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Патент USA US2114899

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April 19, 1938.
> c. w.‘ FAILOR
2,114,899
RATLWAY TRAFFIC CONTROLLING APPARATUS
Original Filed Sept. 12, 1954
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INVENTOR
Charles ll). FCZZZOP
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April 19, 1938.
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RAILWAY ‘ TRAFFIC CONTROLLING APPARATUS
Original Filed Sept. 12, 1954
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Charles LUFaz lop
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RAILWAY TRAFFIC CONTROLLING APPARATUS
Original Filed Sept. 12, 1934
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Charles LU. Failop
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April 19,1938.
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April 19, 1938.
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April 19, 1938.
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RAILWAY TRAFFIC CONTROLLING APPARATUS‘
Original Filed Sept. 12, 1934
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Patented Apr. 19, 1938
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STATES PATENT DFFIQE
2,114,899
RAILWAY TRAFFIC‘ CONTROLLING
APPARATUS
Charles W. Failor, Forest Hills, Pa., assignor to
The Union Switch & Signal Company, Swiss
vale, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania,
Application September 12, 1934, Serial No. 743,743
Renewed April 22, 1936
19 Claims. (Cl. 246-34)
My invention relates to railway traffic con- vide distinctive wayside and cab signal indicak
trolling apparatus, and more speci?cally to ap- tions, in accordance with traf?c conditions in ?ve
paratus for controlling wayside and/or cab sig- blocks in advance. It will be noted that the fea
nals by means of coded trackway energy.
ture which distinguishes one code from another
U1
I will describe a few forms of apparatus em-
bodying my invention, and will then point out the
novel features thereof in claims.
may be any one or more of the following: A dif
ference in the duration of the “on” intervals; a
difference in the duration of the “off” intervals;
In the accompanying drawings, Fig. 1 is a dia-
or a di?erence in the duration of the code cycles.
grammatic view showing several types of code
Another distinguishing characteristic of the codes
10 suitable for use with apparatus embodying my
invention. Fig. 2 is a chart showing the condition of each individual relay of a decoding group
of my apparatus, under various code conditions,
and also showing the manner in which the codes
UK
which I use is that the unit code cycles follow 10
each other regularly or periodically, there being
no periodic interruption or other variation in
terposed between groups of code cycles.
Having described the codes themselves, I shall
15 of Fig. 1 are distributed in a number of blocks to
the rear of an occupied section for providing a
nextpoint out how these codes are allocated in 15
the various blocks of a section of railway track
?ve-indication, four-block signal system. Fig. 3
is a diagrammatic view showing the wayside portion of the apparatus for a ?ve-indication, fourblock signal system embodying my invention.
20 Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic view showing the 1000motive equipment associated with the wayside
apparatus of Fig. 3, and also embodying my invention. Fig. 5 is a chart, similar to the chart of
‘25 Fig. 2, but showing the code and relay conditions
to provide a ?ve~indication, four-block signal sys
tern. The code distribution is best seen in the
chart of Fig. 2 which shows a section of track a,———f
divided into block sections a.—b\, b-——c, etc. Block
e‘—]‘ is intersected by a highway at location e1, 20
so that this block is divided into- the two track
sections e—e'1 and e1-f for the purpose of clear
ing out the highway crossing apparatus when a
train passes location 61.
5
for a four-indication, three-block signal system.
Figs. 6 and '7 are diagrammatic views showing the
wayside and the locomotive equipment, respectively, for a four-indication, three-block signal
30 system embodying my invention. Figs. 8 and 9
are diagrammatic views showing the wayside and
the locomotive equipment, respectively, for a
With a train occupying section e1—f, as indi- 2
cated on the drawings, code 1 is supplied to see
tion e—e1, and signal S9 indicates R/R, showing
that there is a train within the limits of block
e-f. Block d—‘—e receives code 2, and consequent- 30
ly signal Sd indicates Y/R, showing that there is
one clear block in advance.
Similarly, blocks
four-indication, three-block signal system embodying my invention. Figs. 10 and 11 are dia35 grammatic views showing the wayside and locomotive equipment, respectively, for a modi?ed
form of a three-indication, two-block signal system, also embodying my invention.
Similar reference characters refer to similar
40 parts in each of the several views.
Referring ?rst to Fig. 1, the codes shown therein comprise alternate “on” and “off” current intervals which are repeated periodically to provide
recurrent code cycles. Code 1 is made up of cur-
c-d, b—c, and 11-41 receive codes 3, 4, and 5, re
spectively, so that signal f3c indicates Y/Y, signal
Sb indicates G/Y, and signal Sa indicates G/G. 35
The indications Y/Y, G/Y, and G/G correspond,
respectively, to two, three, and four (or more)
clear blocks in advance. The manner in which
these codes are established in the various blocks,
in accordance with traffic conditions in advance, 40
will be understood from a description of Fig. 3.
On the chart of Fig. 2, at each of the signal
locations a, b, 0, etc., is shown a vertical group
of contact ?ngers, each contact ?nger of this
4.5 rent impulses or “on” intervals of short duration,
group representing diagrammatically a particular 45
separated by short “off” intervals. Code 2 is
made up of short “on” intervals separated by
long “off” intervals. In code 3, the “on” intervals
are long, and are separated by short “o?‘” inter50 vais. In code 4 on the other hand, both “on” and
“off” intervals are of long duration. Finally, in
code 5, the code cycle comprises a long “on” interval followed by a short “off” interval, and followed in turn by a short “on” interval and a long
55 “o?” interval. These ?ve codes are used to pro-
decoding relay such as TR, TP, TPA, etc., of the
wayside decoding relay group shown at the left
hand portion of Fig. 3. A contact ?nger shown
in the horizontal position indicates that under
the code condition existing at that location, the 50
particular relay for which that contact stands
is maintained energized. For example, at location
e, contact ?nger 8 indicates that relay TP is up.
The down position of contact ?nger 9, for ex
ample, indicates that relay HA is released. The 55
2
2,114,899
up position of contact ?nger ID, with the down
position shown dotted, indicates that relay TR is
following code; that is, relay TR is alternately
energized to its up position and released ‘to its
down position. By means of the chart of Fig. 2,
therefore, the condition of any decoding relay
when operating on any one of the codes of Fig. 1
can be determined at a glance.
Referring now to Fig. 3, this ?gure shows the
code transmitting apparatus for the block e-f of
Fig. 2, as well as the decoding and transmitting
apparatus at location e of the above ?gure. The
apparatus at location e is typical of the appara
tus at the other locations a, b, 0, etc., so that a
description of the apparatus for one block will
be su?icient for an understanding of the opera
tion of the system as a whole.
