close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2114917

код для вставки
April 19, 1938.
2,114,917
H. N. DURHAM
PERMANENT WAVING APPARATUS
Filed April 3, 1935
HHHHHHO
16
/ ‘INVENTOR
.
BY
91" -
W“?
1%
ATTORNEYS
2,114,917i
Patented Apr. 19, 1938
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,114,917
PERMANENT WAVING APPARATUS
Hobart N. Durham, Munsey Park, N. Y., assignor
to Eugene, Ltd., New York, N. Y., a corporation
of New York
Application April 3, 1935, Serial No. 14,407
In Great Britain December 31, 1934
4 Claims.
The invention relates to new and useful im
provements in permanent waving and to novel
and useful methods and devices for permanently
waving hair.
5
Objects and advantages of the invention will
be set forth in part hereinafter and in part will
be obvious herefrom, or may be learned by prac
tice with the invention, the same being realized
and attained by means of the instrumentalities
10 and combinations pointed out in the appended
claims.
"
The invention consists in the novel parts, con
structions, arrangements, combinations and im
provements herein shown and described.
15
The accompanying drawing, referred to here
in and constituting a part hereof, illustrates one
embodiment of the invention, and together with
the description, serves to explain the principles
of the invention.
Of the drawing:
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic view of apparatus
embodying the invention; and
Fig. 2 is a section showing the devices of Fig. l
in operation.
a;
The invention provides a new method of per
(01. 219--—24)
as an absorbent electrolyte carrier and effective
curl support as well. Thus a curl wound upon
the absorbent surface can be heated and steamed
without bringing any hair into contact with metal
electrodes or other metal parts which sometimes 5
corrode and attack or discolor the hair. Accord
ingly the invention is especially valuable for use
with white or very blond or bleached hair. Also
the hair is in direct contact with the energized
electrolyte at the surface of the mandrel, there- 10
by being in contact with the heat-creating ele
ment of the system but the hair itself is not in
the direct path of the electrolytic current, and
consequently is not subjected to the sometimes
detrimental effects of passing current directly 15
through electrolyte in or on the hair. Further
more, as the mandrel is a conductor only when
moistened with the electrolyte, a metallic short
circuit through the mandrel is impossible and
thus it is much safer for electrolytic heating than 2.0
the usual metal mandrels or curling rods which
are capable of forming a metallic short circuit in
direct contact with the hair and thus dry-heating
and sometimes even burning the tress.
For croquignole waving the mandrel is pref- 25
manent waving wherein the heat and vapor are
erably of least cross section near its middle and
created by resistance to electrolytic conduction,
increases in cross section towards its ends, being
thus best adapted for croquignole winding, and
electrolytically the mandrel during the process
has greatest current density and offers greatest 30
electrical resistance at its middle part, within
the heaviest part of the tress, thereby getting the
earliest, and strongest steaming or heating action
within and acting upon the heaviest part of the
tress. The mandrel is provided at either end 35
with terminals adapted to be readily connected
with and disconnected from circuit terminals,
and provides also novel apparatus and devices
for carrying out said methods. In certain of its
features and applications the invention is es
pecially adapted for electrolytically doing cro
quignole waving in an easy, simple and ef?cient
manner, with a minimum of mechanism, and
that of a very simple character. One of the
35 chief objects of the invention is to steam curls
electrolytically while eliminating possibility of
short circuiting of metal parts and also prevent
ing contact of the hair with any metal or corrod
able material, whether in the electrolytic circuit
40 or not.
Other objects of the invention are to
provide electrolytically operated means for
steaming croquignole curls from the inside out
wardly and to effect the longest and most intense
steaming action at the center of the wound tress.
45
In carrying out my invention, broadly consid
ered, a mandrel upon which the tresses are to be
wound is provided, the mandrel being of absorp
tive material, or otherwise capacitated to carry
an electrolyte, the better practice being to im
50 pregnate the mandrel with the electrolyte for
which terminals are in circuit with the low volt
age side of a transformer. The current is passed
axially of the mandrel and moisture from the 40
enlarged mandrel ends feeds by capillarity to the
reduced central portion thereby maintaining the
electrolytic circuit. If, as is usual in croquignole
waving, the tress is moistened with lotion this
lotion also serves to maintain the mandrel moist 45
and conductive.
It will be understood that the foregoing gen
eral description of the steps and mechanism of
my invention, and the following detailed descrip
each successive tress, the electrolyte preferably
containing alkaline hair softening ingredients,
tion as well, are illustrative and exemplary, but 50
are not restrictive of the invention.
Referring now in detail to the illustrated and
such as decomposable ammonium salts.
