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Патент USA US2114564

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Patented Apr. 19, 1938
Walter Kling andEi-nst Giitte, Chemnitz, Ger-v
many, assignors to Boehme Fettchemie-Gesell
schaft m. b. 1-1., Chemnitz, Germany
No Drawing. Application August 28, 1935, Se
rial No. 38,325. In Germany August 28, 1934
6 Claims.
This invention relates to processes for use in
connection with the dyeing of ?brous materials
. , andv is more particularly concerned with the
(Cl. 8-5)
use persulphates, perborates, ortho-, meta-, and
pyropho'sphoric acids, as well as the various solu
ble salts of these acids, further, soluble complex
salts such as complex cyanides. The following
5 jected to the action of compounds which yield' compounds are speci?cally recommended for use
surface active cations (hereafter called cation in the manner herein explained, it being observed
treatment of dyed materials which have been sub
' - active compounds), for instance the high molec
that the employment-of compounds which are
not sensitive to iron salts, which are sometimes
ular quaternary ammonium compounds.
As is set forth in the prior application of ~Kling, present in dye or treatment baths, is desirable:
Turkey red oiland other sulphonated oils and
10 Giitte et al., ?led September 18, 1934, Serial No.
sulphonated fatty acids, resin soap made by dis
744,606, it has already been discovered that de
cided improvement can be effected in dyeing solving colophony in sodium hydroxide solution,
processes of greatly varied character by the use the sodium salt of abietic acid, the potassium salt
of cation active substances, greater amnity for of hydroabietic acid, tannin and synthetic tan
the ?bers being imparted to the dyes, a deepening ning agents, f. e. Neradol, sodium pyrophosphate,
of the dye color being obtained, and various other primary, secondary, and tertiary} alkali metal
advantages “secured, all of which are outlined in -
full in the application hereinbefore referred to.
It is now found, however, that while the use of
cation active substances in connection with dye
ing processes is highlydesirable, there are cer
tain attendant difficulties which it is the object
of the present invention to avoid. For instance,
it is found that the cation active substances when
used either preliminarily, subsequently, or with
ortho-phosphates, ammonium metaphosphate,
alkali metal metaphosphates, potassium persul
fate, ammonium persulfate, sodium perbor'ate,
sodium perphosphate, potassium zinc cyanide,
sodium ferrocyanide.
The temperature can be ordinary or moder
ately elevated temperature, more than 60° C. be
ing less suitable. The pH value of the treatment
liquid containing the acid radical compound of‘
the dye bath, frequently affect alteration of the ' high‘molecular weight should suitably be between
shade of the dye and greatly reduce the resistance '7 and 4, higher acidities being deleterious for ‘
to fading. The same is found to be true of
fibrous material dyed in the normal way and sub
30 sequently toned or matted with cation active sub
stances. It is also found that the usual methods
of increasing the resistance to fading, for in
stance by subsequent chromium and copper treat
most textile materials.
In the case of the following ‘dyes which have
been applied to ?brous materials treated, as out
lined in the previously ?led application hereinbe
fore mentioned, with a cation active substance,
very remarkableimprovements in the reproduc
ment, are‘ less effective where the material has tion of the proper shade and in the resistance to
35 been initially subjected to the action of cation fading is noted when these materials are subse
quently treated with Turkey red oil, resin soap '
active substances.
These various defects may be avoided if, after or tannin or other compounds mentioned herein.
dyeing, matting, or toning with cation active sub I Schultz,.Farbsto?tabellen (Dye‘Tcbles) 7th edi
stances, the material is subjected to a subsequent
_ _
tion, vol. 1
Diamin brown M _____________ _; _____ __No. 412
40 treatment with an acid radical compound yield
ing in watery solution anions of ‘an equivalent Direct true yellow BFF__________ _,_\___-No. 935
weight'of at least 90 but preferably 150 or higher,
and capable of reacting with the cation active
substances to produce a water insoluble precipi
45 tate, for instance Turkey red oil, resin‘ soap or
tannin. The necessary quantities are quite small;
thus a rinsing bath containing 0,5 grams per liter
of 25% sumac extract, is fully su?icient. The
term- "tannin” is used herein to include the var
50 ious derivatives and extracts,v all of which are
suitable for the purpose, tannin solution and
nutgall extract being particularly suitable'.-. In
the event light colored fabrics are treated it is
highly desirable that light tannin preparations be
55 selected so as not to cloud the color.
Various other acids and salts thereof which
produce water insoluble compounds with cation
active substances may be employed in lieu of the a
Turkey red oil, resin soap, or tannin, although
60 these are less effective. For» example we may
Direct brown B, _____________________ - -No. 415
Pluto-orange G ______________________ __'No. 480'
vBenzo-purple 4 B“; _________________ __No. 448
Brilliantbenzo-violet 2 RL ____________ __No. _ 610
The following specific examples illustrate the
manner in which the invention can best be car- .'
ried into practice, it being understood that. we do
not necessarily con?ne ourselves to the details‘
included herein.
Example 1
Cotton piece goods are dyed as usual with ‘3%
Diamin brown M using for 1 kg. of'cotton 300
litres of a dyebath containing 10% by weight 55
Glauber’s salt at temperatures from 50-80° for
45-60 minutes. The piece is’ then dried, impreg- 4
nated for 15-25 minutes with a solution of 1,2
grams per litre dodecyl pyridinium'sulphate and
dried once more. The dried piece is then treated 60
with a solution of 0,5 grams per litre of sodium
abietinate at ordinary temperature and at a pH
value 01' 7. Finally the fabric is dried.
. Example‘ 2
Knitted goods made of viscose rayon are dyed
, as usual with 2% Direct brown B using for 1 kg.
of viscose rayon- 280 litres of a 10% solution of
Glauber’s salt in water at temperatures from
10 50-80° C. for 1/2 hour. The knitted fabric is then
dried and impregnated during 20 minutes with a
solution of 1,3 grams per litre of tetradecyl pyri
dinium bromide, the excess moisture being re
moved by squeezing or centrifuging. Then the
15' fabric is treated with a solution of 1 gram per
litre of sodium pyropliosphate for 10 minutes at
ordinary temperature and at a pH value of 4,
produced by acidulating the pyrophosphate solu
tion by means of acetic acid.
is dried.
Finally the fabric
grams per litre of a matting agent made as fol
About four hundred grams of zinc sulphide are
mixed with one hundred cc. of a solution of cocoa
nut oil fatty alcohol sulphonates containing
30%, calculated‘on free alcohol. After the re—
sulting emulsion is thoroughly mixed, 2. solution
of “grams of the quaternary ammonium salts
derived from dodecyl sulphuric esters and a com
mercial mixture of pyridine bases is introduced. 10
The mass is then stirred until the electro-neut‘ral
compound formed has precipitated. After the
precipitate has been separated from the clear
~solution, the former is peptized by adding a solu
tion containing 64 grams of the above quaternary
salt and 250 cc. of glycerine. The yarn is then
rinsed with water of 60° C. and squeezed out.
The fastness to light which was reduced by the
matting treatment is restored to the dyed yarn by
a treatment with a solution of 0,5 grams per litre
Example 3
' of Turkey red oil (containing 37% fatty matter)
Cotton yarn is. dyed as usual with 2,5% Direct at ordinary temperature for 15 minutes. Finally
true yellow BFF using for- 1 kg. of yarn 300 litres the yarn is dried.
Example 8
' of a 12% Glauber’s salt solution at temperatures
from 50-80° C. for 45 minutes.
