Патент USA US2114535код для вставки
April 19, 1933- ‘ ' K. F. J. KIRSTEN - 2,114,535 GAS ARC LAMP Filed Oct. 24, 1933 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 $15.] l2 7 - INVENTOR /’_fU/?7' EJ." MR.) TEN Z BY ' ATTORNEY April 19, 1938. K. (F. J.v KIRSTEAN I 2,114,535 GAS ARC LAMP Filed Oct. 24, 1933 ‘ 2 Sheets-Sheet >2 ——l INVENTOR Myer f: J/f/RsTEN ATTORNEY 2,114,535 Patented Apr. 19,. 1938' UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,114,535 GAS ARC LAMP Kurt F. J. Kirsten, Seattle, Wash., assignor to Kirsten Lighting Corporation, a corporation of Washington Application October 24, 1933, Serial No. 694,981 3 Claims. This invention relates to the art of gaseous conduction-lamps and has reference more par ticularly to a novel electrical circuit for the kindling and operation of a gas are lamp. Heretofore, in the art of gaseous conduction lamps or luminous tubes containing rare gases or metallic vapors, the chief di?iculties have been in the complexity of the electrical circuit and of the equipment required in connection therewith. 10 Even the most recent achievements in the ?eld of gas are tubes embrace the following auxiliary devices: ' First.--Directly or indirectly heated cathodes 15 coated with a metallic oxide. Second.--A source of electrical energy for heat _ing the cathodes; usuallyin the form of some special low potential windings superimposed upon (Cl. 176-124) transformer which has a secondary potential suf ?ciently high to start the lamp. In view of the above stated facts, it has been the object of this invention to simplify the lumi nous arc tube and its supplementary circuits so 5 that it compares favorably in cost and main tenance with the simple glow tube and its cir cuits. ' ' . It is also an object of this invention to provide a'novel lamp circuit whereby use of the usually 10 employed Tesla coil and associated relays are eliminated; which also eliminates the use of costly external thermostats and their heating coil and ?nally, the production of a highly efficient arc lamp at a cost comparing favorably with that v 15 of the glow tube. . _ ‘ Other objects of the invention reside in the de tails of construction of the circuit, the electrodes Third.—A high frequency oscillator or Tesla. and the mode of operation of the lamp, as will 20 coil, energized from the main circuit for starting hereinafter be fully described. The simplification of the circuit of the luminous the arc. ’ . Fourth.-—A ballasting impedance which stab -' arc tube is made possible chiefly through use of the main transformer which energizes the are. lizes the arc or’which, in series with the arc of negative resistance characteristics, gives the cir-‘ 25 cult as a whole positive resistance characteristics. the special. cathode construction described and illustrated in my pending application ?led on August '7, 1933 under Serial Number 683,985. 25 Fifth-Thermostats which retard the imposi ' This cathode‘ is constructed so that it is ener tion of are potential upon. the electrodes until gized by' the arc current itself instead of by after the cathodes have been brought up to proper special auxiliary circuits. In connection. with this particular cathode I associate bi-metal ther heatand which‘ also retard and limit the func 30 tioning of the Tesla coil to the proper period of mostatic strips in the electrode construction 30 whereby the arc current is shunted through a its operation. Sixth-Relays ‘which, delayed by the thermo conductor which, externally of the tube, connects stats, close the main arc circuit and open the ' the heating elements of the cathodes in series. Tesla coil circuit at the proper time and which 35. shunt out the thermostats so that they may as sume their normal initial setting for again re peating this starting cycle of operations ‘should the line potential drop or be cut off due to cir cuit disturbances. __ 40 The cost of the above equipmentand the added expense of its maintenance and skill required for its assembly have stood in the way of introducing the luminous arc lamp into the ?eld of general illumination in competition with other sources of 4GI light, such as the tungsten lamp, or in the ?eld of advertising with the high voltage glow tube which is now used extensively in all parts of the civilized world and which owes its success to the .simplicity of its circuits and small amount of 50 auxiliary equipment necessary to operate it. With respect to the high voltage glow tube, the Thus, the electrodes‘ are heated as soon as the- ‘ circuit is closed and when the cathode heat is 35 su?iciently high, the bi-metal strip warps from the heat and. breaks the short-circuit of the arc. This sudden opening of the short-circuited arc path and of the impedance creates a rise of po tential across the arc path which is suii‘iciently 40 high to kindle the are. In accomplishing the various objects of the invention, I have provided the improved details of construction, the preferred forms of which are illustrated in the accompanying drawings, where- 45 in- ‘ , Fig. 1 is a view diagrammatically illustrating the present lamp and its circuit in its simplest form. - ' t Fig. 2 similarly illustrates the lamp and an- 50 othercircuitof simple form. - ' _ Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic illustration oixth'e operating equipment consists only of a suitable impedance in series with the tube circuit to give present lamp and its circuit including control the tube a positive resistance characteristic. equipment which will insure most satisfactory 55 . 