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Патент USA US2114700

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April 19, 1938.
Filed Jan. 12, 1957
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
April 19, 1938.
Filed Jan. 12, 1937
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Patented Apr. 19, 1938,
Albert Wilson Bradbury, Cliftondale, Mass, as
signor to United Shoe Machinery Corporation,
Paterson, N. J., a corporation of New Jersey
Application January 12, 1937, Serial No. 120,260
3 Claims.
This invention relates to shoes and the manu
facture thereof and is illustrated herein with
reference to shoes having their outsoles attached
by cement.
In the manufacture of shoes having outsoles
which extend laterally beyond the shoe uppers
so that the margins of the inner or ?esh surfaces
of the outsoles are visible, it is customary to cover
these extending marginal portions with a piece
10 of leather or similar material called a welt to
improve the appearance of the shoe even though
the welt does not perform the usual function of
holding the outsole on the shoe as in a Goodyear
welt shoe. This is especially true in juvenile shoes
of the so-called stitchdown type and in shoes of
the heavy sole variety such, for ‘example, as
men’s and boys’ shoes and various kinds of work
shoes having outsoles attached by nails or by
through and through stitches. '
In shoes of this type it has been impracticable‘
heretofore to attach the outsoles by cement not
only because the sole extension referred to would
require the extra operation of adding a welt. -to
cover its rough upper ‘surface but, more im
portant than that, because the weight or thickness
of the outsole is usually such that it. might be
unsafe to rely upon cement alone as the attach
ing means. In ordinary cement shoe work, for
example, the cement is applied to the inner or
0 flesh'surface of the outsole where the ?bers of
the leather are loose and relatively weak and
consequently are notadapted to strengthen the
attachment of the sole to the shoe bottom- How
ever, the light weight soles usually attached by
cement to women’s shoes present no di?iculty in
this respect because their extreme ?exibility per
mits the soles to bend readily with the shoes and
thus relieves the greater part of the strain tend
ing to pull the outsoles away from the shoe bot
toms. In a shoe having a relatively heavy outsole
which is often stiff and inflexible the loose ?bers
on the ?esh side of the outsole do not provide 'a
su?iciently ?rm base for cement to insure that
the attachment of the outsole by cement alone
would be permanent.
Objects of the present invention are to provide
an improved method of making shoes having
cement attached outsoles in the practice of which
the difficulties referred to above are eliminated,
50 to provide an improved shoe, and to provide an
improved outsole adapted for attachment to a
shoe by cement.
With these objects in .view the invention in
one aspect comprises securing together two
55 leather sole members ?esh side to ?esh side,
(Cl. 36-12)
thereby producing a laminated outsole member
or unit having inner and outer layers the smooth
grain surfaces of which are exposed. The grain
surface of the inner layer is then removed over a
portion spaced inwardly from the edge face of
the outsole member, thereby exposing a portion
of the material of said inner layer adjacent to
its grain side or face for receiving cement, this
material ‘having relatively compact ?bers
adapted to form a ?rm base for receiving cement.
As illustrated herein, the grain surface is removed
by forming a shallow groove around the mar
ginal portion of the inner face of said inner
layer and, since this" groove is spaced inwardly
from the edge of the outsole member, a prede
termined strip of the grain surface is left at the
marginal portion of this inner face to provide a
smooth surface on the upper or exposed side of
the extension of the outsole or, in other words,
on that portion which projects laterally beyond 20
the shoe upper.
In its article aspects the invention provides an
improved shoe of the type which has an exten
sion on its outsole, said shoe having its outsole
permanently attached by cement and having no
welt or other member covering the upper side of
the sole extension. The invention also provides
an improvedleather outsole member of substan
tial thickness having a grain surface on its outer
or tread face and a marginal portion having a
smooth grain surface on its upper or exposed
. face to provide a sole extension, said outsole also
having a relatively shallow groove spaced a pre
determined distance inwardly from its marginal
portion thereby exposing the compact ?bers of
the sole adjacent to the grain surface for receiv~
ing cement whereby the outsole may be perma
nently attached to a shoe.
With the above and other objects and aspects
in view the invention will now be described in
connection with the accompanying drawings and
will thereafter be pointed out in the claims.
In the drawings,
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a three-quarter
length leather outsole member skived to a thin
edge at its rearward end, the grain surface of the
outsole member being uppermost;
Fig. 2 is a perspective view similar to Fig‘. 1 of
the outsole member with a shallow groove formed
in its upper or grain surface, the groove being
spaced inwardly from the edge face of the out
sole member;
Fig. 3 is a perspective view of the outsole mem
ber after the material in the groove has been
Fig. 4 is a perspective view of a full-length
leather outsole having cement applied to the mar
ginal portion of its inner or ?esh face;
Fig. 5 is a perspective view of the two outsole
members secured together, ?esh side to ?esh side,
to form a complete outsole member or unit, a
portion of the forepart of the unit being broken
Fig. 6 is a perspective view of the complete
- outsole member after it has been molded to the
shape of a last bottom; and
Fig. 7 is a transverse sectional view of the out
sole member of Fig. 6 being pressed against a
lasted shoe in a sole attaching press.