The rails 6 and ‘I of the section e1—f in which
tra?'ic normally moves from left to right in the
direction of the arrow, are supplied with alter
nating current from the secondary winding of a
track transformer T2 which has a primary wind
ing energized from an alternating current source
having the terminals BX——CX. The current
supplied to the primary winding of transformer
T2 is controlled over one or another of the con
tacts 2, 3, 4 and 5 of the constantly operating
code transmitter GT2, as determined by the code
selection apparatus which is not shown in detail,
30 but which is controlled by trai?c conditions in
advance in a manner which will be clearly un
derstood from a description of the apparatus at
location e.
Code transmitter CT2 is so designed that con
co Cl tact 2 is alternately closed for a short interval,
and open for a long interval, thus producing code
in the release of relay TPA1.
Furthermore, a
broken wire or a broken rail will cause contact
|2~l3 to remain open, releasing both relays TF1
and TPAl, to provide a warning of the fault.
As long as relay TR1 is following the code being Cl
supplied to section e1-—]‘, this code will be repeat
ed into section e—e1, over a circuit starting at
one terminal BX of the alternating current
source, wire l6, contact l2—|3 of relay TRl, wires
I’! and [8, front point of contact [9 of relay TPA1, 10
wire 20, and the primary winding of transformer
T1, to the other terminal CX of the source.
Therefore, whenever section e1-—f is unoccupied,
both sections e—e1 and e1—f will receive the
same code, which may be any one of codes 2, 3, 4 15
or 5, as determined by tra?ic conditions in ad
vance of location I. Section e—e1, in addition to
the four codes listed above and originating in
code transmitter GT2, may also receive code 1
which is produced by the auxiliary code trans 20
mitter CTl, whenever section e1-—,f is occupied.
Assuming that a train occupies section e1—-f,
all three relays TRl, TPl, and TPA1 will be re—
leased, so that code transmitter GT1 will become
energized over back contact 2i of relay TPA1, 25
whereupon code 1 will be supplied to transformer
T1 over the following circuit: Contact l of code
transmitter CTl, wire 22, back point of contact
59 of relay TPAI, and wire 20. It should be
pointed out that signal Se is not responsive to 30
code 1, this code being used in Fig. 3, solely for
the purpose of clearing out the highway crossing
signal XS at location e1, in a manner which will
Ob
viously, code 1 can be used for the control of any 35
suitable track detection apparatus, being in no
' be clear from the description which follows.
2 of Fig. 1. Similarly, contact 3 which produces
code 3, is alternately closed for a long interval
manner limited to the control of highway crossing
and open for a short interval.
When code 1 is supplied to section e—e1, track
relay TR will follow the impulses of this code 40
and will supply an energizing impulse alternately
to relays TP and TPA, over its contacts |2—l3
and lZ-M, respectively. Relays TP and ‘TPA
are su?iciently slow releasing to bridge the short
“off” and short “on” periods, respectively, of code 45
1, but the retardation of relay TP is insu?icient
to bridge the long “01f” periods of codes 2, 4 or
5, for example. Similarly, relay TPA is insu?i
ciently retarded to bridge the long “on” periods
of codes 3, 4, or 5, for example. As long as re 50
In like manner
40 contacts 4 and 5 establish code 4 and code 5, re
spectively. In its usual embodiment, code trans
mitter CT2 will, comprise a group of motor driven
cams cooperating with the movable contact ?n
gers 2, 3, l5 and 5, and having swells or grooves
suitably arranged around the periphery of the
cam to produce the codes which are illustrated.
Any other apparatus suitable for timing the cur
rent impulses in accordance with a group of pre
determined time codes may, of course, be used.
Connected across the rails of location e1 is the
control element H of a two-element, alternating
current code following track relay TRI, which
controls the energization of a pair of repeating
apparatus.
lay TR is following code 1, therefore, both relays
and €2-—id, respectively. Relays TP1 and TPA1
TP and TPA are maintained energized. Since
relay TP is energized, relay H will also be ener
gized, over front contact 23 of relay 'I'P. This
are of the direct current type and are su?iciently
slow releasing to bridge the open circuit inter
cation e, where it is seen that signal S8 indicates
relays TP1 and TPA1 over its contacts |2——|3
val of contacts l 2—! 3 and l2—l4, respectively,
when relay TR1 is following any one of the codes
shown in Fig. 1. That is, relays ‘PP1 and TPA1
both remain energized whenever relay TR1 is fol
lowing code and both become deenergized when
relay TR1 is shunted by a train, or is permanently
released due to any other cause, such as a broken
C.) Li wire, failure of the power supply, broken down
insulated rail joint, etc. The circuit for relay
TP1 includes the front contact l2—l3 of relay
TR1, a miniature relay transformer TTP, and a
recti?er RTP. The circuit for relay TPA1 in
TO cludes back contact l2——M of relay TR1, front
contact #5 of relay TF1, miniature transformer
TTPA, and recti?er RTPA. Relays TF1 and
TPA1 serve to check the integrity of relay TR1,
since a failure of this relay to release due to a
mechanical defect or false energization will result
condition is depicted in the chart of Fig. 2, at lo
55
R/R; relay TR is following code 1; relays TP,
TPA, and H are energized; and the remaining re
lays of the decoding group are all deenergized.
60
Vfith relays H and TPA both energized, a
circuit is completed for energizing the highway
crossing control relay
which circuit may be
traced from one terminal 13 of a suitable current
source, front contact 25 of relay H, wire 26, front 65
contact 25 of relay TPA, line wire 27, and wind
ing of relay ZIP... to the other terminal C of the
source. Relay
will therefore pick up, open
ing its back contact 28 to dcencrgize ie high
way crossing signal XS. It will be apparent 70
from the foregoing description that as soon as
a train vacates section e—c1 and code i is sup
plied to the rails thereof, the operation of the
highway crossing ap aaratus will be discontinued.
The entry of a train into section e-el initiates 75
2,114,899
the operation of signal XS by opening the circuit
for relay XR at front contact 24 of relay H,
through the sequential release of relays TR, TP,
and H.
Since relays DP and DDP are both de
energized, whenever section e‘—f is occupied, sig
nal S9 will indicate R/R, by virtue of a circuit
for the upper lamp R which includes the back
point of contact 29 of relay DP, wire 30, and
the back point of contact 3! of relay DDP‘; and
10 a circuit for the lower lamp R which includes
the back point of contact 32 of relay DP, wire
33, and the back point of contact 34 of relay
DDP. Under this condition, code 2 will be sup
plied to the rear section over contact 2 of code
15 transmitter CT, wire 35, back point of contact
38 of relay DDP, wire 31, back point of contact
33 of relay DP, and wire 39, to track trans
former T.
