Патент USA US2114917код для вставки
April 19, 1938. 2,114,917 H. N. DURHAM PERMANENT WAVING APPARATUS Filed April 3, 1935 HHHHHHO 16 / ‘INVENTOR . BY 91" - W“? 1% ATTORNEYS 2,114,917i Patented Apr. 19, 1938 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,114,917 PERMANENT WAVING APPARATUS Hobart N. Durham, Munsey Park, N. Y., assignor to Eugene, Ltd., New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application April 3, 1935, Serial No. 14,407 In Great Britain December 31, 1934 4 Claims. The invention relates to new and useful im provements in permanent waving and to novel and useful methods and devices for permanently waving hair. 5 Objects and advantages of the invention will be set forth in part hereinafter and in part will be obvious herefrom, or may be learned by prac tice with the invention, the same being realized and attained by means of the instrumentalities 10 and combinations pointed out in the appended claims. " The invention consists in the novel parts, con structions, arrangements, combinations and im provements herein shown and described. 15 The accompanying drawing, referred to here in and constituting a part hereof, illustrates one embodiment of the invention, and together with the description, serves to explain the principles of the invention. Of the drawing: Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic view of apparatus embodying the invention; and Fig. 2 is a section showing the devices of Fig. l in operation. a; The invention provides a new method of per (01. 219--—24) as an absorbent electrolyte carrier and effective curl support as well. Thus a curl wound upon the absorbent surface can be heated and steamed without bringing any hair into contact with metal electrodes or other metal parts which sometimes 5 corrode and attack or discolor the hair. Accord ingly the invention is especially valuable for use with white or very blond or bleached hair. Also the hair is in direct contact with the energized electrolyte at the surface of the mandrel, there- 10 by being in contact with the heat-creating ele ment of the system but the hair itself is not in the direct path of the electrolytic current, and consequently is not subjected to the sometimes detrimental effects of passing current directly 15 through electrolyte in or on the hair. Further more, as the mandrel is a conductor only when moistened with the electrolyte, a metallic short circuit through the mandrel is impossible and thus it is much safer for electrolytic heating than 2.0 the usual metal mandrels or curling rods which are capable of forming a metallic short circuit in direct contact with the hair and thus dry-heating and sometimes even burning the tress. For croquignole waving the mandrel is pref- 25 manent waving wherein the heat and vapor are erably of least cross section near its middle and created by resistance to electrolytic conduction, increases in cross section towards its ends, being thus best adapted for croquignole winding, and electrolytically the mandrel during the process has greatest current density and offers greatest 30 electrical resistance at its middle part, within the heaviest part of the tress, thereby getting the earliest, and strongest steaming or heating action within and acting upon the heaviest part of the tress. The mandrel is provided at either end 35 with terminals adapted to be readily connected with and disconnected from circuit terminals, and provides also novel apparatus and devices for carrying out said methods. In certain of its features and applications the invention is es pecially adapted for electrolytically doing cro quignole waving in an easy, simple and ef?cient manner, with a minimum of mechanism, and that of a very simple character. One of the 35 chief objects of the invention is to steam curls electrolytically while eliminating possibility of short circuiting of metal parts and also prevent ing contact of the hair with any metal or corrod able material, whether in the electrolytic circuit 40 or not. Other objects of the invention are to provide electrolytically operated means for steaming croquignole curls from the inside out wardly and to effect the longest and most intense steaming action at the center of the wound tress. 45 In carrying out my invention, broadly consid ered, a mandrel upon which the tresses are to be wound is provided, the mandrel being of absorp tive material, or otherwise capacitated to carry an electrolyte, the better practice being to im 50 pregnate the mandrel with the electrolyte for which terminals are in circuit with the low volt age side of a transformer. The current is passed axially of the mandrel and moisture from the 40 enlarged mandrel ends feeds by capillarity to the reduced central portion thereby maintaining the electrolytic circuit. If, as is usual in croquignole waving, the tress is moistened with lotion this lotion also serves to maintain the mandrel moist 45 and conductive. It will be understood that the foregoing gen eral description of the steps and mechanism of my invention, and the following detailed descrip each successive tress, the electrolyte preferably containing alkaline hair softening ingredients, tion as well, are illustrative and exemplary, but 50 are not restrictive of the invention. Referring now in detail to the illustrated and such as decomposable ammonium salts. By making the mandrel of rigid absorbent ma 55 terial, such as unglazed porcelain, it can act present preferred embodiment, a mandrel I is provided consisting of a rigid, absorptive mate rial, such as a baked clay or unglazed porcelain, 55 2 2,114,917 or asbestos, cork or other like materials. The mandrel