In practicing the method of the present inven
tion, a leatherl outsole member I0 is provided hav
ing an inner grain surface l2 and an outer ?esh
surface M, the outsole member preferably being
a three-quarter length sole member and being
skived at its rear portion, as shown in Fig. 1, to a
relatively thin edge H5. The outsole member 10
is preferably composed of fairly high-grade sole
leather and may be about six or seven irons thick.
The inner grain surface [2 of the outsole mem
ber I 0 is removed at a predetermined portion
thereof by forming in said surface a relatively
wide shallow groove l8 which is spaced inwardly
from the edge face of the outsole a predetermined
distance, for example, a quarter of an inch, there
by leaving a marginal area or strip 20 of sole ma
terial which retains the grain surface.
groove may be from three-quarters to seven
eighths of an inch wide and may extend around
the entire marginal portion of the outsole mem
ber, as shown in Fig. 2. The groove 18 is prefer
ably only of suf?cient depth to remove the smooth
grain of the leather and thereby to expose the
somewhat coarser material just below the grain
surface which is more suitable than the latter
for receiving cement but which, nevertheless,
has ?bers which are much more compact or ?rm
in structure than the relatively loose ?bers of
the material adjacent to the ?esh face of the out
sole member. The grooving operation may be
performed manually with a suitable cutting tool
but it is preferably performed by machine in
order to obtain a groove of uniform depth around
the entire sole member and also to insure that
the outer edge of the groove will be spaced a
proper distance inwardly from the edge face of
the sole member. A machine which ‘may be con
veniently used for performing this operation is
that of the general type disclosed in United
States Letters Patent No. 1,115,046, granted
October 27, 1914 in the name of Henry W. Win
ters, this machine, however, being provided with
a properly shaped grooving knife or tool for cut
ting the groove l8.
After the groove l8 has been cut in the outsole
member ID, the material in the groove is roughed,
as shown in Fig.3, to render it more suitable for
receiving cement. The roughening operation may
be performed by hand with a suitable rasping
be coated at least at its marginal portion with
pyroxylin cement, the cement being allowed to
dry after it has been applied.
A full-length leather outsole member 22 (Fig.
4) is now provided having an inner or ?esh face
24 and an outer face having a grain surface 28
thereon, the periphery of the outsole member 22
forwardly of its heel portion conforming in out
line to the outsole member I0. The marginal
portion of the inner or ?esh side 24 of the out
sole member 22 is now coated with cement 28
such as pyroxylin which ‘is allowed to dry.
cement on the outer or flesh face M of the out
sole member I 0 and on the ?esh face 24 of the
outsole member 22 is next activated by a suitable 15
solvent such as acetone and the two sole mem
bers are placed together, ?esh face against ?esh
face, and held in this position under pressure
while the cement is setting, thereby producing a
two-ply laminated outsole member or unit 30 20
composed of leather inner and outer layers hav
ing their ?esh sides in face-to-face relation with
each other and their grain surfaces exposed. Fig.
5 illustrates the outsole member 30 after the lay
ers I0 and 22 have been secured together in the 25
manner described.
The outsole member 30 is next shaped or
molded to conform substantially to the shape of
a last bottom to facilitate its attachment to a
shoe. The molding operation may be performed 30
in any suitable or convenient manner and a
machine which may advantageously be used for
this purpose is one of vthe general type disclosed
in United States Letters Patent No. 1,271,315,
granted July 2, 1918, on an application ?led in 35
the name of John J, Heys. The completed out
sole unit 30 is now ready to be attachedto a
shoe bottom.
A shoe upper 32 (Fig. '7) is assembled with an
insole 34‘on a last 36 in the customary way and 40
the upper is secured in lasted relation to the in
sole in any usual or convenient manner. As dis
closed herein, the upper is wiped over the insole
34 and secured in lasted relation thereto by
curved staples 38. If desired, however, the up 45
per may be lasted to the insole by cement, or by
tacks or stitches. The excess portions of the mar
gin of the upper are then trimmed in the usual
manner and a thin layer of ?lling material 40 is
placed in the space between the trimmed edges of 50
the upper.
The cement in the groove I8 on the grain sur
face of the inner layer In of the outsole member
30 is now activated by a solvent and the outsole
member is positioned on the lasted shoe bottom. 55
The shoe and sole may then be placed in a ce
ment sole-attaching press 42 of any usual con
struction provided with a. pressure-applying pad
44 of rubber or similar material, herein illus
trated as a hollow chamber or bag of the type 60'
ters Patent No. 1,994,469, granted March 19, 1935,
disclosed in Letters Patent of the United States
No. 2,063,041 granted December 8, 1936 in the
name of L. G. Knowles and containing ?uid 46,
the forepart of the pad being provided -with re
silient members for aiding in distributing the 65
on an application ?led in the name of George
at the marginal portions. A machine which may
tool or it may be performed with the aid of a ma
chine of the type disclosed in United States Let
Goddu, this machine being provided with a
roughening tool or brush which is of such a size
70 that the roughening operation will be con?ned to
the sole material located within the groove IS.
