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Патент USA US2114863

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April 19, 1938.
K. H. SOMMERMEYER
2,114,863
RELAY SYSTEM
vFiled Feb. 17, 1936
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April 19, 1938.
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K. H. SOMMERMEYER
'
RELAY
SYSTEM
Filed Feb. 17, 1936
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K. _H. SOMMERMEYER.
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2,114,863
REHAY SYSTEM
Filed Feb. 17, 1936
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Patented ‘Apr. 19, 1938
. 2,114,863
UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE v
2,114,863
RELAY SYSTEM >
Karl H. Scmmermeyer, Evanston, Ill., as‘signor
to G-M Laboratories, Inc, Chicago, 111., a cor
poration of Illinois
Application February 17, 1936, Serial No. 64,263
14 Claims. (Cl. 175-320)
in response to a slight-separation of the con
The present invention relates generally to cir
cuits for electrical relays, and more particularly ‘ tacts. The limitations of the D’Arsonval move
ment and the advantages of the McMaster
to circuits wherein relays of the sensitive D’Ar
sonval type are employed to control other re
5 lays. In certain respects it constitutes an im
provement upon the invention of Archie J. Mc~
Master disclosed in his application for patent
“energy transfer” arrangement are discussed at
length inthe aforementioned McMaster appli
cation.
- The system described in the McMaster appli
for improvement in Relay circuits, Ser. No. cation possesses the disadvantage that variations
54,032, ?led Dec. 12, 1935. It, also constitutes an ‘ in the load circuit such as voltage or current
improvement upon the invention disclosed in my
copending application for patent for improve
ment in Relay system, Ser. No. 64,262, ?led Feb
ruary 17, 1936.
>
,
The D’Arsonval movement comprises a coil
arranged to rotate within a magnetic ?eld about
an axis substantially perpendicular to the direc
tion of the lines of magnetic force. A spring
holds the coil in a “rest position” which may,
also, be termed the position of zero current or
the “zero position”. Current traversing the coil
2 O reacts with the magnetic ?eld and causes the
coil'to rotate therein against the torque of the
spring to ‘such a position that the torques ex
eJrted by thegcurrent ‘and the spring are equal
and opposite. D’Arsonval movements are widely
2 GI used in instruments such as electric meters and
?uctuations, load impedance and the like act to 10
impair the accuracy of any operation ~of the con
tacts of the D’Arsonval relay if the -“energy
transfer” current was flowing in the relay coil
just prior to ‘the operation of the contacts.
Further, I have found that when using the 15
“energy transfer" arrangement of the McMaster
application, the contacts of the D’Arsonval relay
can close safely a much heavier circuit than it
can interrupt and that if the relay contacts never
are required to open a circuit, they exhibit lit 20
tle deterioration and apparently have inde?nite
life.
'
Accordingly, I have provided a system in which
a D’Arsonval relay utilizes the “energy transfer”
principle of the McMaster application already 25
referred to, but in which the load is applied to
the contacts only momentarily at the time of
electric relays. where high accuracy of opera
tion is required and where only small amounts ’ closing so that the contact subsequently opens
of electric power are available for operating the without load, and in which current from the load
instruments.
When 'D’Arsonval movements are. ' circuit is introduced to the D’Arsonval coil only 30
,30 used in sensitive relays it is the practice usually
to mount one contacting element on the coil
structure so that it will move with the coil into
engagement with a stationaryxcqntact element
35
which serves, also, as a stop for-“the coil to limit
its motion.
executes a gradual rotation in response to a grad
ual change of current and because it tends to
40 open contacts opeiiated by it at the same value a
of coil current as it tends to close them, this
type for relay heretofore has been limited in its
This has been especially
true in respect to load handling capacity and
£15
It is an object of the present invention to pro
vide an improved system and mode of operation
for D’Arsonval relays and the like which will
improve their accuracy and reliability.
35
It is a further object of my invention to pro
‘
Because the D’Arsonval movement inherently
performance ability.
momentarily at the time its contacts ?rst close.
life of its contacts. These di?iculties have been
overcome to a considerable extent by the inven
tionof Archie J. McMaster described in his ap- .
plication for patent already referred to. In ac
cordance with that invention, the coil of the
D’Ars'onval relay is so interconnected with its
load circuit that current from the load circuit
is introduced into the coil circuit to increase the
contact pressure immediately and abruptly when
thevcontacts close and to cause the contacts to
56 separate by a considerable space immediately
vide a system and mode of operation for D’Arson
val ‘relays which will require the D’Arsonval re
lay to perform only those functions for which
it is best adapted.
It is a further object of my invention to pro
vide a system and mode of operation for relays
of the D’Arsonval type which minimizes the wear
and deterioration of the relay contacts.
45
A still further object is to increase the range
of usefulness of relays having D’Arsonval move
ments.
_
These and other objects and advantages of the
present invention will become apparent as the de 50
scription proceeds.
In order better to acquaint those skilled in the
art with the-teachings and practice ofthe present
invention, I now shall describe certain speci?c
embodiments thereof, reference being had to the
F
2
2,1 14,868
accompanying drawings forming a part of this
speci?cation and in which:
Fig. 1 is a partly pictorial and partly diagram
matic illustration of a ‘relay system embodying
:1 my present invention.
Fig. 2 is an “across~the-line” diagram illustrat
ing the circuit of Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 pictorially and diagrammatically illus
trates another relay system embodying my in
ii) vention.
Fig. 4 is an “across-the-line” diagram of the
circuits of the system of Fig. 3.
Fig. 5 illustrates another embodiment of my in
vention.
Fig. 6 is an “across-theeline” diagram of the
circuit connections of the system of Fi'T. .5.
Fig. '7 illustrates still another system embody
ing my present invention.
'
Fig. 8 is an “across—the-line” diagram of the
iii) circuit connections of the system of Fig. '7.
Referring to Fig. 1, a sensitive relay employing
a D’Arsonval movement is indicated generally by
the reference numeral II). It comprises a perma
nent magnet || carrying pole' pieces l2 which,
together with a suitably mounted iron core piece
rotate against the restoring force of the spring
26 until it brings the contact 23 into engagement
with the other stationary contact 25 which again
limits the motion of the coil.
.
A light sensitive cell, or primary control de
vice 3| together with two resistors 33 and 34 are
connected in series with the coil l5 of the D'Ar
sonval relay. The light senstive cell 3| conven
iently may be that particular type of “photo
electric cell” which will generate its own current 10
in response to light‘incident upon its light sensi
tive surface.
Such a cell is known as a “self
generating” or “photoelectronic” type of photo
electric cell. Preferably, I employ a self-generat
ing cell such as is shown and described in the 15
copending application of Andrew Christy, Ser.
No. 646,627, filed'Dec. 10, 1932, now Patent No.
2,066,611, dated January 5, 1937.
In the system. of Fig. 1, the current from the‘
light sensitive cell 3| will pass through the coil l5 20
of the relay to‘ operate the contacts thereof in
accordance with'the value of the illumination on
the cell 3|. Obviously, my invention is not lim
ited to the usebf a photoelectric cell or any par
ticular type thereof, but contemplates any system 25
I3, provide two magnetic'gaps which constitute
capable of delivering power to a relay for operat
the “field" of the D’Arsonval movement. A coil
15 is positioned with one side thereof in each of
ing it.
i
'
The contacts of the D’Arsonval relay I0 con
trol the operation of a latch relay designated
generally by the reference numeral 40. This 30
latch relay is more fully described in my co-pend
the two air gaps already mentioned, and is sup
ported at each end by pivots in jewels, the upper
pivot being indicated at I6. The pivots are sup
ported in metal pivot-bases H and I8 which are ing application already mentioned. The latch
suitably secured to the coil as by means of in
relay comprises two separate electro-magnets
sulating materials and cement. A pair of ?ne which have independent magnetic circuits, sep
resilient wires l9 extend in loops from the coil to ' arate coils 43 and 44, separate armatures 45 and 35
a terminal strip 20 which is mounted on a sta
46 and contacts providing separate contact gaps
tionary portion of the relay supporting struc
5|, 52, 53,- and 54. These contacts ‘consist of
ture (not fully shown) so as to provide convenient
terminals to the coil |5 of the relay. The lower
40 pivot base l8 carries a metal contact supporting
strip 2| the opposite ends of which extend sub
stantially radially from the pivot base. Resilient
contact strips 22 and 23 of precious metal‘ are
carried by the supporting strip 2|, one at each
45 end thereof. Each contact strip is soldered
at one end thereof to the support strip 2| near
the pivot base and the free end of the contact
strip extends along the supporting strip 2| sub
stantially radially from the pivot~base and is
50 spaced slightly from the supporting strip 2|. A
pair of stationary contacts 24 and 25 carried by
cantilever spring blades which carry contact but
tons at their ends'as shown. The armatures are
provided with conical restoring springs 55 and 56 40
which aid the contact springs‘and ‘tend to move
the armatures 45 and 46 into normal positions
from which they may be attracted into drawn-up
positions by their respective magnets. The two
magnets are held in ?xed space relationship with 45
each other by a tie bar 51 which preferably is
non-magnetic. The armatures 45 and 46 carry
non-magnetic extensions 59 and 60 which are con
?gured to have portions 6| and 62 which so inter
fere with each other that each relay armature 50
when it is in its own-released position latches the
adjusting screws 28 and 29 are adapted to en
other armature in the drawn-up position. These
. gage the free resilient ends of the contact strips
extensions 59 and 60 together with their respec
tive armatures 45 and 46 constitute a latching
mechanism which operates as follows:
In Fig. 1, armature 46 is shown in its drawn-up ,
position and armature 45 is ‘shown in itsreleased
22 and 23. Secured, also, to the lower pivot base
I8 4;; a spiral restoring spring 26. This spiral
spr rig may be soldered to the strip 2| and is uti
lized as a means for making van electrical con
nection to the moving contact strips 22 and 23.
position. Interfering portion 6| of armature 45
The outer end of the spring 26 is soldered to an
engages portion 62 of the armature 46 so as to
prevent the armature 46 from moving to its re 60
leased position. When coil 43 is energized, arma
ture 45 will move into its drawn-up position and
in so doing will cause its portion 6| to slide along
portion 62 of armature 46 and off the end of the
same. This action releases armature 46 which
immediately moves under force of its own springs
to its released position and in so doing latches
armature 45 in its drawn-up position. In a
similar manner, when coil 44 is energized the
armatures 45 and 46 will operate to return to the 70
positions- illustrated in Fig. 1 of the drawings.
Contact gap 53 which is operated by armature
45 is arranged to be closed when armature 45 is
in its drawn-up position and to be opened when
armature 45 is in its released position. Similarly 75
60 adjustable arm 21 which serves as an electrical
terminal. This arm 21 may be rotated to adjust
the zero position of the relay coil. Thc'contacts
24 and25 may be adjusted by means of their re
spective adjusting screws 28 and 29 to' determine
65 the amount of rotation required by the coil, l5 to
bring about an engagement with them of the
movable contact strips 22 and 23. Obviously a
setting may be provided such that the contacts
_(as 22 and 24) can engage so as to prevent the
70 restoring spring 26 from bringing the‘ coil l5 into
its zero or rest position. Under these circum
stances, the contacts 22 and 24 will be “normally
closed” and a certain amount of current through
the coil will be required to open them. As the
75 current Increases above this value, the coil will
2,114,868
contact gap 54 which is operated by armature 46
is arranged to be closed when that armature‘is
drawn-up and to be opened when that armature
is released. Contacts 5| and 52 may be employed
for controlling a’ load circuit or other apparatus
in any known manner.._~ ‘
The circuit of Fig. 1 is illustrated more simply
in the across-the-line diagram of Fig. 2. The
across-the-line-diagram attempts only to show
10' the electrical relations between the various ele
ments of the system and makes no attempt to
depict any mechanical relation. Its only purpose
is ,to present the electrical circuits in their sim
plest form.‘ The same reference numerals ‘are
15 used to indicate the same parts in both Figs. 1
and 2.
Referring now to both Figs. 1 and 2, the bat
tery 65 supplies current for energizing the coil
43 and 44-for operating the latch relay 40. A
control circuit for the coil 43 extends from the
negative terminal of the battery through the
contact gap formed by the two contact pieces 23
and 25 of the D’Arsonvalrelay _| 0, thence through
the contact gap 54 which is operated by the arma
ture 45, thence through the coil 43 itself, thence
through the resistor 33 and thence to the posi
tive terminal of the battery.
.
In the diagram of Fig. 2, the elements of this
circuit extend in a line running across the top
30 of the diagram from right to left.
Similarly, the
control circuit for coil 44 of the latch relay 40
extends from the negative terminal of the battery
55 through the contact gap formed by the two
contact pieces 22 and 24 of the D’Arsonval relay
I0, through the contact gap 53 operated by the
armature 45 of the latch relay 40 thence through
. the coil 44 itself and the resistor 34 to the positive
terminal of the battery. The coils 43 and 44 are
shunted by spark suppressing resistors 61 and
58 respectively.
The D’Arsonval relay II) when properly adjusted
will close only one of its two contact gaps at one
time. Consequently the two coils 43 and 44 will
not be energized simultaneously. Assume that
3
ently may be referred to as the “energy transfer"
current in accordance with the terminology of
the McMaster application already referred to.
This “energy transfer” current ?owing through
the photoelectric cell 3| and the coil l5 from the
battery generally will be a very small part of the
total current drawn from the battery by the coil
43 and its shunt 61, because the .cell 3| and the
coil l5 have much higher resistances than the
resistor 33. Thus for example cell 3| and coil l5
together, may have a resistance of the order of
1000 ohms and the resistor 33 may be only a frac
tion of an ohm. The particular value of resist
ance to be given resistor 33 depends, of course,
upon the value of current drawn by the latch re 15
lay coil 43 and its shunt 61 and, also, upon the
speci?c value of the resistance of the photoelec
tric cell 3| and the coil |5 as well as the ‘value of
the “energy transfer” it is desired to pass through
the coil l5 from the battery. Generally, I prefer 20
to supply to the D’Arsonval relay coil |5 from
the battery 65 an “energy transfer” current which
is of an order of magnitude of 25% of the cur
rent which is required to rotate the coil from the
position where contact strip 22 engages contact
24 to the position in which contact strip 23 car
ried by the coil engages stationary contactpiece
25.
',
It will be understood that the “energy transfer"
current supplied from the battery 65 to the coil 30
i5 is added to or superimposed upon the current
already in the coil |5 resulting from the illumi- ‘
nation of the photoelectric cell 3|. The photo
electric current and the “energy transfer” cur
rent conveniently may be considered as ?owing
independent of each other with their separate
effects superimposed. This is substantially in ac
cordance with accepted electrical theory. There
fore, so far as the coil I5 is concerned, separate
current components ?ow‘ from the photoelectric 40
cell 3| and battery 65 and either add or subtract
depending upon the relative directions of their
?ow through the coil |5. Under the circuit con
dition now being described with current in the
the armatures 45 and 46 of the latch relay 40 are
coil 43, the “energy transfer” and photoelectric
in the positions shown in Fig. 1 of thedrawings.
The contact gap 54 will be closed and the contact
gap 53 will be open. Assume, also, that the light
sensitive cell 3| is dark and that, therefore, no
components of ‘current are in the same relative
' current is ?owing therethrough. Therefore, con
tact pieces 22 and 24 of‘ the D’Arsonval relay ill
will be in engagement. However, inasmuch as
the circuit is open at contact gap 53 of the latch
relay 40, nothing will happen. When light falls
upon the photoelectric cell 3|,_the éurrent gen
- erated will traverse the coil |5 vof the D’Arsonval
relay l0 andthis current in the coil will re-act
with the magnetic ?eld of the magnet I I to rotate
the coil |5 against the restoring force of the
spiral spring 25 in such direction as to separate
the contact pieces 22 and 24 and to bring contact
piece 23 towards contact piece 25. As the il
lumination on photoelectric cell 3| increases it
brings contact piece 23 into engagement with con
tact piece 22 to complete the control circuit for
This energizes coil 43 causing the arma
. coil 43.
ture 45 to move to its ‘drawn-up position.
‘A small portion of the current which passes.
through the coil 43 and‘ its shunt resistor 51, tra
verses the photoelectric cell 3|, the D’Arsonval
relay coil l5 and the resistor 34, all of which
so far as the circuit to coil 43 is concerned, are
in a circuit branch shunting the resistor 33. That
component of current which is supplied from the
battery 55 to ?ow through the coil'l5 conveni
direction and, therefore, add. The operation of
the contacts of the D’Arsonval relay does have
some effect upon the output of the photoelectric
cell 3|; that is, upon the “photoelectric compo
nent” of current in the relay coil l5. This results
from the change of circuit conditions resulting
from the closing and ‘opening-of contact gaps.
However, this effect is very small in the system
illustrated in the drawings. Thus, as already has
been mentioned, the combined resistance of the
photoelectric cell 3| and coil. |5 may be a thou
sand times or more greater than the resistance
of resistor 33. Insofar as the current generated
by the photoelectric cell 3| is concerned, the clos
ing of the path through the coil 43 and its shunt
61 merely places the coil 43 and its shunt 61 in
parallel with the resistor 33. Therefore, the op
eration of the contacts can produce no more than
a change of something less than a tenth of one
percent (a factor of 0.001) in the resistance in
series with the photoelectric cell 3| because that
would be approximate change resulting from
short circuiting the resistor 33 completely.
The “energy transfer” current which is sup
plied from the battery 65 to the D’Arsonval relay
coil |5 through the contact gap formed by the
contact pieces 23 and 25 of the D’Arsonval relay
in the manner just described, is in such a direc- ’
tion as to tend further to move they contact piece -i Ch
4
2,114,868
23 against the stationary contact 25. That is, maintain itself only by forcing current.across
the “energy transfer” current acts to increase the opening contact gap in the form of an are
the pressure between the contact surfaces of the or spark. While the actual opening of the cir
D’Arsonval relay I0 and tends to prevent those cuit would take place at contact gap 54 a spark,
contact pieces from separating. It is thusseen also, might appear at the contacts of the D’Arson
that as soon as‘ the contacts of the D’Arsonval
val relay as follows:
relay close, additional current is supplied from
the battery 65 to the relay coil i5 to insure that
those contacts remain closed and to insure further
10 that ‘they maintain a low resistance contact.
The urrent through the coil 43 causes the
armat
_
The initial closing of the D’Arsonval relay con-_
tact gap formed by the contact pieces 2| and 23
produced an abrupt increase in the current in
the coil l5. This caused the coil l5 to force the 10
resilient contact strip harder against the sta
tionary contact piece 23. The coil necessarily
moved because‘ of the- resilience of the contact
e 45 of the latch relay to move into its
drawn-up position. When it arrives there, the
portion 6| of the extension 59 of the armature _ strip 2| and unless critically damped would move
45 dis-engages the portion 62 of the extension 60 beyond the point of equilibrium and then return
of the armature 46, thereby unlatching armature but would not return far enough to again open
46 and permitting it to move towards its released the contact gap because the presence of some
position. It is to be observed that the several damping (and. there must be some) would presprings which act to load the armature 46 tend vent it from returning to the starting condition.
'20 to hold the portion 62 ?rmly against the end of
However, if the time requiredfor the operation
the portion 6| of the extension 59 of the armature‘ of armature‘ 45 and the subsequent release’of
45. Therefore, as soon as the armature 46 begins armature 46 should be slightly less than the pe
to move towards its released position, it acts to riod of the oscillating coil IS, the “energy trans~
"block or latch the armature 45 in its picked-up fer” current in the coil |5 would be interrupted
25 position. After the armature 46 moves a slight by the opening of the contact gap 54 when the
distance it opens the contact gap'54 and in so coil I5 was in motion and moving toward the
.doing interrupts the flow of current through they position at which the contact pressure goes to
coil 43 and its shunt resistor 61. In so doing, it, . zero and permits the contact pieces 2| and 23
also, interrupts the flow of current from the bat
15
_
20
26
to separate. The coil l5, therefore, would actu
30 tery 65 through the photoelectric cell 3| and coil
ally move to separate the contact pieces 2| and 30
23. If these contact pieces should separate while
l5 of the D'Arsonval relay. That is, it interrupts
the flow of “energy transfer” current from the
the arc exists in the contact gap 54, another are
battery 65 to‘the coil l5 of the D’Arsonval rela'y; - would draw between the contact pieces 2| and
and it leaves the D’Arsonval relay in exactly the
23 because of the voltage induced by the collapse
same condition as it was just prior to the engage
of ?ux in the coil 43._ While some current neces
ment of its contact pieces 23 and 25. The photo
sarily would ?ow in order to maintain the are
35
electric current still ?ows in its coil l5.
or spark and while this would provide some
When the contact gap 54 opens, it disconnects “energy transfer” current in the coil l5, that
the battery 65 from the coil 43 so as to terminate - current would be small compared to the full cur
40 the delivery of power thereto. The ?ux of the rent so that the coil l5 still might operate as 40
magnet oi’ the coil 43 immediately begins to col
above described. The use of the shunt resistor
lapse and in so doing induces a voltage in the 61 effectively prevents all destructive sparking at
'
'
coil in the direction of the current. Because of the relay contacts.
the presence of the shunt 61 across the coil 43,
After the opening of the contact gap 54 and
45 this induced voltage or inductive kick causes a the removal of the "energy transfer” current from 46
current to flow through the closed circuit pro
the coil l5, contact surfaces of the contact pieces
vided by shunt 61.. The how of this current 2| and 23 of D’Arsonval relay may continue to
opposes and delays the collapse of the ?ux of lie in engagement with each other but inasmuch
the electro-magnet.- Since this electro-magnet
as their circuit is open at the contact gap 54 ‘
nothing occurs as a result of their touching. It 60
50 will release the armature 45 only when its ?ux
drops to some certain low value, the delay of the
collapse of the flux, also, delays the release of
the armature 45 by its magnet. Therefore, the
electro-magnet of the coil 43 continues to hold
the armature 45 for a short time after the con-.
thus is seen that it is impossible for the contact
pieces 23 and 25 of the D’Arsonval relay Hi to
engage with only slight contact pressure and
with current passing through them; and it is
further seen that it is impossible for these con
tact pieces to repeatedly open and close their
gap under load with a chattering or frying ac
tact gap 54 opens so as to give the armature 46
ample time to latch the armature 45 in the event
that because of misadjustment or otherwise the
contact gap 54 opens before the armature 45 is
60 latched positively.
tion.
.