By making the mandrel of rigid absorbent ma
55 terial, such as unglazed porcelain, it can act
present preferred embodiment, a mandrel I is
provided consisting of a rigid, absorptive mate
rial, such as a baked clay or unglazed porcelain, 55
2
2,114,917
or asbestos, cork or other like materials. The
mandrel preferably is of least cross section near
its middle portion, increasing in cross section
toward either end. This presents the most e?i
cient form for croquignole winding and for the
electrolytic method of the present invention it
also creates a region of greatest current density
and electrical resistance at the middle part of
the mandrel, and just within the heaviest part
of the wound tress. At either end, the mandrel
is provided with electrical terminals or electrodes
of ample contacting areas, shown as cylindrical
conducting members 2 and 3, having openings at
5 and 6 in their inner heads whereby they may
15 be cast or moulded integral with the mandrel
itself. Alternatively, the members 2 and 3 may
be slidably or screw-connected to the ends of the
mandrel to permit ready removal and replace
ment of electrodes. On their outer heads the
20 terminals are provided with outwardly projecting
contact pins 7 and 8, which are split so as to
have a spring action. A winding ratchet 9 of
usual form is shown near one end of the mandrel
l, preferably being moulded into the ceramic
material. The cooperating terminal devices,
which are in thesecondarycircuit of the trans
former, comprise knobs or hand pieces I4 and i5
outwardly of insulating material, but having
centrally recessed members l6 of conducting
material adapted to snap onto and off of the pins
l and 8. These terminal devices-are in the sec
ondary circuit ll of the transformer 18.
The resistance to electrolytic conduction ai
forded by the lotion-moistenedmandrel serves to
vaporize the lotion, heating the wound tress by
conduction as well asby the condensation of the
lotion vapors.
'
-
Various typesof clamps may be used, so far as
the present invention is concernedanda clamp
40 is conventionally shown at 2! with the mandrel
and wound tress mounted thereon. The tress
may be covered preparatory to and during the
steaming by any suitable cover .22, usually of
vapor and moisture impervious material, prefer
45 ably held in place by any suitable clamping
means, such as the spring clip 23.
Due to the relatively long current path af
forded by the mandrel, voltages as high as 10 to
20 volts may be employed, which are perfectly
harmless to the human body and at the same
time eliminate the uncertainty of contact which
might be encountered at lower voltages in case
of any corrosion .of the terminals.
The invention in its broader aspects is not
55 limited to the speci?c mechanisms shown and
described but-departures may be made therefrom
within the scope of the accompanying claims
without departing from the principles of the in
vention and without sacri?cing its chief advan
60 tages.
What I claim is:
1. As an article of commerce for use in per
manent waving, a mandrel of absorptive mate
rial capacitated to absorb an electrolyte whereby
the mandrel will be conductive in an electrolytic
circuit when wet with electrolyte and non-con
ductive when dry, the mandrel being adapted to
support a wound tress of hair upon its absorptive
surface, and electrodes of opposite polarities
spaced from each other and contacting portions
of the surface of said mandrel remote from that
portion of said surface upon which the hair is
Wound, whereby the hair is heated by direct con 10
tact with the electrolyte-carrying element in the
electrolytic heating circuit but does not contact
any electrode material in said circuit.
2. As an article of commerce for use in per
manent waving, a rigid mandrel of absorptive
material capacitated to absorb an. electrolyte
whereby the mandrel will be conductive in an
electrolytic circuit when wet with electrolyte and
non-conductive when dry, the mandrel being
adapted to support a wound tress of hair upon
its absorptive surface, and electrodes of opposite
polarities spaced from each other and contacting
portions of the surface of said mandrel remote
from that portion of said surface upon which the
hair is wound, whereby the hair is heated by
direct contact with the electrolyte-carrying ele
ment in the electrolytic heating circuit but does
not contact any electrode material in said circuit.
As an article of commerce for use in per
manent waving, a rigid mandrel of absorptive
ceramic material capacitated to absorb an elec
trolyte whereby the mandrel will be conductive
in an electrolytic circuit when wet with elec
trolyte and non-conductive when dry, the man~
drel being adapted to support a wound tress of
hair upon its absorptive surface, and electrodes
of opposite polarities spaced from each other and
contacting portions of the surface of said man
drel remote from that portion of said surface
upon which the hair is wound, whereby the hair
is heated by direct contact with an element in
the electrolytic heating circuit but does not con~
tact any electrode material in said circuit.
4. As an article of commerce for use "in per
manent waving, a mandrel of absorptive material 45
capacitated to absorb an electrolyte whereby the
mandrel will be conductive in an electrolytic cir
cuit when wet with electrolyte vand non-conduc
tive when dry, the mandrel being adapted to sup
port a wound tress of hair upon its. absorptive 50
surface, and electrodes of opposite polarities
spaced from each other and contacting portions
of .the surface of said mandrel remote from that
portion of said surface upon which the hair is
wound, whereby the .hair is heated by direct con
tact with the electrolyte-carrying element in the
electrolytic heating circuit but does not contact
any electrode material in said circuit, said man
drel having a central portion of reduced cross
section to increase the current density and to 60
intensify the heating locally.
HOBART N. DURHAM.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
332 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа