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Патент USA US2114854

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Aprii w,
1938.
R. R. MOORE
2,1 14,854
MATERIAL TESTING MACHINE
Filed May 14, 1935
2
22_
INVENTOR
2,114,854
Patented Apr. 19, 1938
UITE
FEE
ATENT
sr'rss
2,114,854
MATERIAL TESTING MACHINE
Richard R. Moore, Lansdowne, Pa.
Application May 14, 1935, Serial No. 21,337
8 Claims. (Cl. 265-13)
This invention relates to material testing ma
chines of the type used for testing the fatigue
of materials, and is an improvement over the dis
closure in my prior Patent No. 1,608,804 which
5 issued November 30, 1926.
An object of this invention is to provide a
machine of this character which will not unduly
heat up during the testing operation.
Another object of this invention is to provide
1O a machine of this character which is so con~
structed that the testing time is shortened, thus
giving a greater capacity to the machine.
A further object of this invention is to pro
vide a testing machine which may operate at
15
relatively high speeds without becoming unduly
heated and the parts of which will not unduly
wear by reason of the high speed.
A still further object of this invention is to
provide a high speed fatigue testing machine
20 which includes a cooling means so disposed with
respect to the machine as to maintain a uniform
coolness on the machine irrespective of the speed
thereof.
Still another object of this invention is to pro
25 vide a machine of this character which is so con
structed that it may be properly lubricated at
the desired speeds and which embodies features
whereby the lubricant will not be centrifuvgally
thrown out of the machine, and whereby the
30 lubricant will not unduly thin out or the bear
35
ings overheat causing seizing, sticking or freez
ing of the moving parts as is the case with ma
chines not embodying the cooling means included
with this invention.
A further object of this invention is to provide
a novel coupling means between the power mem
ber and the spindle or specimen draw bar where
by vibration is substantially eliminated, freedom
of de?ection of the housing is permitted and
4 O wear of the coupling is eliminated under high
speeds.
With the above objects in view, and with other
objects and advantages which will be more fully
set forth in the following description and in the
45
claims, reference is had to the accompanying
drawing, in which
Figure 1 is a detail side elevation, partly broken
away and in longitudinal section, of a fatigue
50 testing machine constructed according to an em
bodiment of this invention.
Figure 2 is a top plan view of the device with
the top of the air tunnel or shield removed.
Figure 3 is a sectional View taken on the line
55 _3-3 of Fig. 1.
Figure 4 is a sectional view taken on the line
4-4 of Fig. 1.
Figure 5 is a sectional view taken on the line
5—5 of Fig. 1.
Figure 6 is a sectional view taken on the line
6
6-6 of Fig. 1.
Figure '7 is an enlarged fragmentary longi
tudinal sectional view showing a portion of the
novel coupling between the specimen draw bar
and the ?exible connecting link.
.
1O
Figure'8 is any end elevation of the draw bar
lock nut.
Figure 9 is an enlarged longitudinal sectional
view of the connecting link at the driving end
thereof, and
15
Figure 10 is a detail side elevation of a modi
?ed form of air tunnel or shield.
Referring now to the drawing, the numeral l5
designates generally a journal housing, and the
numeral l6 designates a second journal housing 20
disposed in axial alinement with the housing l5
and spaced therefrom. These two housings l5
and it are identical in construction, and it will,
therefore, be understood that the following de
scription of the journal housing l5 and the parts
associated therewith will apply equally as well
to the housing I6 with its associated parts.
A hollow journal' I? is rotatably mounted
within the journal housing l5, of suitable length
and diameter so that the journal i1 may be re
moved and the hereinafter described parts
mounted therein. The housing 15 has an oil
chamber or reservoir H8 in substantially the
center thereof, and adjacent each end of the
journal I‘! there are also end chambers l9 and
20. An oil channel 2| extends along the bottom
of the housing l5 and communicates with the
two end chambers l9 and 20 and also with the oil
reservoir l8. Oil rings 22 are disposed loosely
about the journal I1 and dip into the oil channel
2| so that the bearing surface of the journal I’!
will be lubricated during the rotation thereof.
If desired the rings 22 can ?rst be inserted into
the housing and thereafter the journal IT in
serted. Preferably a sight opening 23 is pro
vided on each side of the reservoir l8, and this
opening covered by a transparent member or the
like so- that the level of oil in the reservoir can
be readily determined.
‘
The journal I‘! at its driven end is provided
with a tapered opening within which the tapered
end 24 of a specimen 25 is adapted to engage.