The shunt resistor 61, also, serves as a spark
suppressor for protecting the various contacts,
and especially the contacts of the D’Arsonval re
lay H! from destructive sparking and arching re
,
of the current drawn by the coil 44 and its shunt .
65 sulting from the inductive kick of the magnet of
the coil 43. The voltage induced in the coil 43
is proportional to the rate oi’ change of flux, that
is the speed of its collapse. Since the current
flowing through the coil 43 and the shunt 61
70 retards the collapse of flux (or lowers its rate of
.
When the illumination on the photoelectric cell
3| again decreases to such a value that the con 60
tact pieces 22 and 24 engage, power is supplied
from the battery 65 to‘the coil 44 in a manner
similar to that just described for coil 43; A part
68 ?ows around the resistor 34 through the coil 05
|5 of the D’Arsonval relay l0 and through the
.
photoelectric cell 3| to, again supply "energy
transfer” current to the relay coil l5. However,
change), it, also, prevents the induced voltage
from reaching ashigh value. By lowering the
this time the “energy transfer" component of cur
rent in the coil l5 ?ows therethrough in the 70
opposite direction to what it did before, that is,
it ?ows in'a direction to oppose the ?ow of the
resistance of the shunt 61, the induced voltage
current produced by the photoelectric cell 3|.
or inductive kick can be reduced to any desired
75 value.
Without the shunt 61, the ?ux could
This acts to decrease the total current in the re
lay |5 (increase in the negative direction), so that 75
2,114,863
the contact pieces 22 and 24 engage ?rmly and
with considerable contact pressure. The opera
tion of the latch relay 40 in response to the ener
gizing of coil 44 returns the armatures 45 and 45
to the positions shown in Fig. 1.
,It' will be seen from the foregoing description,
that the energizing of a coil of the latch relay
40 is under the concurrent ‘dependent control of
‘contacts of both the latch relay itself and con
'10 tacts of the D’Arsonval relay I0. Thus the coil
43 is energized under control of the contact gap
54 of the latch relay and the contact gap formed
by the contact pieces 23 and 25 of the D’Arsonval
relay. The control of these contacts is depend
15 ent in that neither can energize the coil 43 alone.
It is concurrent in that the two contact gaps
must be closed‘ simultaneously to energize the
coil 43. These'two contact gaps, also, are de
pendent upon each other in supplying current
fromthe battery. 65 to the coil I5 of the D’Arson
val relay. Similarly, the-contact-gap 53 of the
latch relay and the gap formed by the contact
pieces 22 and 24 of the D’Arsonvalm relay con
stitute another group of contact gaps which are
26 dependent upon each other in supplying power
from the battery 85 to either the coil 44 of the
latch relay 40 or the coil I5 of the D’Arsonval
relay ‘I0. While the contacts of each of these
groups are dependent within the group itself, the
two groups act independently in energizing coil
I5 from the battery 65.
When employing my present invention with
apparatus having an un-symmetrical impedance
characteristic, I prefer to choose different values
35 of resistance for the two resistors 33 and 34 so as
to provide approximately equal values of energy
transfer current for the two operations of the
D’Arsonval relay. Photoelectric cells of the self -
generating type invariably possess unsymmetri
40 cal impedance characteristics. That is, a photo
electric cell of this type will permit different
values of current to flow therethrough in re
sponse to an impressed voltage depending upon
the polarity of the applied voltage with respect
45 to the polarity of the photoelectric cell. In some
5
resistance 34 is impressed upon the photoelec
tric cell 3| and the coil I5. The current due to
this voltage drop ?ows in the direction opposite
to that in which the photoelectric current flows
and, therefore, encounters a comparatively low
impedance. Obviously, if I should wish to pro
vide a greater energy transfer current in response
to the closing of one contact gap of the D’Arson
val relay than is provided in response to the
operation of its other contact gap, the same can 10
be accomplished easily by selecting suitable val
ues for the resistors 33 and 34.
Furthermore, should I wish to employ a photo
electric cell which presentsits higher impedance
to currents in the direction opposite to that of 15
the photoelectric current, I may give the resistor
34 a higher resistance value so as .to keep the
“energy transfer” component of current at the
desired value for each direction of operation.
In Fig. 3 is illustrated another system embody 20
ing my present invention. A D’Arsonval relay
IIO similar to the relay I0 of Fig‘. 1' ‘has a coil
I|5, contact pieces I22 and I24 providing a nor
mally closed contact gap and contact pieces I23
and I25 providing a normally open contact gap. 25
A photoelectric cell I3I similar to the photoelec
tric cell 3| of Fig. 1 is connected to the coil “5
through an energy transfer resistor; I35. The_
D’Arsonval relay I II is arrangedto control the
operation of a relay I40 having a coil I4I, a 30
normally open contact gap I42 and a pair of load
contacts I43. The power for the operation of
the relay I40 is supplied from a battery I65
through a current limiting resistor I60. The
circuit is more clearly shown in the across-the-' 35
line diagramof Fig. 4. The across-the-line dia
gram attempts to show only the electrical rela
tion between various elements and makes no
attempt to show any mechanical relations dia
grammatically. The various elements shown
therein may be identi?ed'by the reference nu
merals from the illustration of Fig. 3. As may
be seen more clearly from the diagram of Fig.
4, the normally open contact gap I42 of the relay
I40 is connected in series with its coil I 4| and 45
types of cells, the higher impedance is presented this combination is connected across the com
to a current ?owing in the same direction as
does the photoelectric current; and other types
of self-generating cells present their lower im
50 pedance to currents in the same direction as the
photoelectriclcurrent. Thus for example a self
generating photoelectric cell employing iron and
selenium, such as the one shown and described
in the co-pending application of Andrew Christy,
55 Ser. No. 646,627, ?led December 10, 1932, already
referred to, the higher impedance is presented
to a current ?owing in the same direction'as the
photoelectric current. Accordingly when em
ploying a photoelectric cell of this particular
60 construction in the system of Fig. 1, the resistor
' 34 is given a lower value than the resistor 33.
bination of the battery I65 and the
The two series connected contact
D’Arsonval relay IIO formed by
pieces I22 and I24 and the pieces
resistor I66.
gaps‘ of the
the contact
I23 and I25 50
respectively, also, are connected across the com
bination of the contact gap I42 and coil I4I of
the relay I40. An energy transfer resistor I35
shunted by the coil II5 of the D’Arsonval relay
and the photoelectric cell I3I, is bridged between
.(1) the connection between the contact gap I42
and the coil I 4| and (2) the connection between
the two separate contact gaps of the D’Arsonval
relay IIO. ~A spark suppressing shunt resistor
I68 is provided for the coil |4| of the relay I40. 60
The operation of the system of Figs. 3 and 4
is as follows: Assume that the relay I40 is de
energized and that its armature is released so
voltage is impressed upon the photoelectric cell _ that its contact gap is open as shown in Fig. 3,
Thus when the current is drawn through the
coil 43 of the latch relay 40, a comparatively high
3| by the voltage drop across the comparatively
high resistance of the resistor 33. This passes
current through the coil I5 and the photoelectric
cell 3| in the same direction as the photoelectric
current passes therethrough which is generated
70 by the photoelectric action of the cell 3| itself;
and therefore, it encounters the higher imped
ance,» of the photoelectric ceil.
When current is drawn through the coil 44 of
of the latch relay a comparatively small voltage
75 drop appearingv across the comparatively low
this being its normal condition; Assume further
that the photoelectric cell |3| is receiving suf?
cient illumination so that the current passed
thereby through the coil II5 of the D’Arsonval
relay is of value sufiicient to hold the normally
closed contact gap thereof, (the one formed by 70
the contact pieces~l22 and I24) open. If now,
the illumination of the photoelectric cell I3I in
creases to such'a value as to close the normally
open contact gap of the D’Arsonval relay' (the
one formed by the contact pieces I23 and I25),
6
2,114,863
nothing will happen because the circuit from the
battery is open at both the contact gap I42 of the
relay I 46 and the normally closed contact gap
of the D’Arsonval relay which is formed by the
contact pieces I22 and I24. When the illumina
tion decreases to such value as to permit the nor
mally closed contact gap oi.’ the D’Arsonval relay
to close, a circuit is completed thereby as follows: ‘
Extending from the positive terminal of the bat
10 tery I65 through the normally closed contact gap
formed by the contact pieces I 22 and I24 of the
D’Arsonval relay, through the ‘energy transfer
resistor I35 through the coil MI and its shunt I68
and the current limiting resistor I66 to the nega
15 tive terminal of the battery I65. The current
?owing in this circuit divides between the en
ergy transfer resistor I35 and its shunt circuit
consisting of the coil I I5 and the photoelectric
cell I3I to oppose the photoelectric current so as
20 to increase the pressure at the contact surfaces
of the D'Arsonval relay.
The current passing through the coil I4I causes
the relay I40 to pick-up its armature and close
its contact gap I42.
This short circuits the cur
25 rent path through the normally closed contact
gap of the D’Arsonval relay and the energy trans
fer resistor I35 so as to substantially terminate
the ?ow of current therein. This effectively re
moves the "energy transfer” component of cur
30 rent from the coil I I5 of the D’Arsonval relay I I0
35
40
45
50
65
60
65
tus or making or breaking any current.
It will be observed that a greater current flows
from the battery when the normally open con
tact gap of the D’Arsonval relay (contact pieces
I23 and I 25) closes than when its normally closed
contact gap (contact pieces I22 and I24) closes
because in the first case the current is, limited
only by the resistor I66 while in the second case
it ‘is limited by the resistor I66 and, also, by the
coil MI and its shunt resistor I68. However,
since the photoelectric cell I3I presents a greater
impedance to the flow of current therethrough
in the same direction as the photoelectric current
?ows, the greater voltage drop across the energy
transfer resistor 35 encounters a higher imped
ance in the path through the coil H5 and the
photoelectric cell I3I than does the lower voltage
drop resulting from the flow of current there
through in the opposite direction. By suitably
choosing the values of the resistance of the coil
“I and its shunt I68 and the resistor I66, the
energy transfer current can be made substantially
the same for operation at both contact gaps of
the D’Arsonval relay.‘
'
The systems of_Figs. 1 and 3 differ somewhat
from each other in construction and operational
characteristics, and each possesses certain ad
and effectively prevents any voltage drop from vantages over the other. Thus, the system of Fig.
thereafter appearing between the contact pieces _ 1 requires less power for its operation‘ because
I22 and I24 when they separate. The contact current is drawn from the battery 65 only for a
gap I42 of the relay I4Il_ acts to electrically lock brief instant each time that the latch relay is
this relay in its energized position by maintain
made to operate; and it is free of any tendency
ing its coil circuit. Thereafter the normally of its armatures and contacts to change their
closed contact gap of the D’Arsonval relay formed positions in response to a temporary failure of
by the contact pieces I22 and I24 may open and power such as might occur if the power were
close repeatedly, but no relay operation will re
supplied from a commercial powerline instead
sult therefrom and substantially no flow of cur
of the battery 65 illustrated in Fig. 1. The relay
rent will be established or interrupted thereby.
I40 of the system of Fig. 3 is somewhat more
Then when the illumination of the photoelec
simple and lower in cost than the latch relay of
tric cell I3I again increases to such a value as to Fig. 1; and it will release and return to the posi
bring the contact pieces I23 and I25 into en
tion in which it is illustrated in response to any
gagement, they act to short circuit the coil “I failureof the battery to supply sufficient cur
but the short circuit current ?ows through the cent and voltage thereto.
energy transfer resistor I35. This flow of curIn Fig. 5, is illustrated, a time delay latch re
rent through the resistor I35 is in the direction lay system generally of the type which is shown
therethrough opposite to the direction of‘ the cur
and described in my co-pending application al
rent which ?owed therein when the relay previ
ready referred to, but employing a D’Arsonval re
ously operated so that it produces an "energy lay and embodying my present invention there
transfer” component of current in the direction with for improving the operation of the
opposite to that supplied when the relay previous
D’Arsonval relay. In Fig. 5, the coil 2I5 and con
ly operated thereby to increase the total current tact gaps 231 and 238 of the D’Arsonval relay
in the coil H5 and increase the contact pressure are illustrated diagrammatically. The coil H5 is
of the contact pieces I23 and I25. Under this connected in series with a self-generating photo
condition the ?ow of current from the battery electric cell 23I and a pair of resistors 233 and
is limited by the current limiting resistor I66. 234. The D’Arsonval relay and the photoelec~
Obviously, if the battery I65 has su?iciently high ‘tric cell 23I are connected to control the latch
internal impedance to su?iciently limit its cur
relay 240. ' The circuit connections are more 60
rent the resistor I66 can be eliminated. Short clearly shown in the across-the-line diagram of
circuiting the coil I4I, that is shunting it with the Fig. 6.
low impedance path of the resistor I35 and the
The latch relay 240 is similar to the latch relay
contacts of the D’Arsonval relay, so reduces the 40 of Fig. 1 and comprises a pair of magnet coils
flow of current through the coil I4I that it re
243 and 244 having shunt resistors 261 and 266
leases its armature and causes its contact“ gap
I42 to open. This opens the battery circuit com
pletely so that the ?ow of current through the
resistor I35 and the contacts of the D’Arsonval
relay is terminated. This returns the apparatus
to its original condition with the circuit open at
the contact gap I42 of the relay I40 and at'the
normally closed contact gap of the D’Arsonval re
-. 75.
I25 of the normally open contact gap of the
D’Arsonval relay may open and close repeatedly
without producing any operation of the appara
lay (the gap formed by the contact pieces I22
and I24). Therefore, the contact pieces I23 and
connected thereto which are similar to the shunt
resistors 67 and 68 of Fig. 1. The magnet coil
243 may be energized to operate an armature 245
and similarly the magnet coil 244 serves when en
ergized to operate the armature 246. The arma 70
ture 245 operates a three-blade assembly of con
tacts providing two contact gaps 253 and 255.
The contact gap 253 is arranged to be open when
the armature 245 is in its drawn-up position.
while the contact gap 255 is closed when the 75
2,114,868
armature 245 is in its drawn-up position. Simi
larly, the armature 246 operates a 3 blade as
sembly of contacts providing contact gaps 254 “and
256, of which, contact gap 254 is open and con
tact gap 256 is closed when the armature 246 is
in its drawn-up position. Jidditlonal contacts 25I
and 252 are provided to which load circuits may
be connected to be controlled by the operation of
the armatures 245 and 246. Connections similar
10 to those shown in Figs. 1 and 2 are provided by
which the contact gaps 231 and 236 of .the
D'Arsonval relay control the supply of power to
the coils 243 and 244 of the latch relay from a
. battery 265. Thus starting from the negative
15 terminal of the battery 265 a circuit extends
through the normally open contact gap 231 of the
D’Arsonval relay through the contact gap 254
which is operated by the armature 246 of the
latch relay, thence through the coil 243 and its
‘shunt resistor 261 and thence through the re
sistor 233 to the positive terminal of the bat
tery 265. A part of the current is shunted around
the resistor 233 to ?ow through the photoelectric
cell 23l, the coil 2l5 of the D'Arsonval relay and
the resistor 234. Similarly, a circuit extends from
the negative terminal of the ‘battery 265 to the
normally closed contact gap 236 of the D'Arsonval
relay,‘ to the contact gap 253 of the latch relay
‘through Lthe coll 244 and its shunt 268 and
30 through the resistor 234 back to the battery 265.