The yarn is then
centrifuged and dried and treated during 20
minutes with a solution of 1,5 grams per litre of
the quaternary ammonium salt derived from di
ethyl-aminoethyloleylamine by addition of di
30 methyl sulfate. The yarn is dried once more and
impregnated during 20 minutes with a solution
of 2 grams per litre of potassium persulfate at
40° C. and at a pH value of '7. Finally the yarn is
Example 4
Cotton‘ fabric is dyed as usual with 4% Pluto
orange G using for 1 kg. of fabric 300 litres of a
15% Glauber’s salt solution at temperatures near
the boiling point for 45-60 minutes; The fabric is
40 then driedand treated for 15 minutes at 30° C.
with a solution of 2 grams of triethyl cetyl am
monium bromide, squeezed, dried and impreg
nated at ordinary temperature during 20 minutes
with a solution of sodium metaphosphate. Finally
the fabric is dried.
Example 5
Cuprammonium rayon is dyed as usual with
3% Benzo purple 43 using for 1 kg. of rayon 300
of a 10% .Glauber’s salt solution, at tem
peratures from 50-80° C. for 30 minutes. The
fabric is then dried, treated witha solution of
3 grams per. litre of the addition product of
tetradecyl bromide to hexamethylenetetramine,
55 squeezed out and dried. Then the fabric is im
pregnated with a solution of 1 gram per litre of
resin soap (prepared by dissolving colophony in
sodium hydroxide solution) at ordinary tempera
ture during 20 minutes.
The fabric is then
squeezed and dried.
Example 6
Viscose rayon yarn is dyed as described in Ex
ample 5 with 3% Brilliant benzo violet B. The
dried fabric is impregnated with an addition
65 product of the tetradecyl ether of war-glycerine.
brdmhydrine C1aHzwCHaQCHaCHOI-LCHzBr to
pyridin during 5' minutes, squeezed and dried.
Then the fabric is treated with a solution of 2
' grams per litre of potassium perphosphate during
70 15 minutes at 30°C. and dried.
Example 7 Q
Viscose rayon yarn is dyed with 2% Brilliant
benzo violet B as described in Example 2. The
Viscose rayon yarn dyed and matted as de
scribed in Example 7 is treated with a solution
of 0,25 g. of light tannin at 30° C. for 15 minutes
and dried.
Among the more important compounds which
yield surface active cations are the high molecu
quaternary ' ammonium
monium salts containing high molecular aliphatic
residues, and in particular the compounds derived
._ from heterocyclic nitrogen bases, such as the
pyridine bases, these being the most readily ac- '
There may be employed, for example
dodecyl pyridinium sulphate and the homologues
and substitution products thereof, further analo
gous compounds with unsaturated hydrocarbon
residues, for example the corresponding octa
decenyl and undecenyl compounds, further sub
stitution products of all these compounds, as well
as the corresponding halides. Analogous deriva
tives of other heterocyclic nitrogen bases such as
quinoline and isoquinoline may also be employed.
Less readily accessible but similarly useful are
the quaternary ammonium compounds derived
from diamines and containing higher alkyl or
aliphatic acid residues as well as similar com
pounds derived from aliphatic tertiary amines, '
for example triethyl cetyl ammonium iodide or
'In the preliminary treatment of the fibrous
material, in lieu of the quaternary ammonium
compounds, the analogous high molecular phos
phonium or sulphonium compounds may be used, '
for instance decyl phosphonium iodide, dodecyl
phosphonium bromide, tetradecyl phosphonium
, bromide, octadecenyl phosphonium iodide, dodec
yl sulphonium iodide, octadecyl sulphonium
The following compounds have proven satis
factory in addition to those mentioned speci?
cally hereinbefore: Tetradecyl, hexadecyl, and co
tadecyl pyridiniuni sulphate, undecenyl, dodecyl,
tetradecyl, octadecyl, octadecenyl chinolinium
sulphate, decyl pyridinium bromide, hexadecenyl
chinolinium iodide, quaternary ammonium com
pounds derived from asymmetrical oleyl-diethyl
ethylenediamine by addition of dimethyl sulphate
or diethyl‘ sulphate or methyl iodide, heptyl- i
urea bromide, decyl- i- thiourea iodide, hexa
decyl- i- thioureaiodide, the addition products
of tetradecyl bromide‘ or do'decyl iodide to hexa
75 dried yarn is then-matted with a dispersion of 3v vmethylenetetramine, heptyl guanidine, tolyl guan
idine, the quaternary ammonium compound pre
pared by the addition of the dodecyl ether of a
glycerine bromhydrine CnHzaCH2.O.CHz.CHOH.