When the train vacates section e1-—f, the code
20 selection apparatus at location f will cause code
2 to be supplied to the track transformer T2.
Relay TR1 will follow this code, and relays TP1
and TPAI will both be energized, so that con
tact l2—l3 of relay TR1 will repeat code 2 into
25 section c——c1. Relay TR will follow the im
pulses of code 2, and in so doing will maintain
relay TPA energized. However, since the dura
tion of the “off” interval of code 2 is longer than
the release time of relay 'I‘P,this relay will re
30 lease once during each code cycle. Relay H
will be maintained energized, as before, by the
current impulses which it receives over the front
3
TPA closes. Since the retardation of relay HA is
su?icient to bridge the energized interval of re
lay TPA, relay HA will be maintained energized,
causing relay DD to be picked up over a circuit
which includes the front point of contact 58 of 5
relay TPA, wire 59, front point of contact 60
of relay HA, and wire 6!. Relay DDP will now
be picked up over the front contact 62 of re
lay DD.
Summarizing the relay conditions obtaining 10
when code 3 is supplied to section e—e1, it is found
that relays TR and TPA are following code; re
lays TP, H, HA, DD, and DDP are all energized;
and relays D, DP, and DDD are all deenergized.
(This corresponds to the condition illustrated at 15
location c in the chart of Fig. 2.) Since relay
DDP is energized and relay DP‘ is deenergized,
signal S6 will indicate Y/Y, by virtue of a circuit
for the upper lamp Y which includes the back
point of contact 29 of relay DP, wire 30, front 20
point of contact 3! of relay DDP, and wires 63
and 41; and a circuit for the lower lamp Y which
includes wire 48, back point of contact 32 of re
lay DP, wire 33, front point of contact 34 of re
lay DDP, and wires 64 and 65. Code 4 will be 25
supplied to the rear section over contact 4 of
code transmitter CT, wire 66, front point of con- “
tact 33 of relay DDP, wire 31, back point of con
tact 33 of relay DP, and wire 39.
When the train clears the second block in ad 80
vance of location J‘, code 4 will be supplied to
section e—e1.
Since code 4 has both a long “on”
of contact 23 of relay TP. Each time that
TP releases, relay D will receive an im
of current over the back point of contact
relay TP, wire Ml, and front contact 4| of
interval and a long “off” interval, both relays TP
relay H. Relay D is sufficiently slow releasing
clear from the description already given. Relay
to bridge the energized interval of relay TP, so
that relay D is maintained energized. Since
40 front contact d2 of relay D is closed, relay DP
is also energized.
Summing up the relay operations e?ective
when code 2 is supplied to section e—e1, it is
found that relays TR and TP are following code;
45 relays TPA, H, D, and DP are all energized; and
relays HA, DD, DDP, and DDD are all deener
gized. (This corresponds to the condition illus
trated at location at in the chart of Fig. 2.) Since
relay DP is energized and relay DDP is deener
50 gized, signal S8 will now indicate Y/R, by virtue
DDD will now be the only relay of the group which
is not energized. (This condition is illustrated
at location b of Fig, 2.) Since relays DP and
DDP are both energized, signal Se will indicate
G/Y, by virtue of a circuit for the upper lamp
G which includes the front point of contact 29
point
relay
35 pulse
23 of
of a circuit for the upper lamp Y‘which includes
the front point of contact 29 of relay DP, wire
[$3, front contact 44 of relay D, wire 45, back point
of contact fit of relay DDP, and wire 41; and a
55 circuit for the lower lamp R which includes Wire
553, the front point of contact 32 of relay DP,
wire 49, front contact 50 of relay D, wire 5|,
back point of contact 52 of relay DDP, and wire
54. Cod-e 3 will be supplied to the rear section
60 over contact 3 of code transmitter CT, wire 55,
back point of contact 56 of relay DDP, wire 51,
front point of contact 38 of relay DP, and wire
33 to transformer T.
When the train clears the block in advance of
65 location 1', code 3 will be supplied to section e—e1.
Since code 3 has along “on” interval, relay TPA
will now follow code, and relay TP will be main
tained energized. Relay H will be energized, as
before, but relay D will be deenergized due to
70 the fact that the circuit for relay D is open at
the back point of contact 23 of relay TP. Con
sequently, relay DP will also be deenergized. The
code operation of relay TPA will cause an im
pulse of current to be supplied to relay HA each
75 time that the back point of contact 58 of relay
and ‘TPA will follow code, whereupon relays H,
D, and DP, as well as relays HA, DD, and DDP
will all be picked up, in a manner which will be
of relay DP, wire 53, front point of contact M
of relay D, wire 45, front point of contact 46 of 45
relay DDP, wire 61, front contact 68 of relay
DD, and wire 69; and a circuit for the lower lamp
Y which includes wire 48, front point of contact
32 of relay DP, wire 49, front contact 55 of relay
D, wire 5!, front point of contact 52 of relay
DDP, wire 13, back point of contact 1! of relay
DDD, and wires 12 and 65. Code 5 will be sup
plied to the rear section over contact 5 of code
transmitter CT, wire ‘l3, front point of contact
56 of relay DDP, wire 51, front point of contact 55
38 of relay DP, and wire 33.
When the train clears the third block in ad
vance of location 1‘, code 5 will be supplied to sec
tion e-—e1. Since code 5 has both a long “on”
interval and a long “off” interval, it will be readily 60
apparent that both relays TP and TPA will fol
low code. However, the effect of the short “off”
interval which follows each long “on” interval
is to supply an added impulse of current to relay
TPA, thus prolonging the energized time of this
relay beyond the time which relay HA is capable
of bridging, whereupon relay HA will release dur~
ing each cycle of the code. That is, relay HA
will release before the back point of contact 58 of
relay TPA closes to re-energize relay HA. It will 70
be apparent, therefore, that there is a time in
terval in each code cycle of code 5 during which
the front point of contact 58 of relay TPA and
the back point of contact 50 of relay HA as well
as front contact 99 of relay DD are all closed, thus 75
4
2,114,899
cornplcting an energizing circuit for relay DDD.
Relay DDD is suf?ciently slow releasing to re
main picked up under the condition of intermit
tent energization just described.
As a result, under the in?uence of code 5, relays
TR, TP, TPA, and HA will follow code, and the
remaining relays will all be energized. (This
condition is illustrated at location a of Fig. 2.)
