation of the setting tool
while the clamping collar II is being moved into
clamping position. With this rigid connection be
tween the setting ‘tool and the lower end of the
liner the‘setting tool may be employed to lower
the liner downwardly into position at the bottom
20
of the well. Mud may be pumped downwardly
through the liner during the operation and when
the bottom has been reached the circulation of
the mud will serve to clear away the material at
the lower end of the well so that the liner may
be properly seated.
-
When the parts‘ are in this position I cement
through the setting string and around the lower
end of the liner. In doing this I prefer to place
a charge of cement of the proper amount into the 30
be particularly described. It is held normally upper end of the setting string and above the mud
in the string. On the upper end of the charge of
within the seat by a spring 35.
The set shoe 8 with which the lower end of the cement I place a plug such as is shown in Fig. 3
setting sleeve is engaged is connected to the lower at 33. This plug forms a piston which is a sepa 35
rating barrier between the cement and the mud
end of the liner and has a lower forwardly pro
jecting blade 25 thereon to engage the formation which is pumped in above the plug. The pump
and resist rotation of the liner. There is a cen- ‘ pressure forces the cement ahead of the plug and
tral Opening 36 through which ?uids may pass downwardly around the lower end of the liner
and ‘upwardly outside thereof. I contemplate
downwardly past the back pressure valve.
40
The upper end of the liner may be equipped pumping a suillcient charge to displace all the
mud at the lower end of the well and force the
with a packer as shown at 31 in Fig. 4, or the
cement upwardly the full length of the liner and
_ packer may be omitted as shown in Fig. 5. Where
a packer- is employed it may be set when the around the lower end of the casing, as shown in
liner is in position to close the space between the Fig. 5. Where this is done the cement serves to 45
of! between the liner and the casing at the
lower end of the casing and the upper end of the pack
upper end of the liner and to entirely seal against
liner.
'
'
all liquids from the lower end of the well. When
When the packer such as is shown in Fig. 4
is employed the setting string has thereon a the plug 33 reaches the lower end of the setting
packer setting device such as is shown at 44. tool it will be engaged by the ring 32 and will be
50 This setting device has thereon dogs 45 which are held in position to close the lower end of the liner.
The setting tool may then be released and re
adapted to be moved outwardly to engage with ‘ moved. This is done by rotating the setting
the upper shoulder 46 about the packer and thus string in the reverse direction to move the clamp
allow the exertion of pressure upon the upper
ing ring ll downwardly away from the dogs l3
end of the packer to compress it in the usual so as to release the same and then the setting 55
55.
manner.
tool may be drawn upwardly from the well.
In assembling the setting tool within the liner
The cement is allowed to set until it is hard and
preparatory for lowering the liner into position the next operation consists in perforating the liner
the setting tool will have the parts thereon in at the level of the producing formation 4. There
position as shown in Fig. 1. The setting tool are many devices for perforating casing. I con 60
60 will be lowered into the setting sleeve arranged
template using any preferred form of perforator
as shown in Fig. 2. When the setting tool has preferably what is called a gun perforator, which
reached the seat in the setting sleeve it will be
forms openings as shown at 38 in Fig. 5, said open
rotated to bring the laterally extending keys or ings extending radially outwardly from the liner
lugs 29 on the clamping collar ll into engage
and through the wall of cement adjacent thereto. 65
65
ment with the key 28 on the interior of the This allows the ?uid from the producing forma
setting sleeve. The setting tool will then be ro
tion to enter the well through the perforations.
tated in a lefthand direction so as to screw the
The well is then ready to flow. and if a strainer
clamping collar ll upwardly beneath the lower is desirable a strainer will be set. In some forma
70 end of the dogs l3. This will move said lower tions the use of a strainer will not be necessary. 70
end outwardly and will clamp the upper shoulders In Fig. 5 I have shown a strainer 39, as having
2| on the dogs against the shoulder 21 on the been connected at the lower end of a short string
setting sleeve. The setting tool will thus be locked of pipe 40 and lowered into position with the set
in position rigidly against the sleeve as will be shoe ll thereon seated at the upper end of the
75 understood from Fig. 3. It will be noted that setting sleeve 23. At the upper end of the pipe 75
30 which is of ordinary construction and need not
3
9,114,521
40 I have shown a canvas packer 42 which may
be employed to close the space between the pipe
40 and the interior of the liner. This packer and
its operation is well known in the art and forms
no part of the present invention and need not be
further described. A ?ow tube 43 may then be
lowered downwardly into the interior of the
strainer and the well is ready for production.