The roughened material in the groove may next
be coated with a suitable cement such, for exam
ple, as pyroxylin cement and the opposite or
75 ?esh face M of the outsole member 10 may also
pressure over the full area of the sole especially
be conveniently used for attaching the outsole
30 to the shoe is one of the type disclosed in
United States Letters Patent No. 2,047,185, grant 70
ed July 14, 1936 on an application ?led in the
name of Milton H. Ballard et al. The sole and
shoe are maintained under pressure until the
cement between the. upper and the outsole mem
ber 30 has thoroughly set, after which the shoe 76
with its attached outsole is removed from the
press' and the last 36 is withdrawn from the
shoe. The shoe is now complete except for the
attachment of the heel and the customary ?n
ishing operations which may be performed in the
usual manner.
The outer or tread surface 26 of the outsole 30
will have a grain surface thereon which may be
?nished by the usual buffing, staining and polish
ing operations. The inner surface 12 of the out
sole member will have a roughed portion at its
marginal area underlying and engaging the over
lasted marginal portion of the upper 32 and per
manently secured thereto by a strong cement
bond. The portion of this inner surface I2 which
extends laterally beyond the shoe upper will have
a smooth grain surface thereon which may be
stitch-indented or otherwise treated in the same
manner as the welt on a welt shoe to improve
20 the appearance of the sole extension. An outsole
made in accordance with the present invention,
therefore, obviates the use of a welt on the upper
or exposed face of the outsole extension to pro
vide a ?nished surface thereon in those shoes in
which a welt is not used for effecting the attach
ment of the outsole. Since the laminated out
sole 30 is thirteen or fourteen irons thick, it is
sufficiently durable to last throughoutout the life
of the shoe. The attachment of the outsole mem
3 f) ber 30 t0 the shoe bottom by cement applied to
the relatively compact ?bers of the leather just
below the grain surface of the inner layer l0
renders the attachment much stronger than in
shoes of the single-jsole type in which the cement
is applied to the inner or ?esh face of the outsole
because the ?bers on this surface are relatively
loose and yieldable as compared with those just
below the grain surface of the leather. Conse
quently, the attachment of the outsole to the
40 shoe bottom is of such strength and permanency
that the outsole will have no tendency to separate
from the shoe upper during the wear of the shoe
notwithstanding the fact that the two-ply outsole
may be considerably thicker and heavier than
45 outsoles usually attached by cement.
Having thus described my invention, what I
claim as n 1w and desire to secure by Letters Pat
ent of the United States is:
1. In a shoe, an insole, an upper and a relative
50 ly heavy, in?exible outsole attached to the shoe
bottom by cement alone, said outsole comprising
inner and outer layers of leather the ?esh sur—
faces of which are face to face so that the grain
surfaces of said layers form respectively the inner
and outer surfaces of the outsole, said upper being
located in a groove of uniform depth formed in
the grain surface of said inner layer, said groove
being only of su?‘lcient depth to remove the
smooth grain surface from the inner surface of
said inner layer and thereby expose the strongest
?bers of said layer adjacent to said grain surface,
thereby causing the cement between the upper
and said inner layer to contact said strongest
?bers and insure a permanent cement attach
ment of the heavy outsole to the shoe bottom.
2. In a shoe, an insole, an upper and a rela
tively heavy outsole of laminated formation pre-V
molded to the shape of the shoe bottom, said out
sole being attached to the shoe upper by cement 15
alone and comprising inner and outer layers of
leather cemented together ?esh side to ?esh side
so that the grain surface of the outer layer forms
the tread surface of the outsole and the grain
surface of the inner layer forms the inner sur 20
face of the outsole and produces a ?nished grain
surface on the portion of said inner surface that
extends laterally , beyond the shoe upper, said
upper being cemented into a shallow groove on
the inner surface of the outsole formed inwardly 25
of the edge face thereof and of a depth that re
moves only the grain surface from said inner sur
face and thus exposes the toughest and most com
pact ?bers of the inner layer of the outsole for
receiving cement, thereby insuring that the heavy 30
outsole will remain permanently attached to the
shoe upper by cement alone.
3. As an article of manufacture, an outsole
adapted for attachment to a shoe bottom by ce
ment alone comprising a laminated sole member
of substantial thickness and limited flexibility
premolded to the shape of a shoe bottom and.
having two leather layers with their ?esh sur
faces face'to face thereby exposing their grain
surfaces, the grain surface of the layer which is
to engage the upper in a shoe being removed over
a predetermined marginal area at its forepart
and shank portions, said area being spaced in
wardly from the edge face of the outsole a prede
termined distance, thereby exposing the strongest
?bers of said layer for receiving cement for at
taching the outsole permanently to the shoe bot
tom and leaving a smooth grain surface at the
edge portion of the inner surface of said layer’ to
provide a suitable ?nished surface on that por
tion of the outsole which extends laterally be
yond the upper in the shoe.
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