Signal Se will now indicate G/G by virtue of a
circuit for the upper lamp G which is identical
with the circuit traced for this lamp in connec
tion with operation on code 4, and a circuit for
sociated with the track rails 6 and 7. Relay MR
is a code following relay which follows the “on”,
and “off” intervals of the codes illustrated in Fig.
i. Relays MRP, LH, and LD correspond to the
left-hand decoding group of relays TP, H, and
be supplied to the rear section over the identical
circuit traced for this code in connection with
the operation of the relay group on code 4.
and DDD of the right-hand decoding group of
Fig. 3. The repeating relays DP and DDP of
Fig. 3 have no counterpart on the locomotive, 20
track circuit clearing at out sections in a posi—
tive and safe manner by means of a distinct code
which does not affect signal operation. This sys~
tem embodies all of the safety features which are
deemed essential in apparatus of this character.
V Since the track relays are of the two-element
type, the instantaneous relative polarities of ad
joining track circuits may be staggered, as indi
cated in Fig. 3, for the purpose of providing
broken down insulated rail joint protection.
Although the track circuits of Fig. 3 are shown
supplied with alternating rail current, this re
quirement is not essential because, if direct cur
rent code following track relays are substituted for
he alternating current track relays TR, direct
40 current codes can be used, as well.
If the relays 'I‘Pl and TPAI at location 61 of
Fig. 3 are of the alternating current type, trans
formers TTP and TTPA, as well as recti?ers RTP
and RTPA may be eliminated. One reason for
but may of course be used, if desired.
The se
quence of operation of the locomotive decoding
relays 0n the various codes is similar to the op
eration of the wayside group of Fig. 3, and will
be clear without added description.
When relay MR is following code 1, relays MRP,
MRPA, and LH will all be energized, and the re
maining relays will all be deenergized. With re
lays LD and LDD both deenergized, the cab sig
nal CS will indicate R, the circuit for the R lamp
being obvious from the drawings. The R indi
cation will also be given in the absence of rail
current, or if the rail current is steady or un
ccded, for the reason that under these conditions
relay MR will not be following code, and relays
LD and LDD will both be deenergized.
When relay MR is following code 2, relay MRP
will also be coding; relays MRPA, LH, and LD
will all be energized; and the remaining relays
will all be deenergized.
With relay LD ener
40
gized, and relay LDD deenergized, the cab signal
CS will indicate Y.
With code 3 supplied to the rails, relays MR and
MRPA will follow code; relays MRP, LH, LHA,
not using alternating current relays in this con
necticn is that the required time characteristics
and LDD will all be energized; and relays LD and 45
LDDD will be deenergized. With relay LDD ener
are more readily and more inexpensively obtained
gized and relay LD deenergized, cab signal CS
will indicate Y/Y. When relay MR is following
code 4:, relays MRP and MRPA will both be fol
lowing code, and all of the remaining relays with
the exception of relay LDDD will be energized.
Cab signal CS will indicate G/Y, over the back
point of contact 75 of relay LDDD, and the front
points of contacts T5 and T! of relays LDD and
LD, respectively. With code 5 supplied to the
rails, relays MR, MRP, MRPA and LHA will fol
low code, and all of the remaining relays will be
energized. Cab signal CS will, therefore, indicate
G/G, over the front points of contacts 15, 16,
and 'l'! of relays LDDD, LDD, and LD, respec 60
with direct current relays.
It will be observed that relays DP and DDP
' at location c of Fig. 3 merely repeat the position
of relays D and DD, respectively, and are there
fore not essential from the standpoint of oper
ativcness, since, fundamentally, the same re
sults can. be obtained by adding contacts to relays
D and DD.
However, since relays D and DD are
required to retain accurate time characteristics, it
is desirable to reduce the number of contacts op
by these relays as much as possible, to
prevent contact wear and changes in adjustment
from affecting the timing.
Furthermore, the
use of separate relays DP and DDP permits added
retardation of pickup as well as release to be ob~
tained, which aids in eliminating undesired signal
?ashes which might otherwise occur when the
signal is changing from one indication to another.
With reference to code 5, since the purpose of
the short “off” interval is to delay the release of
relay TPA sufficiently to force relay HA to release
70
ergized through the ampli?er unit A, by means of
current induced in the two receiver coils RC as 10
D, of Fig. 3. Similarly, relays MRPA, LHA, LDD,
and LDDD, correspond to relays TPA, HA, DD,
four-block signal system having a high degree of
foreign current protection, with provision for
- .4
equipment for a ?ve-indication, four-block sys
tem, I shall now describe the locomotive-carried 5
cab signaling apparatus associated with this sys
tem and shown in Fig. 4.
Referring to Fig. 4, the master relay MR is en
the lower lamp G which includes wire 43, front
point of contact 32 of relay DP, wire 49, front
contact 59.‘: of relay D, wire 5!, front point of con
tact 52 of relay DDP, wire 10, front point of con
tact ‘H of relay DDD, and wire ‘M. Code 5 will
From the foregoing description it will be ap
parent that I have provided a ?ve-indication.
(id
native code comprising long “on”, long “off”,
short “on”, short “off" intervals is employed.
Having described the operation of the Wayside
~ and thereby to follow code, this interval can be
pos 'ioned, as well, to follow the short “on” ‘n
terval, instead of following the long “on” inter
val as shown in Fig. 1.
That is to say, the de
coding relay group of Fig. 3 will operate in the
76 same manner whether code 5 is used, or an alter
tively.
Referring now to Fig. 5, this ?gure shows a
chart, similar to the chart shown in Fig. 2, for a
four-indication, three-block signal system which
employs the ?rst four codes of Fig. 1.
Code 1 is 65
used for clearing out highway crossing apparatus,
as before, and codes 2, 3, and 4 are used for sig
nal control. The allocation of the four codes to
the blocks in the rear of an occupied section, as
well as the condition of each decoding relay un 70
der the various code conditions, are shown in
the chart of Fig. 5. The wayside decoding appa
ratus for the four-indication, three-block system
is shown in Fig. 6.
Referring now to Fig. 6, the general arrange 75
2,114,899
ment of the decoding relays is the same as that
shown in Fig. 3, with the exception that relay
DDD is omitted, this relay being necessary only
when code 5 is used. When relay TR is following
code 1, relays TP, TPA, H, and HA are all en
ergized, and the remaining relays are all deen~.
ergized. Therefore, front contacts 24 and 18 of
relays H and HA, respectively, will be closed, thus
energizing Tine wire ‘ill for clearing out highway
10 crossing apparatus. Since relays DP and DDP
are both deenergized, signal S will indicate R/R,
and code 2 will be supplied to the rear section, by
virtue of circuits which will be clear from‘ the
drawings without further description. This con
15 dition is pictured at location 7' of Fig. 5.