This tapered or inner end 24 of the specimen is
threaded onto the outer end of the draw bar 26,
which extends longitudinally through the journal 55
2
2,114,854
I‘! and is of a diameter slightly less than the in
terior diameter of the journal I1.
The inner end of the journal I"! is threaded as
at 27, and a nut 28 having a bore therethrough
threadedly engages the threads 21. The inner
threaded end 29 of the draw bar 26 is ?attened
on opposite sides to ?t into the ?attened portions
plied to the yoke.
3‘! of the nut 28, which is shown in detail in Fig.
8, and a draw bar tightening nut 30 engages the
nected in any desired manner to this device so
10 threads 26. The tightening nut 30 has a re
duced inner end 3! which is ?xed to the outer
end of a relatively ?exible driving cable 32.
Preferably the outer end of the drive link 32 is
sweated or otherwise ?xedly secured within the
15 reduced end 3| of the nut 30.
The inner end of the drive link 32 is ?xed
within a knuckle or threaded plug 36, and this
knuckle 36 engages the interior threads of a driv
ing sleeve 36 secured to a suitable power member
20 35, and contacts at its inner end with a threaded
plug or spacer 33 within the sleeve 34. This
power member 35 is preferably an electric motor
affect the results of the specimen.
In a device of this kind, due to the high speed
capable of extremely high speeds, that is up
wards of about 10,000 R. P. M. By turning the
25 plug or knuckle 38 up against the spacer 33 ten
sion is applied to the cable or drive link 32, and
this cable 32 pulls the journal or spindle i'l un
til the ?rst oil slinger or annulus 38 is clear of the
end of the bearing. Contact of the bearing and
the ?rst oil slinger 38 would create friction and
generate heat which it is desired to avoid in this
machine so as to prevent sticking or freezing of
the journal IT.
The journal i1 is provided adjacent each end
with a plurality of annular ribs or oil slingers 38
which are disposed within the adjacent end cham
bers I9 and 23, and these ribs 38 act not only as a
cooling means or heat dissipating means for the
journal H, but also as a means to centrifugally
40 throw oif any oil which may ?ow out between
the journal l1 and the housing IS. The oil thrown
against the surface of the chambers l9 and 20
will flow back to the oil reservoir is through the
bottom channel 2|.
An end plate 39 having an axial opening 40 is
-'threaded into an end of the housing I5, and is
provided with recesses 4i for the reception of a
suitable tool. There are two of these end plates
33, one at each end of the housing l5, and these
plates 39 prevent the oil in the end chambers
‘from leaking out of the housing l5. The inner
end of the draw bar 26 terminates inwardly of
the end plate 39, and the reduced nut portion 3!
extends through the axial opening 40, so that the
entire journal I l’ and the draw bar 26 are con
‘tained within the housing l5. This construction
permits a more thorough lubrication of the jour
nal ll’ and prevents leakage of any oil out of
the housing.
60
,
The housing I5 is provided with a pair of op
posed trunnions [l2 rotatably mounted in bear
ings 43. The bearings 43 are slidably mounted on
guides M carried by standards or supporting
means 65. These trunnions 42 and bearings 43
?t in notches in the guides 134 on tunnel GB, and
are similar to like parts in my prior patent, and
are constructed to prevent lateral movement of
the housing IS without permitting longitudinal
movement. In respect to housing 10 the trun
nions (l2 and bearings 43 sit on top of the guide
4!! and are constructed to prevent lateral move
ment of the housing It but does permit longi
tudinal movement of this housing to accommo
date variations in the test specimen.
A load applying yoke 46 engages the housing
I5 at a predetermined point relative to the trun
nions 42 and extends downwardly between the
supports 45 so that a suitable load may be ap
It will be understood that a tachometer may be
connected to one of the journals, to the side of
the motor 35 opposite from the sleeve 34, or con
that the operation of the tachometer will. not
of the journals a considerable amount of heat
is generated, and in order to maintain the hous
ing 25 in a cool condition so as to prevent thin
ning of the oil and consequent loss thereof, the
housing 55 is provided with a plurality of cooling
?ns 41 which will act to dissipate heat and thus
prevent sticking or freezing of the journal in the
bearing. A further advantage is that when the
housing is being cooled, the journal is cooled 20
thereby, and the journal is thereby prevented
from expanding and seizing in the bearing. Fur
thermore, there is less, if any, heat transmitted
to the specimen. While these fins 4'! will dissi
pate a quantity of heat, it has been found from 25
experiments that proper cooling of the housing
I5 can be effected by fan action which is aug
mented or controlled by enclosing the housing l5
in
air tunnel or shield generally designated as
48. Movement of air through the tunnel 48 is
effected by means of a fan 49 which is secured
to the driving shaft or sleeve 34.