CHzBr to pyridin, and the quaternary ammo-.
nium compound formed by the addition of bro
mine-acetic acid dodecyl ester
Br CH2.COO.CH2.C11H23 t0 chinoline,
The following examples of speci?c compounds in
dicate generally the nature of the formulae so
far as they are known:
Decyl phosphonium iodide
tion and thereafter dyed with direct dyestu?s. By
means of such pretreatment it is not 'only pos 10
sible to promote the absorption of direct dyes by
to the satisfactory dyeing of wool and the like
by such dyes which normally do not adhere to
animal ?bers.
When any of the foregoing compounds are used
for the purpose of improving the dyeing of ?brous
materials of any nature, the precipitation thereof
' alkyl
Dodecyl sulphonium iodide‘
as outlined herein with the various acids or salts
giving off surface active cations in aqueous solu
' vegetable ?bers, but the process is even applicable
These compounds may be added either directly
to the dye bath or employed for preliminary
.treatment of the material to be dyed. Thus, as
pointed out in ‘the prior application hereinbefore
mentioned, an extraordinary deepening of the dye
color may be obtained, if, for example, a vegetable
?brous material -is pretreated with a substance
mentioned above will be found to very decidedly 20
' improve the resistance of the dyed material to
‘light and to, enhance the color of the dyed ma
Tetradecyl pyridinium sulphate
Having thus described the invention, what is
claimed as new and desired to be secured by Let
ters Patent'is:
1. The process of treating ?brous materials
which comprises subjecting the material to the
action of a dye bath containing a substance yield
ing surface active cations, and thereafter apply
Octadecenyl quinolinium iodide
compound reacting with the cation active sub-v
stance to produce a water insoluble precipitate.
2. The process of improving. the resistance to
fading‘ of dyed ?brous material which has been: 35
treated with a cation active substance which com
prises treating the material with a soluble resin
acid radical compound reacting with thecation
Heptyl isourea bromide
[HzN.C(O.C-zI-I15) :NHlBr
Decvl isothiourea iodide
active substance to produce a water insoluble pre
- [H2N.C(S.C1oI-Iz1) :NHJI
Addition product of tetradeoyl bromide to hexa
, the cation active substance to produce a water
insoluble precipitate.
4. The process of improving ?brous materials
which comprises treating the material with a 50.
dye and with a high molecular quaternary annno
'Heptyl guanidine
, nium compound, and thereafter subjecting the
material to the action of a resin acid.
\N. 07H"
-_ Addition
5. The process of treating natural or regen
dodecyl ether to pyridine
erated cellulose materials which comprises sub 55
jecting the material to the action of a direct dye
bath containing a substance yielding surface ac
tive cations, and thereafter applying to the ma
terial a soluble resin‘ acid radical compound react
ing with the cation active substance to produce 60
a water insoluble precipitate.
Addition product of bromine-acetic‘ acid dodecyl
ester of quinoline
6. The process of treating natural or regener
ated cellulose materials which‘ comprises subject- '
ing the material to the action of a direct dye bath
containing a substance yielding surface active
cations, and thereafter treating the material with ‘
a resin acid.
3. The process of improving ?brous materials
which comprises treating the material with a dye
and with a substance yielding surface active ca
tions, and thereafter applying to the material a
soluble resin acid radical compound reacting with 45
ing to the material a soluble resin acid radical
WALTER grime.
ERNST Go'rm.
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