When relay TR is following code 2, relay T?
will also follow code; relays TPA, H, HA, D, and
DP will all be energized, and relays DD and
DDP will be deenergized. With relay DP ener
20 gized and relay DDP deenergized, signal S will
indicate Y/R and code 3 will be supplied to the
rear section. If relay TR is following code 3,
relay TPA will also follow code; relays TP, H, HA,
DD and DDP will all be energized; and relays D
25 and DP will be deenergized. With relay DDP en
ergized and relay DP deenergized, signal S will
indicate Y/G and code 4 will be supplied to the
rear section. Similarly, if relay TR is following
code 4, relays TP and TPA will both follow code,
30 so that all of the relays of the decoding group
will be energized, whereupon signal S will indi
cate G/R. ‘The rear section will receive code 4,
as before.
Referring to Fig. 7, the apparatus shown there
35 in is the locomotive equipment associated with
the Wayside equipment of Fig. 6. The operation
of this apparatus is identical with the operation
5
the front contact 19 of relay HP to energize relay
XR for clearing out the highway crossing appa
ratus. The pickup of relay TR will cause relay
HP to pick up, but this will entail no change in
the indication of signal S, or in the code which is
supplied to the rear section.
When the train clears section m1—n, code 1 will
be supplied to this section over a circuit controlled
by the code selection apparatus at location it,
which circuit is identical with the code supplying
circuit at location m. Relay TRl will follow code
i. and will maintain relay TPl energized, Where
upon code 1 will be relayed to section m—m1 over
front contact 86 of relay TR1, and front point of
contact 85 of relay TPl. Relay TR will also fol
low code 1, and in so doing will maintain relays
HP, and DP energized. Relays H and D will
remain deenergized, because these relays have a
slow pickup interval su?icient to bridge the oper
ation of relay TR on code 1. Under the above
condition, signal S will indicate Y/R; and code 2
will be supplied to relay CTP and therefore to
the rear section, over contact 80—2 of code trans
mitter CT, wire 81, back point of contact 88 of
relay H, wire 89, back point of contact 93 of re
10
15
20
25
lay D, front contact iii of relay HP, front point
of contact 83 of relay DP, and wire 84!.
When the train clears the ?rst block in advance
of location 11., relay TR1 will follow code 2, and
since relay TP1 is sufficiently slow releasing to 30
bridge the long “off” interval of code 2, this code
will be repeated into section m—m1. Relay TR
in following code 2 will maintain relays HP and
DP picked up, as before, and in addition, will pick
up relay H, due to the fact that the “oil” interval 35
of code 2 is sufficiently long for pickup of this
relay. Relays H and D are sufficiently slow re
of the apparatus of Fig. 4, previously described, ' leasing, in addition to being slow pickup relays,
except that code 5 is not used since this code is to bridge the long “on” interval of code 3, and
40 unnecessary when but four indications of the the long “o?” interval of code 2, respectively. Re 40
cab signal are required. The indications of cab lays HP and DP are sufficiently slow releasing to
signal CS of Fig. '7 are R, Y, Y/G, and G, which bridge the long “off” intervals of code 2, and the
long “on” intervals of code 3, respectively.
result from response to codes 1, 2, 3, and 4, re
spectively.
Since relay D requires a long “on” interval for
45
Referring now to Fig. 8, this ?gure shows the pickup, this relay will remain deenergized when 45
relay TR is following code 2, and under this con
wayside apparatus for a four-indication, three
block system, similar to Fig. 6, but employing di
dition, signal S will indicate Y/G. Code 3 will
rect current track circuits, and making use of be supplied to relay CTP over contact 8?—3 of
steady or uncoded energy for track circuit detec
code transmitter CT, wires 92 and 93, front point
50 tion. Codes 1, 2, and 3, respectively, are used to
of contact 88 of relay H, wire 89, back point of 50
provide the Y/R, Y/G, and G/G indications of
signal S. Block m—n is divided into the two out
sections art-m1, and m1—n, due to the presence
of the highway intersection at location ml. The
code following track relay TR. is a two-position,
polarized relay, biased to the down position in
the absence of current, or in the presence of cur
rent of reverse relative polarity. When a train
enters section 2‘7Z—m1, relay TR becomes deener~
60 gized and releases relay HP. When relay HP re
leases, its front contact ‘it removes energy from
line wire 2i, thus releasing relay KR to initiate
the operation of crossing signal XS, in well
known manner. The relays H, D, and DP will also
65 be deenergized, so that signal S will indicate
R/R. Code 1 will, therefore, be suppliedto the
rear section by virtue of code operation of code
repeater relay CTP, which is supplied with cur
rent of code 1 over contact i of the constantly op
70 erating code transmitter CT, wires 8! and 82,
back point of contact 83 of relay DP, and wire 84.
When the train clears section m—m1, steady
energy will be received by relay TR, due to the
closing of the back point of contact 85 of relay
75 TP1.
Relay TR will therefore pick up, closing
contact 90 of relay D, front contact 9! of relay
HP, front point of contact 83 of relay DP, and
wire 84.
When the train clears the ?rst two blocks in
advance of location n, relays TR1 and TR will 55
follow code 3. Since code 3 contains a short “off”
interval, relay H will be deenergized; and since
this code has a long “on” interval, relay D will
be energized. Relays DP and HP will both be
energized, as before. Under this condition, sig 60
nal S will indicate G/R, and code 3 will again be
supplied to the rear section.
It will be apparent from the above description
of Fig. 8 that, by using the time codes of Fig. l
and introducing a time interval into the pickup 65
of certain decoding relays, a relatively simple
four-indication,three-block system is obtained,
which system requires fewer decoding relays than
the corresponding system of Fig. 6, in which de
coding depends upon the release times of certain 70
relays of the decoding group. The system of Fig.
8 is not limited to direct current track circuits,
being capable of use on alternating current track
circuits, as well. If cab signaling apparatus re
sponsive to timed impulses of direct current is 75
6
2,114,899
used, the wayside apparatus of Fig. 3 may remain
gized. Under this condition, signal Sq will in
unaltered.
dicate Y, and code 3 will be supplied to section
p-q. Code 3 will cause relays TPP, HP, and DD
to become energized, so that signal Sp will in
dicate G.
When the train clears the first block in ad
vance of section q2-—r, this section will receive
code 3, and this code will be repeated succes
However, if an alternating carrier
current is preferred due to more elhcient re
sponse of the cab signalling apparatus, then the
secondary winding of a track transformer may
be connected in series with the track battery in
well-known manner, for supplying the needed
alternating current carrier for the code impulses.
The locomotive equipment associated with the
wayside equipment of Fig. 8 is shown in Fig. 9.
The general operation of the decoding relay group
of Fig. 9 will be clear from the description of Fig.