Part of the current is shunted around the re
sistor 234 to ?ow through the coil 2l5 .of the
D’Arsonval relay, the'photoelectrlc cell 23! and
the resistor 233. The circuit connections thus far
described correspond to those of Figs. 1 and 2.
In- addition to the connections just described,
cross connections are provided between the two
separate coil circuits just traced to_ permit the two
coils 243 and 244 to be energized simultaneously.
40 Thus a circuit path is provided which may be
traced as follows: Beginning at the negative ter
minal of the battery 265, it extends through the
normally open contact gap 231 of the D’Arsonval
relay thence through a cross connection consisting
of a resistor 241 and the contact gap 255 and
thence through the ‘coil 244 of the latch relay and
the resistor 234 to the positive terminal of the
battery 265. This permits the coil 244 as well as
the coil 243 to be energized‘under control of the
7
than the current through coil 244. The resistors’
233 and 234 are substantially'equal in value so
that the voltage drop across the resistor 234 will
be higher than that across the resistor 233. The
di?erence of these two voltage drops will cause an
“energy transfer" component of current to trans
verse the coil 2l5 of the D’Arsonval relay in the
direction opposite to the direction of the ‘photo
electric current. “This causes the coil 215 to in
crease the contact pressure at the gap 236K The
coil 243 of the latch relay 246 attracts the arma
ture 245 so as to take up the slack in the latch
mechanism and remove the frictional drag from
the armature 246. The energized coil 244 causes
the armature 246 to pick-up and in so doing, to 15
open the contact gap .256 to ole-energize coil 243.
It, also, closes the contact gap 254 in preparation
for a subsequent operation of the contact gap 231.
' The de-energizing of the coil 243 by the open
ing of the contact gap 256 removes one com
20
ponent of current from the coil 2l5 of the
D’Arsonval relay and in so doing causes a still
further increase of contact pressure at the con
tact gap 236 of the D’Arsonvalrelay 2“).
The closing of the contact gap 254 does not 25
complete a circuit because both the contact gaps
231 and 255 are open. Upon opening the contact
gap 256, the supply of power from the battery 265
to the coil 243 is interrupted. Thereupon the
magnetic ?eld begins to collapse, but this col
lapse is retarded by a current which circulates
through the coil 243 and its shunt resistor 26?.
The retarding of the collapse of the magnetic
?eld delays the release of the armature 245 for a
periodof time after the operation of the arma 35
ture 246. When the ?ux of the magnet of the
coil 243 reaches a su?iciently low value, the arma
ture 245 releases and in so doing opens the con
tact gap 253 to interrupt the flow of current to
the coil 244, and it, also, closes the contact gap 40
255 in preparation for a subsequent operation of
contact gap 231. It, also, operates the load con
tacts 25!. This leaves the system drawing ‘no
current from the battery 265 and with the sys
tem no longer responsive to any opening or clos 45
ing of the contact gap 236. This removes the
energy transfer current component from the cur
rent of the coil 2l5. It is thus seen that by the
use of the resistors 241 and 246, I have succeeded
contact gap 231 of the D’Arsonval relay. A simi- _ in embodying my present invention with the
time delay system of my co-pendi'ng application
lar additional circuit extends from the negative
terminal of the battery 265. through the nor
mally closed contact gap 236 of the D’Arsonval
already referred to. Inasmuch as the particular
coil which is energized through one of these re
battery 265.
position at the time.
Subsequently, the normally open contact gap
.sistors is, in every case, already substantially
relay, thence through a cross connection consist
in its drawn-up position so that it is not neces 65
55 ing of a resistor 248 and the contact gap 256,
' and thence through the coil 243 of the latch relay sary to supply it as much power as is supplied
and the resistor 233 to the positive terminal of the , to the other coil whose armature is in the released
The system of Figs. 5 and 6 operates as follows:
'Assume that the photoelectricv cell 23l is su?i
ciently illuminated so that the contact gap 236 is
open and that the latch relay 246 has its arma
tures 245 and 246 in the positions shown in Fig. 5.
In this position of the armatures 245 and 246, the
65 contact gaps 255 and-254 are open so that neither
the coil 243 nor the coil 244 of the latch .relay
may be energized by closing the contact gap 231
of the D’Arsonval relay. However, the contact
gaps 256 and 253 both are closed so that the con
70 tact gap 236 of the D’Arsonval relay may, close to
energize both of the coils 243 and 244. The coils
243 and 244 have approximately equal resistances.
as do the resistors 261 and 266. Because the cur
_ rent path throughthe coil 243 includes the re
sistor 246, the current therethrough will beless
231 of the D’Arsonval relay may close to ener
gize both coils of the latch relay and to execute
a time delay ‘between the closing of the contact‘
gap 231 and the operation of the load contact 252
of the armature 246.
Fig. '1 illustrates a relay system embodying my 65
present invention in a modi?cation of the sys
tem of Fig. 5 wherein the D’vArsonval relay re~
sponds to the voltage of the battery or other
power supply which operates the relay. The cir
cuit is more simply shown in the across-the-line 70
diagram of Fig. 8. Fig. 8 depicts only the circuit -
relationships between the various elements and
makes no attempt to diagrammatically represent
any mechanical relationships- between t; am.
A
comparison of Fig. 8 with Fig. 6 will show that
8
2,114,863
the circuit differs essentially from that of Fig. 6
in the omission of the photoelectric cell and the
addition of resistors 370 and 3'“. Current flows
continuously from the battery 365 from the posi
tive terminal thereof, thence through parallel
10
15
20
26
'30
35
limited except by the scope of the appended
claims.
I claim:
>
..
l. A relay of the D’Arsonval type having a coil
and a pair of cooperating contacts, primary con
paths consisting of the resistor 334 and the coil ' trol means for supplying current to said coil for
3l5 of the D’Arsonval relay and of the resistor controlling and operating the relay, a power-sup
333 and the resistor 310 respectively and-thence ply separate from said primary control means, at
through the resistor 3'“ to the negative terminal least one load circuit for said relay comprising
of the battery. Preferably the resistor 310 has a said contacts and said power supply, connections
resistancevalue approximately equal to the re
therefrom to the coil of the relay for supplying
sist'ance of the D’Arsonval relay coil 3l5. Gen
current from said power supply to said relay coil _
erally the resistance 3“ will be very high com
under control of said contacts, said power supply
pared to the other resistances of the system. In
being so connected as respects its polarity that
asmuch as the D’Arsonval relay coil 3|5 receives when said relay contacts execute a closing opera
its current from a ?xed resistance system (as
tion to control the current supplied to said relay
suming that no' current ‘?ows through the relay coil the change produced thereby in, the current
coils 343 and 344), the value of current ?owing in the relay coil acts to increase the pressure be
therein is directly proportional to the voltage of tween the contact surfaces, and means in said
the battery 365._
load circuit operable in response to said closing
When the normally closed contact 338 of the operation of said contacts for producing a change
D’Arsonval relay closes, current is drawn through in the current in the relay coil substantially
both of the coils 343 and 344 in the manner de
equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to _
scribed in connection with the system of Fig. 5, the change caused by said closing operation of
the greater current being drawn by coil 344. said contacts.