It will be seen that with my present method
10 of completing the well it is possible to employ the
cement most e?iciently. Under other methods of
20
through said casing and liner to seal with the
lower end of said liner, forcing cement through
said line and around the lower end of said liner
upwardly to cement the outer face of said liner
and ?ll the space between said liner and cas
ing, withdrawing said line, hardening said ce
ment, and perforating said liner and cement at
the level of the producing sand so as to allow
entrance of fluid therefrom to said liner.
'3. A method of finishing a well for produc 10
tion, securing a ?uid conducting pipe in sealing
cementing which are now common it is necessary
engagement with the lower end of a liner and
to ?ll the whole interior of the liner with cement
and force this large volume of cement downward
ly through the large volume of mud which it dis
places. In the present method only the cement
is circulated through a setting string of much
smaller diameter and the smaller diameter of the
setting string makes it possible to more effective
lowering the liner to position in the well with
said pipe, forcing cement through said pipe and
upwardly outside the liner to a level \above the 15,
producing formation, discontinuing the cement
ing to prevent the entrance of cement to the
interior of said liner, allowing said cement to
set, detaching and removing said pipe, thus leav
ing the interior of said liner clear of cement, 20
puncturing said liner and said cement at the
level of the producing formation and then set
1y handle the cementing operation without waste.
The mud which is below the cement is moved
downwardly through the string and outwardly
into the well and will be moved upwardly ahead
of the cement and will not mix with the cement
- to such an extent as to impair the cementing op
eration as frequently occurs in the previous
methods. I find that much more consistent and
reliable results are obtained by this method.
Further, the cementing of the full length of
30 the liner up above the producing formation
serves to effectively seal of! the entrance of ?uids
into the well to mix with the production from
the producing formation. When the liner and
the wall of the cement has been perforated to
35 allow the entrance of production to the well, the
well may be more easily controlled to prevent
danger of blowout. The method is therefore
more easily performed and is less wasteful of ce
ment and more reliable in its results than other
ering the liner to position in the well. forcing
cement through said pipe and upwardly outside
the liner to a level above the producing forma
tion, closing the lower end of the liner above 30
the cement, maintaining the interior of said liner
clear of cement, allowing said cement to set, re
moving said pipe, puncturing said liner and said
cement at the‘ level of the producing formation
and then setting screen in the liner.
85
5. A method of finishing a well for production,
securing a ?uid conducting pipe in sealing en
gagement with the lower end of a liner and low
ering the liner to position in the well, preserving
said sealing engagement while forcing cement 40
methods now in common use.
What is claimed as new is:
ting screen in the liner.
4. A method of finishing a well for production,
securing a fluid conducting pipe in sealing en 25
gagement with the lower end of a liner and low
'
l. A, method of ?nishing a well for production
including; cementing a casing in the well, drill
ing down through the cement and into a produc
ing formation, setting a liner in the well and si
multaneously extending a ?uid conducting line
through said casing and liner to seal with the
lower end of said liner, forcing cement through
said liner and around the lower end of said liner
60 upwardly to cement the outer face of said liner
and ?ll the space between said liner and casing,
maintaining the interior of the liner free of ce
ment, hardening said cement, perforating said
liner and cement at the level of the producing
sand and setting a screen within said liner.
2. A method of ?nishing a well for production
including; cementing a casing in the well, drill
ing down through the cement and’into a produc—
ing formation, setting a liner in the well and
simultaneously extending a ?uid conducting line
through said pipe and upwardly outside the liner
to a level above the producing formation, main
taining the interior of said liner, clear of cement,
allowing said cement to set, closing the lower
end of said liner above any opening therein, re 45
moving said pipe, puncturing said liner and said
cement at the level of the producing formation
and then inserting a ?ow line for the fluid from
the well.
6. A method of ?nishing a well including con
necting a setting string in sealing engagement
with the lower end of the liner and setting a
liner in the well, preserving said seal while forc
ing cement through said setting string around
the lower end of said liner and cementing the
liner in positiomplugging the lower end of the
liner above any opening in the end thereof, and
withdrawing the setting string.
0:01:30 c. BROWN‘.
on
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