preferably is of least cross section near its middle portion, increasing in cross section toward either end. This presents the most e?i cient form for croquignole winding and for the electrolytic method of the present invention it also creates a region of greatest current density and electrical resistance at the middle part of the mandrel, and just within the heaviest part of the wound tress. At either end, the mandrel is provided with electrical terminals or electrodes of ample contacting areas, shown as cylindrical conducting members 2 and 3, having openings at 5 and 6 in their inner heads whereby they may 15 be cast or moulded integral with the mandrel itself. Alternatively, the members 2 and 3 may be slidably or screw-connected to the ends of the mandrel to permit ready removal and replace ment of electrodes. On their outer heads the 20 terminals are provided with outwardly projecting contact pins 7 and 8, which are split so as to have a spring action. A winding ratchet 9 of usual form is shown near one end of the mandrel l, preferably being moulded into the ceramic material. The cooperating terminal devices, which are in thesecondarycircuit of the trans former, comprise knobs or hand pieces I4 and i5 outwardly of insulating material, but having centrally recessed members l6 of conducting material adapted to snap onto and off of the pins l and 8. These terminal devices-are in the sec ondary circuit ll of the transformer 18. The resistance to electrolytic conduction ai forded by the lotion-moistenedmandrel serves to vaporize the lotion, heating the wound tress by conduction as well asby the condensation of the lotion vapors. ' - Various typesof clamps may be used, so far as the present invention is concernedanda clamp 40 is conventionally shown at 2! with the mandrel and wound tress mounted thereon. The tress may be covered preparatory to and during the steaming by any suitable cover .22, usually of vapor and moisture impervious material, prefer 45 ably held in place by any suitable clamping means, such as the spring clip 23. Due to the relatively long current path af forded by the mandrel, voltages as high as 10 to 20 volts may be employed, which are perfectly harmless to the human body and at the same time eliminate the uncertainty of contact which might be encountered at lower voltages in case of any corrosion .of the terminals. The invention in its broader aspects is not 55 limited to the speci?c mechanisms shown and described but-departures may be made therefrom within the scope of the accompanying claims without departing from the principles of the in vention and without sacri?cing its chief advan 60 tages. What I claim is: 1. As an article of commerce for use in per manent waving, a mandrel of absorptive mate rial capacitated to absorb an electrolyte whereby the mandrel will be conductive in an electrolytic circuit when wet with electrolyte and non-con ductive when dry, the mandrel being adapted to support a wound tress of hair upon its absorptive surface, and electrodes of opposite polarities spaced from each other and contacting portions of the surface of said mandrel remote from that portion of said surface upon which the hair is Wound, whereby the hair is heated by direct con 10 tact with the electrolyte-carrying element in the electrolytic heating circuit but does not contact any electrode material in said circuit. 2. As an article of commerce for use in per manent waving, a rigid mandrel of absorptive material capacitated to absorb an. electrolyte whereby the mandrel will be conductive in an electrolytic circuit when wet with electrolyte and non-conductive when dry, the mandrel being adapted to support a wound tress of hair upon its absorptive surface, and electrodes of opposite polarities spaced from each other and contacting portions of the surface of said mandrel remote from that portion of said surface upon which the hair is wound, whereby the hair is heated by direct contact with the electrolyte-carrying ele ment in the electrolytic heating circuit but does not contact any electrode material in said circuit. As an article of commerce for use in per manent waving, a rigid mandrel of absorptive ceramic material capacitated to absorb an elec trolyte whereby the mandrel will be conductive in an electrolytic circuit when wet with elec trolyte and non-conductive when dry, the man~ drel being adapted to support a wound tress of hair upon its absorptive surface, and electrodes of opposite polarities spaced from each other and contacting portions of the surface of said man drel remote from that portion of said surface upon which the hair is wound, whereby the hair is heated by direct contact with an element in the electrolytic heating circuit but does not con~ tact any electrode material in said circuit. 4. As an article of commerce for use "in per manent waving, a mandrel of absorptive material 45 capacitated to absorb an electrolyte whereby the mandrel will be conductive in an electrolytic cir cuit when wet with electrolyte vand non-conduc tive when dry, the mandrel being adapted to sup port a wound tress of hair upon its. absorptive 50 surface, and electrodes of opposite polarities spaced from each other and contacting portions of .the surface of said mandrel remote from that portion of said surface upon which the hair is wound, whereby the .hair is heated by direct con tact with the electrolyte-carrying element in the electrolytic heating circuit but does not contact any electrode material in said circuit, said man drel having a central portion of reduced cross section to increase the current density and to 60 intensify the heating locally. HOBART N. DURHAM.