8 previously given. When relay MR is following
code 1, relays LHP and LDP are picked up, and
relays LH and LD are deenergized, so that cab
signals CS will indicate Y. On code 2, relays
LHP, LDP, and LH will be picked up, and relay
LD will be deenergized, whereupon signal CS will
indicate Y/G. On code 3, relays LHP, LDP, and
LD will be up, and relay LH will be down, so that
signal CS will indicate G. When the rails i3 and
‘l are supplied with steady energy, relay MR will
not operate, so that all four relays of the loco
motive decoding group will be deenergized. Un
13 Cl der this condition, signal CS will indicate R.
The decoding principles of Fig. 8 can also be
applied to a three-indication, two-block system,
and one such system is shown in Fig. 10. Steady
or uncoded energy is used for track detection, and
30 codes 1 and 3 are used for providing the Y and
the G indications, respectively. Code 2 is not
used, although, if desired, code 2 may be sub
stituted for code 3 by a simple rearrangement of
37
the decoding relay circuits, which change will be
obvious from the foregoing description of Fig. 8.
Referring to Fig. 10, I shall ?rst assume that a
train has entered section q—q1. Relays TR, 'I‘P,
H, and D will all be deenergized, so that signal
Sq will indicate R. Code 1 will be furnished to
40 section p-q, over contact I of code transmitter
CT, and the back point of contact 94 of relay TP.
As soon as the train clears section p-q complete
ly, relay 'I'Rp will follow code 1, and will pick up
relays ‘PPP and HP. Relay Dp will remain deen
45 ergized because this relay has a pickup time
longer than the short “on” interval of code 1.
Code 3 will therefore be furnished to the block in
the rear of location p, and signal SP will indicate Y.
When the train enters section q1—q2, the
50 opening of front contact 96 of relay 'I'R1 will
deenergize the crossing control relay 25%, thus
initiating the operation of crossing signal XS.
Also, the opening of front contact 95 of relay
'I'R1 will remove code from the rails of section
55 q——q1, so that relay TR will remain deenergized
even after the train clears section q--q1. As
soon as the train enters section qz—r, relay TR2
will release, releasing relay TP2, and causing
steady energy to, be supplied to section q1-—q2,
60 over the back point of contact 9'! of relay TPZ.
sively into sections q1-—q2, and q—q1.
Relays H,
TP, and D will thereupon all be picked up, so 10
that signal S1 will indicate G.
The locomotive apparatus associated with the
wayside apparatus of Fig. 10 is shown in Fig. 11.
The operation of this apparatus on codes 1 and
3 will be clear, without detailed description, from 16
the foregoing explanation of Fig. 10.
In conclusion, it will be observed that I have
provided a system of coded wayside and/or cab
signaling employing time codes characterized by
uniform recurrence of the fundamental code 20
cycle which is used for signal selection, without
any interruption or other variation being inter
posed periodically between groups of the funda
mental code cycles. In this manner, the par
ticular part of the code cycle at which energy is 25
?rst applied to the decoding relay group becomes
of no importance, since the code is uniform and
not cyclic in character. Also, a uniform code
of this character is readily obtainable with an
oscillating type of code transmitter, without the 30
necessity for motor driven cams.
As will be ap
parent from the detailed description and draw
ings, decoding may be obtained either by timing
the release of the decoding relays, or by timing
the pickup of these relays. Track detection may
be obtained either by using code, or by using
steady energy. It will be apparent also, that by
combining certain of the codes illustrated in Fig.
1, additional codes similar to code 5 can be ob
tained, for increasing the number of signal in
dications above five, and the number of blocks
controlled above four.
Although I have herein shown and described
only a few forms of apparatus embodying my in
vention, it is understood that various changes
and modi?cations may be made therein within
the scope of the appended claims Without de
parting from the spirit and scope of my invention.
Having thus described my invention, what I
claim is:
1. In combination, a section of railway track,
means for supplying the rails of said section with
45
50
coded current of one of a group of time codes
uniformly without cyclic variation, the unit code
cycles in the individual time codes of said group
being characterized by a difference in the rela
tive as well as the absolute duration of the “on” 60
and “off” intervals of said unit cycle, a code
will pick up on the steady energy, picking up re
following track relay for said section capable of
following the “on” and “off” intervals of said
65 energy to be applied to section q-—-q1. so that re
40
selected in accordance with traffic conditions in
advance of said section, each of said time codes 65
comprising a unit code cycle which is repeated
Once the train clears section q1—q2, relay TR1
lay XR to clear out the crossing signal XS. The
closing of contact 95 of relay TR1 causes steady
35
unit code cycles, a group of decoding relays con
trolled over a circuit which includes a contact of 65
lay TR will pick up, but this will bring about no
change in the indication of signal Sq, nor in the
code being supplied to section p--q.
When the train clears section q2—r, code 1 will
be supplied to this section and will be repeated
said track relay and having slow acting charac~
into section q1—q2 over front contact 98 of re
lay TR2, and the front point of contact 9'! of
relay TF2. Relay TR1 will repeat the code into
2. In combination, a section of railway track,
means for at times supplying the rails of said
section with code comprising energy impulses of
section q—q1, so that relays H and T? will be
come energized. Relay D Will remain deener
long intervals of no energy and for at other times 75
teristics timed for selective response in accord
ance with the time code being supplied to said
section, and tra?‘ic governing apparatus con
trolled by said decoding relays.
relatively short duration separated by relatively
7
2,114,899
supplying the rails of said section with code com
prising energy impulses of relatively long dura
tion separated by relatively short intervals of no
energy, a track relay for said section capable of
following said energy impulses, a pair of decoding
relays controlled by said track relay in such
but is clear of said first block for supplying the
rails of said second cut section with current of
a second code comprising long “on” intervals
separated by short “01f” intervals, means for
repeating into said ?rst cut section the code
which is supplied to said second cut section,
manner that one but not the other decoding re
means effective, when a train enters said second
lay will release during each of said energy inter
cut section for supplying the rails of said ?rst
vals of long duration, and that said other but not
of said long intervals of no energy, and tramc
cut section with current of a third code compris
ing short “on” intervals separated by short “01f” 10
intervals,,a code'following track relayfor said
governing apparatus controlled by said decoding
?rst cut section, a ?rst relay controlled over a
relays.
front contact of said track relay and capable of
bridging the short “01f” intervals of said second
code but not the long “01f” intervals of said ?rst 15
10 said one decoding relay will release during each
3. In combination, a section of railway track,
15 means for at times supplying the rails of said sec~
tion with code comprising energy impulses of
relatively short duration separated by relatively
long intervals of no energy and for at other times
supplying the rails of said section with code com
20 prising energy impulses of relatively long dura
tion separated by relatively short intervals of
no energy, a track relay for said section capable
of following said energy impulses, a ?rst relay‘
controlled over a front contact of said track re~
25 lay and capable of bridging said short but not
said long intervals of no energy, a second relay
controlled over a back contact of said track relay
and capable of bridging said short but not said
long energy impulses, a third relay controlled
30 over a front contact of said ?rst relay and capa
ble of bridging the code operation of said ?rst
relay, a fourth relay controlled over a back con
tact of said second relay and capable of bridging
the code operation of said second relay, and traf?c
35 governing apparatus controlled by said third and
fourth relays.