The swirling or spiralling of the air through
the tunnel 48 is prevented by means of ?ns 50 se
cured to. a tube or shield 5021 disposed about the 35
driving link 32. This tube or shield 5011 will pre
vent the air from striking the inner end of the
housing l5 and will guide the air toward the hous:
ing.
In order that the movement of the air in the 40
air tunnel Q8 will not be impeded by the inner end
of the housing 56, a shield Si is disposed about
the specimen 25 between the abutting ends of the
two housings i5 and i6. Preferably the shield
or tunnel 418 is constructed in two parts, an upper
part 52 and a lower part 53, with the upper part 45.1
52 removably mounted on the lower part 53. The
bearings Q3 and the supports 131% are preferably
tapered at each end so as to prevent any im
pedance to the movement of air. The air with
in the reservoir l8 above the top of the oil is 50;
drawn out by providing a vent 54 of suitable con
struction which is so constructed that hot air is
drawn out of the reservoir l8 by suction in the
movement of the air in the housing i 5.
The air tunnel 658 is disclosed as being substan 55
tially cylindrical in construction with the fan 49
mounted in the inner end thereof. In Figure 10
there is disclosed a modi?ed form of air tunnel
or shield 63’ which is provided at its inner end
with a flared portion 48a so that a larger fan 60
may be used to increase the flow of air through
the tunnel. By giving the shield a Venturi con
tour a more e?icient air flow is produced with
the same size fan as shown in Fig. 1, since the
Venturi contour produces an increased velocity 65
of air through the housing 48.
In the use and operation of this testing ma~
chine, the two draw bars 26 are secured to the
opposite ends of the specimen 25 and tightened
in their respective journals l‘! by means of the 70
tightening nuts 30. The innermost nut 30 is
secured to the ?exible driving link or shaft 32,
which is in turn secured to and placed under
tension in the driving sleeve 34.
76
2,114,854
The power member 35 is then started, and
at the same time the fan 49 will force air
through the tunnel 48 at a rate dependent upon
the speed of the power member 35. As has been
wardly of one of said housings, lubricating
means for said journals, an air tunnel about said
housings, means for supporting said housings
, heretofore stated, the power member 35 is pref
in said tunnel, means at one end of the tunnel
connected to said link for forcing air longitudi
erably operated at an exceedingly high rate of.
speed so that a considerable air velocity will
be developed within the tunnel 48, and the heat
generated by the journals I‘! will be dissipated
10 by means of the moving air passing longitudi
nally of the longitudinal ?ns 41. As the degree
of heat generated will be dependent upon the
nally through the tunnel proportionate to the
speed of the journals, and means about the
specimen for preventing impedance of air be
tween the housings.
3. A testing machine comprising a pair of 10
speed of the power member 35, by connecting
the fan 49 directly to' the power member 35 the
15 air velocity will be proportionate to the speed of
the power member. The machine hereinbefore
described is capable of operating at a higher rate
of speed than the machine disclosed in my prior
patent, and for this reason the time of the test
20: ing operation is shortened very considerably,
and the same machine is capable of performing
the testing operations inde?nitely without ap
preciable wear on the parts thereof by reason
of the cooling means which prevents overheat
25 ing of the parts and the failure of the lubricat
ing system. As the device herein disclosed is
maintained cool at all times there is substantial
ly no loss of oil so that extremely close bearing
clearances may be provided and the vibration
30 of the parts prevented even at very high speeds.
The removal of hot air from the housing ac
complishes three functions important to the
successful operation of the machine: it cools the
housing by removing the hot air; it helps to pre
35 vent oil from leaking out of the ends of the
journal housings disposed in spaced apart rela
tion, a hollow journal for each housing and ro
tatable therein, means extending through the
journals for holding a specimen in the space be
tween the housings and in axial alinement with 15
the journals, each of said journals having a
length less than the length of the housings, a
housings, since it has been found that when no
outlet is provided for the air in the housing ‘the
pressure of the expanding air caused by heating
up forces oil out of the ends of the housings;
40 and the suction of the hot air from the oil reser
voir prevents any dirt or dust from mixing with
the oil so that the cooling system also forms a
successful dirt seal for the housings.
It is obvious that various changes and modi
45 fications may be made in the details of construc
tion and design of the above speci?cally de
scribed embodiment of this invention without
departing from the spirit thereof, such changes
and modi?cations being restricted only by the
50 scope of the following claims.