56 Usually this impedance is incorporated in the operation of the lamp. I 2 ’ 2,114,535 Fig. 4 is‘ a view diagrammatically ‘illustrating an alternative arrangement. shown is typical oi’ the varlous' kinds of im formers used in the luminous tube art. ' Fig. 5 is another alternative construction using , The-lamp circuit of Fig. 3 is an elaboration of ‘ r the simple forms ‘shown in Figs. 1 and 2. In this * an external thermostat. Fig. 6 is a diagram of another alternative con arrangement the terminals 8 and 8' are connect- ‘ ' struction employing an external thermostat ‘and ’ ed to the terminals of the secondary winding of relay. , - . Referring more in detail to the drawings In each oi‘ the several views i designates a 10 sealed transparent tubular vessel of glass or other a current limiting transformer Ii. The primary winding of this transformer is connected to the power circuit through switch i2. Also in this ‘arrangement the terminals 6 and 8 at one end and 10 suitable material ?lled with-a rare gas or me _ theterminals 6' and 8' at the other end are tallic vapor, or a combination of gas and vapor shunted, respectively, by condensers i0 and Ill’ which is the carrier for the luminous arc. At its opposite ends the tube 8 has enlargements 2'—2' 15 shaped to best accommodate the terminal elec- , trodes of the lamp; which, respectively, are des ignated in their entirely by reference numerals 3-6’. \ . ' The electrodes 3—3' preferably are in accord~ 207 ance with the construction illustrated and de-. scribed in my application filed August 7, 1933 under Serial Number 683,985, and each comprises and interposed in the conductor 9 is a shunt im pedance 9a. . The operation of the lamp and circuit of ‘Fig. 3 15 will be ?rst described as it simpli?es the un derstanding of circuits of Figs. 1 and 2. Upon closing switch l2 a current from the secondary of the transformer Ii ?ows through the heater coil 4 of the cathode of electrode 3 and since 20 the coil 4 is electrically connected through the cathode shell and‘connection 3c to the heat con,» an indirectly heated cathode enclosed by a heat serving shield 31) surrounding the cathode, the conserving shield. current will flow through ‘the shell and thermo static strip 5 to terminal 6, thence through con 25 ductor 9 and impedance 8a to the terminal 8'; thermostat 5’; through electrode 3' to terminal 8' and back to the transformer secondary. The magnitude of this current depends upon the total impedance of the secondary circuit, that is, up 30 on the resistance of coils ii, the shunt impedance 9a and the internal reactancé of transformer ii. The internal reactance oi’ the transformer is so proportioned that the short-circuit current of the secondary is only slightly larger than the 35 normal operating current of the lamp after the More speci?cally described, 25 the cathode consists of a tubular metallic shell 81: within which is a heater coil 45. The outer end of the coil is electrically connected with the, shell 8a and at its inner end is connected with a ter minal wire 8 which is sealed through the end wall 30 of the lamp tube. The heat conserving shield which encloses the cathode is designated by nu, meral 8b and this is a cylindrical, metallic piece larger than the cathode and supported by a sealed .in wire ‘I used as a terminal only for processing 35 the luminous tube. The shield 3b has electrical connection at 30 with the outer end of the oath' ode shell id for the ‘purpose fully disclosed in the above mentioned application. In accordance with the present invention, as illustrated in Figs. 1, 2, and 3, in each electrode arc is established. ‘ . A short time after closing the switch it, the heater coils 4, will bring the cathodes to incan descent glow and by radiation of heat to the 40 a bi-metal strip 5, functioning as a thermostatic element, is welded or otherwise ?xed at one end to the heat conserving shield 3b and the movable end of this strip normally makes contact with a 45 sealed in terminal connection .8. The terminal 6 at one end of the tube and its corresponding terminal 8' at the other end of the tube are elec trically connected by a conductor 9. shields, thegbi-metal strips 5 will warp-iso that their contacts with terminals 8-5’ are broken. In the construction of the lamp of Fig. l, to maintain the heat of the cathodes since it must also ?ow through the heater coils ii. The thermostats 5 also remain open due to the con tinued heat radiation of shields 3b of the ‘elec standard line potential from a one hundred ten or two hundred twenty yvoltlmain may be applied by the closing of a switch i2, to the terminal con nections 8—8' of the lamp; these terminals being connected to the switch by the conductors 8a 55 and 8b. In this simple construction a current . limiting reactance. designated at i 8, is included