4. In combination, a section of railway track,
means for at times supplying the rails of said
section with code comprising energy impulses
of relatively short duration separated by rela
tively long intervals of no energy and for at
other times supplying the rails of said section
with code comprising energy impulses of rela
tively long duration separated by relatively short
45 intervals of no energy, a track relay for said sec
tion capable of following said energy impulses,
a ?rst relay controlled over a front contact of
and capable of bridging the code operation of
said second relay, tra?ic governing apparatus 25
controlled by said third and fourth relays, a
highway crossing control relay, and a circuit for '
said control relay including a front contact of
said third relay and a front contact of said sec
ond relay.
~
30
_6. In combination, a section of railway track,
means for at times supplying the rails of said
section with code comprising energy impulses of
relatively short duration separated by relatively
long intervals of no energy and for at other 35
times supplying the rails of said section with
code comprising energy impulses of relatively
long duration separated by relatively short in
tervals of no energy, a code following relay re
ceiving energy from the rails of said section, a 40
pair of decoding relays controlled by said code
following relay in such manner that one but not
the other decoding relay will release during each
of said energy intervals of long duration, and
that said other but not said one decoding relay 45
will release during each of said long intervals
of no energy, and traf?c governing apparatus
controlled by said decoding relays.
'7. In combination, a section of railway track,
means for at times supplying the rails of said 50
said short but not said long energy impulses, a
third relay controlled over a front contact of
said ?rst relay and capable of bridging the code
operation of said ?rst relay, a fourth relay con
trolled over a back contact of said second relay
and capable of bridging the code operation of
said second relay, a ?fth relay controlled over a
back contact of said ?rst relay and a front con
60 tact of said third relay, a sixth relay controlled
over a front contact of said second relay as well
as a front contact of said fourth relay, and trafe
?c governing apparatus controlled by said ?fth
and sixth relays.
5. In combination, a stretch of railway track
divided into blocks one of which includes a high
way intersection and a ?rst and a second cut
section for controlling highway crossing appa
ratus at said intersection, means effective when a
70 train occupies the ?rst block in advance of said
one block for supplying the rails of said second
cut section with current of a ?rst code compris
ing short “on” intervals separated by long “off”
.16.
trolled over a front contact of said second relay
short but not said long intervals of no energy,
5,0 of said track relay and capable of bridging
65
a third relay controlled over a front contact of 20
said ?rst relay and capable of bridging the code
operation of said ?rst relay, a fourth relay con
said track relay and capable of bridging said
a second relay controlled over a back contact
5,5
code, a second relay controlled over a back con
tact of said track relay and capable of bridging
the short “on” interval of said ?rst code but
not the long “on” interval of said second code,
intervals, means eifective when a train occupies
the second block in advance of said one block
section with code comprising energy impulses of
relatively short duration separated by relatively
long intervals of no energy and for at other
times supplying the rails of said section with
code comprising energy impulses of relatively 55,.
long duration separated by relatively short in
tervals of no energy, a code following locomo
tive relay receiving energy from the rails of said
section, a ?rst relay controlled over a front con
tact of said code following relay and capable of 60
bridging said short but not said long intervals of’
no, energy, a second relay controlled over a back
contact of said code following relay and capable
of bridging said short but not said long energy
impulses, and a cab signal controlled by said 65
?rst and second relays.
8. In combination, a section of railway track,
means for at times supplying the rails of said
section with code comprising energy impulses of
relatively short duration separated by relatively 70
long intervals of no energy and for at other
times supplying the rails of said section with
code comprising energy impulses of relatively
long duration separated by relatively short in
tervals of no energy, a code following relay re
8
2,114,899
ceiving energy from the rails of said section, a
?rst relay controlled over a front contact of
said code following relay and capable of bridg
ing said short but not said long intervals of no
which includes a contact of said code following
relay and which are timed for selective response
to operation of said code following relay on said
?rst or said second code respectively, and traffic
energy, a second relay controlled over a back
governing apparatus controlled by said decoding
relays.
contact of said track relay and capable of bridg
ing said short but not said long energy impulses,
a third relay controlled over a front contact of
said ?rst relay and capable of bridging the
10 code operation of said ?rst relay, a fourth relay
controlled over a front contact of said second
relay and capable of bridging the code operation
of said second relay, and traffic governing appa
ratus controlled by said third and fourth re
lays.
9. In combination, a section of railway track,
means for supplying the rails of said section with
coded current of one of a group of time codes
selected in accordance with trai?c conditions in
advance of said section, each of said time codes
comprising a unit cycle which is repeated uni
formly without cyclic variation and the unit
code cycles in the individual time codes of said
group being characterized by a difference in the
relative as well as the absolute duration of the
“on” and “off” intervals of said unit cycle, a
code following relay receiving energy from the
rails of said section and capable of following the
“on" and “off” intervals of said unit code cycles,
30 a group of decoding relays controlled by said
code following relay and timed for selective re
sponse in accordance with the time code being
supplied to said section, at least one relay of said
group being controlled over a circuit which in
35 cludes a contact of said code following relay, and
traf?c governing apparatus controlled by said de
coding relays.
10. In combination, a section of railway track,
12. In combination, a section of railway track,
means for supplying the rails of said section with
coded current of one of a group of time codes
selected in accordance with traffic conditions in 10
advance, each of said codes comprising uniformly
recurrent “on” intervals of energy separated by
“off” intervals of no energy and differing from
one another according as said “on” intervals or
said “off” intervals or both “on” and “off” in 15
tervals are of relatively long or of short dura
tion, a code following relay receiving energy
from the rails of said section and capable of fol
lowing the “on” and “off” intervals of said codes,
a ?rst relay controlled over a front contact of 20
said code following relay and having a release
time su?icient to bridge a short “off” code in
terval, a second relay controlled over a back con
tact of said code following relay as well as a front
contact of said ?rst relay and having a release 25
time sufficient to bridge a short “on” code inter
val, a third relay controlled over a back con
tact of said code following relay as well as a
front contact of said ?rst relay and having a
pickup time su?icient to prevent pickup on a 30
short “off” code interval but insufficient to pre
vent pickup on a long “off” code interval, a fourth
relay controlled over a front contact of said code
following relay as well as a front contact of said
second relay and having a pickup time sufficient 85
to prevent pickup on a short “on” code interval
but insufficient to prevent pickup on a long
“on” code interval, and traf?c governing appara
tus controlled by said four relays.