'
This causes an additional component of current
2. A relay having a coil and contacts, a power
to ?ow through the coil 3l5 in the direction op
supply, a load circuit for said relay including said
posite to that in which current already was ?ow
contacts and including said power supply, means
ing so as to decrease the net current in the relay comprising connections between said load circuit
3l5. This results in increased contact pressure and the coil of the relay for supplying current from at
at the contact gap 338 to aid the operation 0! said power supply to said relay coil in response
the D’Arsonval relay. Similarly when the nor
to an operation of said contacts, the power supply
mally open contact gap'33l of the D’Arsonval re
being so connected as respects the polarity there
lay closes, it energizes both of the coils 343 and of that when said contacts execute said opera
344 drawing the greater current through the coil tion thereof the change of current caused thereby
343 so that the voltage drop across the resistor
333 is greater than the drop across the resistor
334. This causes an increase of the total cur»
rent in the D’Arsonval relay coil _3I5 in the same
40 manner as was described in connection with the
system of Figs. 5 and 6 so as to improve the oper
ation of the contact gap 331 of the D’Arsonval
relay.
"
in the relay coil is such as to increase the tend
ency of the relay to maintain thecontacts in their
operated condition, and means in said load circuit
operable in response to said operation of the relay
contacts for causing a change in the coil current
of the relay substantially equal in magnitude but
opposite in direction to the change‘ caused by the
operation of the contacts.
3. A relay of the D’Arsonval type having a coil
and having contacts which provide two contact
In the system of Figs. 7 and 8, the battery
which supplies the power for the latch relay coil
has become the primary control device of the gaps which cannot close simultaneously, a power
system. It is immaterial that the current drawn‘
by the coils of the latch relay may impair the supply, a load device, circuit connections between
, voltage of the battery during the time that those said contacts, power supply, load device and the
45
coils are drawing current, because at that par
ticular time the measure of response of the
D’Arsonval relay to the battery voltage is pur
posely disturbed by the introduction of “energy
transfer” current for the purpose of improving
the’ action and operation of the contacts of the
D'Arsonval relay. , Inasmuch as power is drawn
from the battery 365 by the coils of the latch
relay, only during the brief interval that is re
' _quired for the operation of the armatures there
" oi, the voltage of the'battery will be disturbed
thereby only during that brief operating period
and the D’Arsonval‘relay will respond accurately
to the battery voltage at all times when it is not
producing an operation of the latch relay. The
- system of Figs. 7 and 8 conveniently may be em- '
ployed for controlling a system in which the bat
tery voltage indicate: the operation which is re
quired, as for example: In a system for automati
cally charging a storage battery.
While I have shown and described various spe
ci?c embodiments of my present invention, it will
be apparent to those skilledin the art that the
same are by way of representation only, and that
the invention is capable of various modi?cations
75 and variations. Therefore, I do not wish to be
coil of the relay such that said load device is
responsive to a closing of only one of said con
tact gaps. and such that when that one contact
gap closes it causes the power supply to operate
said load device and to deliver current to said
relay coil in such direction as to increase the
pressure between the engaged contact surfaces of
said contacts, said load device being operable in
response to the closing of said one contact gap
of the D’Arsonval relay to substantially interrupt
the flow of current through the closed contacts.
to substantially interrupt the flow of current (30
from said power supply to said relay coil, to
render said load device unresponsive to any fur
ther operation of said one contact gap, and to
render said load device responsive to a closing
operation of the other of said contact gaps.
(i5
4. A control relay having a coil and having con
tacts which provide two contact gaps which close
at different values of current in said coil, 2. sec
ond relay having a coil and contacts, a power
supply, ?rst connections including the two con 70
tact gaps of the control relay, the coil and con
tacts of the second relay and the power supply
for adapting said second relay to energize and
operate when one contact gap of the control relay
76
2,114,868
' closes and for adapting said second relay to de
energize and operate when the other contact gap
of the control relay closes, and other‘ connec
tions between said first connections and the coil
of the control relay for (1) supplying current
from said power supply to said coil of the control
relay, for (2) producing a change in the current
in said coil of the control relay when each con
tact gap thereof closes to operate said second re
10 lay, said change be‘ng inlsuch a direction as to
tend to aid the closing of the contact gap, and for
(3) causing a substantially equal but opposite
9
other armature and one of the contact gaps of the
control relay, and other connections between the ,
coil of said control relay and the ?rst mentionedv
circuit connections for supplying power from said
power supply to the coil of the control relay under
the concurrent independent control of either de
pendent control group.
8.'A control, relay having a coil and having
contacts which provide two contact gaps which
operate at different values of current in said 10
coil, a latch relay having two interfering arma
tures each of which has both a drawn-up and 8.
change in said current when the second relay ' released position, each of which latches the other
in one ' of the two positions thereof, sepa
operates in response to the closing of said con
15 tact gap of said control relay.
' 5. A relay of the D’Arsonval type having a coil
and having contacts which provide two contact
. gaps connected in series which close at different
rate magnet coils for operating said armatures, 15
contacts which provide a separate contact gap
operated by each of said armatures. a power sup
ply, circuit connections for supplying power from
said power supply to the magnet coil associated
values of current in said coil, a second relay
with each of said armatures under the concur~ 20
20 having a coil and having contacts providing a
' rent dependent control of a contact gap oper
contact gap which closes when the coil of said
second relay is energized, a power supply, said ated by the other armature and one of the con
tact gaps of the control relay, and other connec
contact gap of said second relay being connected tions
between the coil of said control relay and
to the coil of said second relay, said contact gap
25
25 and coil of said second relay and said power the ?rst mentioned circuit connections for sup
plying power from said power supply to the coil
supply being connected in series, said series con
nected contact gaps of the D’Arsonval relay being of the control relay under the control of the con-,
tacts of said control relay.
connected across the series connected contact
9. A control relay having a coil and having
gap and coil of said second relay, and connections contacts which provide two contact gaps which 30
30 including the coil of the D’Arsonval relay be
close at different values of current in said coil, a
tween (1) the connection between the two con
latch relay having two interfering armatures
tact gaps of'the D’Arsonval relay and (2) the each of which has both a drawn-up and a re
connection between the coil and contact gap of leased position, each of which when in its own re
the second relay.
_
leased position latches the other in its drawn-up 35
35
6. A control relay having a coil and having position, separate magnet coils for opera, .ig said
contacts which provide two contact gaps which armatures, contacts which provide a separate
close at different values of current in said coil, contact gap operated by each of said armatures,
a latch relay having two interfering armatures each of said contact gaps being arranged to be
each of which has both a drawn up and released
40
40 position, each of which when in its own released open when the armature operating it is in the
released position and to be closed when the arma
position latches the other in its drawn up posi
ture operating it is in the drawn up position,
tion, separate magnet coils for operating said a power supply, two resistors, two circuits each
armatures, contacts which provide a separate of which includes (1) the magnet coil of one of
contact gap operated by each of said armatures, said armatures, (2) said contact gap operated 45
45 each of said separate contact gaps being ar
by the other armature, (3) one of said resistors,
ranged to be open when the armature operating
(4) one of the contact gaps of the control relay
it is in the released position and to be closed when and (5) the power supply; and means including
the armature operating it is in the drawn up posi
a connection between each resistor and the coil
tion, a power supply, circuit connections for sup
of the control relay for shunting current around 50
50 plying power from said power supply to the mag
said resistor through said coil of the control relay.
net coil associated with each of said armatures
10. In combination, a D’Arsonval relay having
through a contact gap operated by the other a coil and two contact gaps which close at diifer
armature and through one of the contact gaps ent values of current in said coil, a latch relay
of the control relay, and other connections be
55 tween the coil of said control relay and the first having two interfering armatures each of which 55
mentioned. circuit connections for supplying has both a drawn-up and a released position,
power from‘said power supply to the coil of the each of which when in its own released position
control relaysimultaneously with the supplying latches the other in the drawn-up position thereof,
of power to either of the magnet coils ofthe latch separate magnet coils for operating said arma
relay.