in the conductor 8a and this is so designed that the lamp operates at the desired current and that the current is not too large for the cathode heat ers when the arc is shunted by the wire 9 as will presently be understood. The circuit of Fig. 2 differs slightly from that. of Fig. 1 in that the application of electrical potential on the terminals 8-8’ from the main. This sudden opening of the circuit through im-_ ' pedance 9a immediately raises the potential of the secondary of transformer ii to its open cir 45 cuit potential which is high enough to ionize the gas between electrodes 3 and 3' to establish the arc. This are current is of sufficient magnitude ' trodes. v so. ‘ Should the energy supply he accidentally out off from‘ the primary of transformer I l and be 55 reestablished with switch I! in closed position, the arc in the tube will re-kindle automatically. since, upon the circuit failure, the cathodes im mediately lose their heat and the thermostats 5 close against terminals 8-6’, thus re-establish line is through a transformer consisting of an iron core ll with a magnetic shunt l5 which gives the transformer a high internal reactance. It in-. _ ciudes' also the primary winding l6 and auto ing the normal starting conditions of the tube. It the voltage ?uctuation in the supply circuit is- so rapid that full potential again exists on terminals 8 of the tube ~before thermostats 5 have time to‘ close upon terminals 6-6’, the ‘gas in the gap between the thermostats and their. respective contacts becomesv ionized allowing ap proximately normal current to pass through the transformer winding ll. Current from the main impedance shunt 9—9a and heater coils l with 70 is applied through a switch I! to winding l6 the result that the cathodes are brought again 70 which has a conductor iia leading from one to normal emission and the arc is re-estabiished. The operation of the lamp of Fig. 2' is sub side to the lamp terminal 8' and a conductor l6b leading to one end of winding I‘I which, in» turn, -'stantially like that of Fig. 3. It will be observed is connected at its other end by conductor Ila that in the arrangement of Fig. 2 there is no with lamp terminal. 8. The transformer here impedance interposed in the conductor -8 and 76 2,111,535 3 that there are no condensers shunting the ter-' a wire 36 to a circuit wire 31 that leads from the minals 6-—8 and 6'-6'. It has been established lamp terminal 8 to a contact 38 adapted to be that the impedance may be omitted and the ter engaged by the thermostatic strip 35. A wire minals 6-6’ connected with a wire of suitable Ill from one side of the secondary of a trans size except in cases where the reactance of the transformer is such that the secondary short circuit current is so large that the cathode heat er wires become overheated. , " ' secondary with terminal 8'. The condensers Iii-Ill’ of Fig. 3 are not neces 10 sary in normal circuits but are’ very effective in kindling the arc at considerably lower voltages than is possible without them. Also, they elimi nate the current drop in a mercury vapor tube which always occurs during .the ?rst minute ' after the arc is struck. Incidental to this cur rent drop, the arc voltage also rises and it is this maximum are potential for which the trans former Ii has to be designed. Hence if this po tential rise is prevented by use of a condenser 16, the same transformer canamaintain an arcv during its initial burning stages in a considerably longer tube. -' former ll forms aheating coil 42 about the thermostatic strip and fastens to the base of the strip. A wire 45 connects the other side of the , Therefore, the use of condensers l0—-lll' as in Fig. 3 has the advantage of greater tube footage 25 for a given transformer, an increased power fac . In using this type of lamp, at the start, the shunt connection is closed through armature ‘3|, 10 thus connecting the heating elements in series in the lamp circuit. Current also flows through coil 42 to wire 31 by reason of lesser resistance than is placed in the relay circuit. The coil 42 becomes heated‘and ultimately causes the ther 15 mostatic strip 25 to disengage terminal 38 there by causing current to?ow through relay coil and energizing the relay to open the circuit through the conductor 9a thereby causing the arc to be established in the lamp. ' ' 20 It will be quite apparent that in the present arrangement, especially» of Figs. 1. 