What is claimed is:
1. A testing machine comprising a pair of
journal housings disposed in spaced apart rela
tion, a hollow journal for each housing and ro
55 tatable therein, means extending through the
journals for holding a specimen in the space be
tween the housings and in axial alinement with
the journals, a tensionable connecting link for
connecting one of said journals to a source of
60 power supply for rotation thereby, means‘ for
tensioning said link, a lubricating means for
each journal, means for enclosing the journals
in the housings to prevent leakage of the lubri
cant, and means for cooling the housings pro
65 portionate to the speed of rotation of the jour
nals, said latter means including supporting
means for said housings.
2. A testing machine comprising a pair of
journal housings disposed in spaced apart rela
70
tion, a hollow journal for each housing and ro
tatable therein, means extending through the
journals for holding a specimen in the space be
tween the housings and in axial alinement with
the journals, a driving link connected to one of
said journals and extending axially and out
3
driving link connected to one of said journals
and extending axially and outwardly of one of
said housings, lubricating means for said jour 20
nals, an air tunnel about said housings, means
for supporting said housings in said tunnel,
means for forcing air longitudinally through
said tunnel proportionate to the speed of the
journals, means for maintaining a straight draft 25
of air through the housings, and a shield dis
posed between the housings about the specimen
and within the tunnel to prevent contact of the
moving air with the specimen and to prevent
the moving air from striking the inner end of
the outermost of the housings.
4. A testing machine comprising a pair of
journal housings disposed in spaced apart, rela
tion, a hollow journal for each housing and ro
tatable therein, means extending through the 35
journals for holding a specimen in the space be
tween the housings and in axial alinement with
the journals, each of said journals having a
length less than the length of the housings, lu
bricating means for said journals, end plates 40
for each housing, a pair of oil receiving cham
bers one adjacent each end of each housing, ribs
secured to each journal within each chamber,
means for connecting one of said journals to a
source of power supply, and means for cooling 45
said housings proportionate to the speed of the
journals, said means including supporting means
for said housings.
5. A fatigue machine comprising in combina
tion, a pair of spaced apart journal housings, 50
a pair of journals one inveach housing, means
carried by the journals for holding a specimen
between the housings for rotation with the jour
nals, a ?exible connecting link for connecting one
pf said journals to a driving means, an air tunnel 55
about said housings, means for supporting the
housings for movement within said air tunnel,
means connected to said link and rotatable there
with for forcing air through the tunnel propor
tionate to the speed of said journals and air 60
guiding means in the tunnel between said one
journal and said latter means.
6. A testing machine comprising in combina
tion, an. air tunnel, a pair of journal housings
disposed in spaced apart relation within said 65
tunnel, means for supporting the housings for
movement within said air tunnel, a hollow jour“
nal rotatable in each housing, means extending
through the journal for holding a specimen in
the space between the housings and in axial 70
alinement with the journals, a link connecting
one of said journals to a source of power supply
for rotation thereby, means for tensioning said
link, a fan connected to said link and disposed
at one end of the tunnel for forcing air longi 75
2,114,854
tudinally of the tunnel proportionate to the speed
of the journals and air guiding means in said
tunnel between said one journal and said fan.
7. A testing machine comprising in combina
tion, a pair of journal housings disposed in spaced
apart relation, a hollow journal for each hous
ing and rotatable therein, means extending
through the journals for holding a specimen in
the space between the housings and in axial
alinement with the journals, a link for connect
tion, a pair of journal housings disposed in spaced
apart relation, a hollow journal for each housing
and rotatable therein, means extending through
the journals for holding a specimen in the space
between the housings and in axial alinement
with the journals, a tensionable link connecting
one of said journals to a source of power supply
for rotation thereby, means for tensioning said
link, heat dissipating ?ns carried by the hous
ing one of said journals to a source of power
ings, a fan connected to said power supply and
supply for rotation thereby, means for tension
said link for forcing air longitudinally of the
housings proportionate to the speed of the jour
nals, a substantially cylindrical tunnel disposed
in spaced relation about said housings, means
disposed between the innermost housing and the 15
ing said link, heat exchanging ?ns carried by
each housing, a fan connected to said power sup
ply and said link for forcing air longitudinally
of the housings proportionate to the speed of the
journals, means for con?ning the draft of air
about said housings for cooling thereof, and air
directing means within said latter means.
8. A testing machine comprising in combina
fan for directing the moving air in a straight
path within the tunnel, and supporting means
for said housings.
RICHARD R. MOORE.
20
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