7. A control relay. having a coil and having
contacts which provide two contact gaps which
operate at different values of ‘current in said
coil, a latch relay having two interfering arma
65 tures each of which has both a drawn-upand 9.
released position, each of which latches the other
in one of the two positions thereof, separate mag
net coils for operating said armatures, contacts
which provide a separate contact gap operated
70 by each of said armatures, a power supply, cir
cuit connections for supplying power from said
power supply to the magnet coil of each of said
armatures under the concurrent dependent con
trol of the contact gaps of a dependent control
group consisting of a contact gap operated by the
tures, contacts which provide separate contact
gaps operated by each of said armatures, each
of said contact gaps being arranged to be open
when the armature operating it is in the released
position and to be closed when the armature op 65
erating it is in the drawn up position, a power
supply, two resistors, two load circuits for said
D’Arsonval relay each of which includes (1) the
magnet coil of one of said armatures of the latch
relay, (2) alcontact gap operated by the other
of said armatures, (3) one‘ of said resistors, (4)
one ofthe contact gaps of the D’Arsonval relay
and (5) the power supply; and a coil circuit for
the coil of the D’Arsonval relay including both
said resistors and the coil of the D'Arsonvalrelay.
.10
2,114,868
11. In combination, a D’Arsonval relay having
a coil and having, also, contacts providing two
D’Arsonval relay, the third resistor, the fourth
contact gap of the latch relay, the ?rst coil of the
contact gaps which close at different values of . latch relay and the ?rst resistor; and connec
current in said coil, a latch relay having ?rst and
second armatures each of which has a drawn up
and a released position, each of which is adapted
when in its own released position to latch the
other in the drawn-up position, ?rst and second
magnet coils for operating said ?rst and second
10 armatures respectively, contacts providing ?rst
and second contact gaps operated by said ?rst
and second armatures respectively, each of said
?rst and second contact gaps being arranged to
be open when the armature operating it is in the
15 released position and to be closed when the arma
ture operating it is in the drawn up position, a
power supply, ?rst, second, third and fourth
resistors, and circuit connections between the
aforementioned elements to provide the following
20 four circuit paths: (1) a circuit path including
the power supply, one contact gap of the D'Ar
sonval' relay, the second contact gap of the latch
relay, the ?rst coil of the latch relay and the
?rst resistor; (2) a circuit path including the
25 power supply, the other contact‘ gap of the D'Ar
sonval relay, the ?rst contact gap of the latch
relay, the second coil of the latch relay and the
second resistor; (43) a circuit path including the
- power supply, the third resistor, the coil of the
30 D’Arsonval relay and the second resistor; and
(4) a circuit path including the power supply,
the third resistor, the fourth resistor and the ?rst
resistor.
.
12. In combination, a D’Arsonval relay having
a coil and having, also, contacts providing two
contact gaps which close at different values of
current in said coil, a latch relay having ?rst and"
second armatures each of which has a drawn up
and a released position, each of which is adapted
40 when in its own released position to latch the
other in the drawn up position, ?rst and second
magnets and coils therefor for operating said
?rst and second armatures respectively, each of
said magnets including means for opposing and
45 retarding the collapse of the magnetic ?ux there
of, contacts providing ?rst and second contact
gaps operated by said ?rst and second armatures
respectively, each of said ?rst and second contact
gaps being arranged to be open when the arma
50 ture operating it is in the released position and to
be closed when the armature operating it is in
the drawn up position, contacts providing third
and fourth contact gaps operated by said ?rst and
second armatures respectively, each of said third
55 and fourth contact gaps being arranged to be
closed when the armature operating it is in the
released position and to be open when the arma
ture operating it is in the drawn up position, a
power supply, ?rst, second, third ’ and fourth
60 resistors, circuit connections between the afore
mentioned elements to provide the following four
circuit paths: (1) a circuit path including the
power supply, one contact gap of the D’Arsonval
relay, the second contact gap of the latch relay,
65 the ?rst coil of the latch relay and the ?rst
resistor; (2) a circuit path including the power
supply, said one contact gap of the D’Arsonval
relay, the fourth resistor, the third contact gap
of the latch relay, the second coil of the latch
70 relay and the second resistor; (3) a circuit path
including the power supply, the other contact of
the D’Arsonval relay, the ?rst contact gap of the
latch relay, the second coil of the latch relay and
the second resistor; and (4) a circuit path includ
ing the power supply, said other contact of the
tions between (1) said ?rst and second resistors
and (2) the coil of the D'Arsonval relay, such that
a change of current in either said ?rst or said
second resistor produces an accompanying change
of current in the coil of the D’Arsonval relay.
13. In combination, a control relay having a
coil and contacts providing two contact gaps, a 10
control circuit including said coil, connections to
said control circuit for supplying current thereto,
a primary control device in said control circuit
for supplying current to said coil for controlling
and operating the control relay, which primary
control device presents a non-symmetrical im
pedance to electrical potential differences im
pressed thereon such that a greater proportion
of the current supplied to said circuit through
said connections traverses said coil when current N O
so supplied to said control circuit traverses said
coil in one direction than when said current
traverses said coil in the other direction, a direct
current power supply separate from said primary
control device, load circuits for said control relay
including said power supply‘ and said contact
gaps, means for supplying current from said
power supply to said control circuit to pass cur
rent in one direction through said coil under
control of one of said contact gaps and in the 30
other direction under control of the other of said
contact gaps, said means including said load cir
cuits and including, also, said connections to said
control circuit, said connections to said control
circuit including means for controlling the rela 35
tive magnitudes of the currents supplied in oppo
site directions through said connections, and for
passing the greater current in the direction there
through which produces a current through said
coil of said control relay in the direction in which 40
said coil receives the smaller proportion of the
current supplied through said connections.
14. In combination, a control relay of the D'Ar
sonval type having a coil and having, also, con
tacts which provide ?rst and second contact gaps,
said contact gaps being connected in series and
adapted to close at different values of current in
said coil, a control circuit including said coil,
?rst connections to said circuit for supplying cur
rent thereto, a primary control device in said 50
circuit for supplying current to said coil for con
trolling and operating said control relay, which
primary control device presents a non-symmetri
cal impedance to electrical potential differences
impressed thereon such that a greater proportion
of the current supplied to said circuit through
said ?rst connections traverses said coil when said
current passes-through said coil in the direction
required for closing said ?rst contact gap and for
increasing the contact pressure thereof than 60
when said current passes through said coil in the
direction required for closing said second contact
gap and for increasing the contact pressure
thereof, a second relay having 'a coil and having a
contact gap which closes when its coil is en 65
ergized, a direct current power supply separate
from said primary control device, said contact
gap of said second relay being connected to the
coil of said second relay, said contact gap and
coil of said second relay and said power supply 70
being connected in series, said series connected
gaps of the D'Arsonval relay being connected
across the series connected contact gap and coil
of the second relay with said ?rst contact gap
of the D‘Arsonval relay connected to the contact 75
2,114,863
gap of said second relay, said ?rst connections
being connected between (1) the connection be
tween the two contact gaps of the D’Arsonval
relay and (2)‘the connection between the coil and
contact gap of the second relay, said ?rst connec
tions being so arranged with respect to the polar
ity of said direct current power supply that when
11
said ?rst contact gap of said D’Arsonval relay
closes, current from said power supply traverses
the coil of the D’Arsonval relay in the direction
required for increasing the contact pressure of
said ?rst contact gap of said D’Arsonval relay. 5
KARL H. s01 .‘MERMEYER.
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