2, and 3, an arc lamp of simpli?ed construction is provided. It is a lamp that can be made and maintained in operation at a relatively small cost especially in comparison with present day gas are lamps. tor for the tube circuit, and assures a more posi tive kindling of the are. It is a lamp that compares favorably with the When omitting the impedance 9a and con common glow lamp in cost of construction and densers l0—lli’ of the circuit of Fig. 3, ‘the only maintenance but which is materially‘better from 30 equipment necessary for the operation of the the standpoint of illumination. The cathodes 30 tube is the provision. of a transformer with suf are energized‘ not by special auxiliary circuits, ?cient internal reactan'ce to limit the short-cir I but by the arc circuit itself, and by use of the cuit current of the secondary to approximately internally located thermostats in the cathode the same magnitude as the normal operating heating circuit, costly external thermostats and 35 current of the arc. Hence, the circuit is pre auxiliary circuits are eliminated. Thus, prac cisely as simple as that of the high voltage glow tically all external equipment now employed in tube. In this connection, it will now be appar known devices of the prior art are eliminated. ent that by the simple addition to the electrode , Having thus described my invention, what I _ of my above mentioned co-pending application, claim as new therein and desire to secure by 40 of a thermostatic element for delaying striking Letters Patent is— of the arc until the cathodes have become heat 1. A lamp of the character described compris ed, and'by the addition of a conductor joining ing a sealed, transparent tubular vessel contain the two electrodes of the tube, the ‘glow tube is ing an ionizable gas and provided within its op changed to arc. performance. posite ends with electrodes, each with a terminal In an alternative construction, as disclosed in extending to the exterior‘ of the tube, a source Fig. 4. the conductor 9 is located internally of of the lamp tube and connects at its ends with metal hooks 20 supported by insulation 2| from the shields 3b and adapted to be connected elec of alternating current. potential with connections from opposite sides thereof, respectively, to said electrode terminals, each of said electrodes in cluding a heating element in series with the trically with theshield by a bi-metal thermostatic > lamp circuit, a conductor extending between the 50 band 23 attached to the shield.- In this type,’ the conductor serves by corona discharge to ion lze the gas along the arc path to stimulate the formation of the are when the shunt connection along conductor 9 is opened. In another modi?cation, as shown in Fig. 5, I locate a thermostatic switch 25 in the conduc electrodes exteriorly of the tube and having ter minals entering the tube, an impedance element in said conductor, condensers shunted across'the terminals of said electrodes and of said conductor and thermostatic strips associated with each elec trode and operable at'a predetermined degree of heat therefrom to open the circuit connection provided between the electrode and said can ductor. 2. A lamp of the character described compris 60 ing a sealed, transparent, tubular .vessel, con taining an ionizable gas and provided within its tor 8 externally of the tube‘; the conductor in this instance has direct connection through the terminals 6-6 with the shields 3b. Conductors 26-21 lead from the secondary of transformer Ila to terminals 8-6', and a coil in conductor 26 applies heat to the thermostat to open the. ends with electrodes; each with a terminal con circuit through conductor 9 after_ the cathodes 'nection extending to the exterior of the tube; a 05 have become heated. Also, a condenser, as at source of alternating current having connections 65 2|, may be provided to shunt across the switch leading ‘to said terminals and through which. elec to aid in starting the are, especially in long ‘trical potential may be impressed on the elec trodes to maintain an arc in the lamp; each of Fig. 6 discloses still another alternative con ‘said electrodesincluding a cathode containing a heating element and a heat conserving shield 70 struction in which the shunt connection 9a. be tween the electrodes is exterlorly of the tube and surrounding the cathode and electrically con is completed through the. armature. ill of a relay nected thereto, a'conductor exteriorly of the tube 3|. The core 32 of the relay is surrounded by a - and having its terminals extending into the oppo coil 33 connected at one end by wire. 34 to a ' site ends of 'the tube, thermostatic strips elec 75 thermostatic strip 36 and at its opposite end by trically connecting said terminals and the shields 75 I tubes. - - - i4 8,11V4,,585 I ‘ '0! the electrodes, thereby to join the heating ele v1;! 0! the tube shunting the arc path between the electrodes and ‘including a solenoid activated ments and shields in series with the lamp cir cuit; said thermostatic elements being adapted switch, a thermostatic element for closing the at a predetermined degree of heat to open the supply circuit, a heating coil in series with the circuit connections provided thereby. _ 3. A lamp of the character described, compris ing a. sealed, transparent vessel containing an ionizable gas and provided within its ends with electrodes, each with a terminal connection ex tending to the exterior of the tube,'a source of alternating current potential with connections from opposite sides leading, respectively, to oppo, site terminals of the lamp, a conductor exterior ‘ thermostatic element and supply circuit for heat ing the element to open the circuit and an ener gizing coil for the switch through which ‘the supply current is shunted by the opening of the circuit through the thermostatic‘element, there by to open the switch in the electrode connecting m conductor. ~ 7 . KURT I". J. KIRSTEN.