13. In combination, a section of railway track,
means for supplying the rails of said section with
40 coded current of one of a group of time codes
selected in accordance with traffic conditions in
advance of said section, each of said time codes
comprising a unit code cycle which is repeated
relatively short duration separated by relatively
uniformly without cyclic variation and the unit
45 code cycles in the individual time codes being
short intervals of no energy and for at other
times supplying the rails of said section with code
characterized by a difference in the relative as
well as the absolute duration of the “on” in
terval with respect to the “off” interval of said
unit cycle, a code following relay receiving en
50 ergy from the rails of said section and capable of
of no energy, a code following relay receiving
energy from the rails of said section and capable
of following the “on" and “off” intervals of said
means for at times supplying the rails of said
section with code comprising energy impulses of
comprising energy impulses of relatively long 45
duration separated by relatively short intervals
following the “on” and “off” intervals of said unit
code cycles, a group of decoding relays controlled
by said code following relay and timed for selec
tive response in accordance with the time code
55 being supplied to said section, at least one relay
of said group being controlled over a circuit which
includes a contact of said code following relay,
front contact of said first relay and having a
release time sui?cient to bridge a short “on”
and traffic governing apparatus controlled by
said decoding relays.
front contact of said code following relay as well
60
11. In combination, a section of railway track,
means for at times supplying the rails of said sec
tion with a ?rst code comprising uniformly re
current energy impulses separated by intervals
codes, a ?rst relay controlled over a front con
tact of said code following relay and having a
release time su?icient to bridge a short “off” code
interval, a second relay controlled over a back
contact of said code following relay as well as a 55
code interval, a third relay controlled over a
as a front contact of said second relay and hav
ing a pickup time sufficient to prevent pickup on
a short “on” code interval but insuflicient to pre
vent pickup on a long “on” code interval, and
60
of no energy and for at other times supplying the ‘traffic governing apparatus controlled by said
65 rails of said section with a second code also com
prising uniformly recurrent energy impulses sep
arated by intervals of no energy, said second
code differing from said ?rst code in the rela
tive as well as the absolute duration of the “on”
70 intervals with respect to the “off” intervals of
the code, a code following relay receiving en
ergy from the rails of said section and capable of
following the “on” and “off” intervals of said
?rst and second codes, a pair of decoding re
75 lays each of which is controlled over a circuit
three relays.
65
14. In combination, a section of railway track,
means for at times supplying the rails of said sec
tion with code comprising energy impulses of
relatively short duration separated by relatively
short intervals of no energy and for at other 70
times supplying the rails of said section with code
comprising energy impulses of relatively long
duration separated by relatively short intervals
of no energy, a code following relay receiving
energy from the rails of said section and capable
75
9
2,114,899
of following the “on” and “off” intervals of said
codes, a ?rst relay controlled over a back con
tact of said code following relay and having a
release time su?icient to bridge a short “on”
code interval; a second and a third relay both
controlled over a front contact of said code fol
lowing relay as well as a front contact of said
?rst relay, said second relay having a release time
su?icient to bridge a short “on” code interval and
10 said third relay having a pick-up time su?icient
to prevent pickup on a short “on” code interval
but insufficient to prevent pickup on a long “on”
code interval; and tra?ic governing means con
15
trolled by said second and third relays.
15. In combination, a section of railway track,
means for at times supplying the rails of said
section with coded current of a ?rst code com
prising a unit code cycle which is repeated uni
formly without cyclic variation and for at other
20 times supplying the rails of said section with
coded current of a second code comprising cur
rent impulses which also recur at uniform inter
vals but in which the ratio of the duration of
an impulse to the duration of the interval be
tween impulses diifers from that existing in said
?rst code, a code following relay receiving energy
from said conductors, and decoding apparatus
including a pair of windings controlled respec
tively by energy supplied to a ?rst circuit over a
front contact of said code following relay as well 10
as by energy supplied to a second circuit over a
back contact of said code following relay, said de
coding apparatus being selectively responsive ac
cording as said ?rst or said second code is sup
plied to said pair of conductors.
18. In combination, a pair of conductors, means
for at times supplying said conductors with coded
current of a ?rst code comprising current im
pulses which recur at uniform intervals and for
at other times supplying said conductors with
coded current of a second code differing from
said ?rst code in the relative as well as the
absolute duration of the intervals within the unit
coded current of a second code comprising cur
code cycle, a code following relay receiving en
an impulse to the duration of the interval be
tween impulses diifers from that existing in said 25
?rst code, a code responsive device receiving
energy from said conductors, a pair of timing
ergy from the rails of said section, and a de
coder including a pair of windings respectively
controlled over a pair of circuits one of which
includes a front contact of said code following
relay and the other of which includes a back
contact of said code following relay, said decoder
being selectively responsive according as said
?rst or said second code is supplied to said section.
16. In combination, a section of railway track,
means for at times supplying the rails of said
section with coded current of a ?rst code com
prising a unit code cycle which is repeated uni
rent impulses which also recur at uniform inter
vals but in which the ratio of the duration of
circuits one of which is e?ective when said cod
ing device is energized and the other of which
is effective when said coding device is deenergized, 30
and a decoder governed by said code responsive
device and including a pair of windings gov
erned respectively by means of said timing cir
cuits, said decoder being selectively responsive
according as said device is receiving current of 35
said ?rst or said second code.
formly without cyclic variation and for at other
times supplying the rails of said section with
coded current of a second code differing from
means for at times supplying said conductors
with a ?rst code comprising energy impulses of
40 said ?rst code in the relative as well as the
relatively short duration separated by relatively
absolute duration of the intervals within the unit
code cycle, a code following relay receiving
energy from the rails of said section, and timing
means including a pair of windings controlled
45 respectively by energy supplied to a ?rst circuit
over a. front contact of said code following relay
long intervals of no energy and for at other
times supplying said conductors with a second
as well as by energy supplied to a second circuit
over a back contact of said code following relay,
19. In combination, a pair of conductors,
code comprising energy impulses of relatively
long duration separated by relatively short inter
vals of no energy, a code responsive device re
coding apparatus including a pair of windings
said timing means being selectively responsive
respectively controlled over a pair of circuits one
of which is effective when said code responsive
according as said ?rst or said second code is
device is energized and the other of which is ef
fective when said code responsive device is de
supplied to said section.
17. In combination, a pair of conductors, means
for at times supplying said conductors with
coded current of a ?rst code comprising current
impulses which recur at uniform intervals and
for at other times supplying said conductors with
45
ceiving energy from said conductors, and de
50
energized, said decoding apparatus assuming one
or another condition according as said device is
receiving energy of said ?rst or said second code.
55
CHARLES W. FAILOR.
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