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Патент USA US2115044

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` 'April 26, 193s.
April 26,
\ (jlFOR
Filed March 16, 1934
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
ÈÀHVÃ'A @Hom/wig
April 26, 1938.
Filed March 16,1954
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
@513% twfvlmá
Patented Apr. 26, 1938
unirsi) STATES
Clyde Scott, Newark, N. J.
Application March 16, 1934, Serial No. 715,897
14 Claims. (Cl. 18--15)
»This invention is in part a continuation of my
co-pending application, Serial Number 666,358,
filed April 15, 1938 for Method for casting films.
The invention to which the following descrip
5 tion relates, deals with. improvements in appa
ratus for continuouslycasting ñlm ini sheet or
strip form from solutions of cellulose or like ma
terial. I have found that the ñlm is improved
and its production facilitated by maintaining an
accurate and close control of the conditions under
which the operation is carried out. Further, this
controlling operation is facilitated by improve
ments in the mechanism relating to the casting
operation, the surfaces upon which the film is
two inches from each >edge of the support, and 10
upon drying, the film immediately detaches or
separates from the casting surface (particularly
at the edges), due to lack of adhesion or deficien
cy in adhesion.
Films produced by endless belt, or drum appa- l5
ratus are usually of dimensions of from 0.003 to
The working temperature of solutions and ap
paratus is important. Diffusion in cellulosic so
major difficulties in producing Vand stripping
thinner ñlms, due to the separation from the
casting surface from the edges, prevents the sat- 20
isfactory production of ñlms thinner than 0.003
20 be accelerated by rise in temperature. A homo
geneous solution remains homogeneous and of
the same viscosity only so long as the diiîerent
parts are maintained at the same temperature.
When one part of the initially homogeneous solu
25 tion is kept at a different temperature from the
vother parts, the solution becomes heterogeneous
insofar as flowability is concerned, the colder part
becoming more concentrated and viscous, and the
warmer portion more dilute and thinner flowing,
3 O while the dissolved substances diffuse from. the
warmer into the colder portion of the solution.
By means of the apparatus forming the subject
0.007 or 0.008 of an inch in thickness. One of the
of an inch in thickness.
Obviously very heavy
gauge thick films cannot be produced by such
means in continuous operation even though a
plurality of means be provided for depositing 25
successive layers, as has been proposed, and this
is because of the limited area available for dry
ing purposes.
The method of applying the solution to, the .y A ‘ `
casting surface in a pool from which the ñlm is 30
withdrawn permits the solution to come in con
tact with the guide-strips at the side for an ex
css wherein a wide scope of forming ñlms is per
tent many times greater than the thickness of
the final ñlm. The result is that this wetting of
the guide-strips by the solution forms an extend
ed attaching edge with greatly increased adhe
sion. This bond with the guide-strips remains,
during the drying and subsequent treatment of
the ñlm on the casting surface. It follows that
there is an improved holding effect which main
tains the film under tension, flat against the sur
face of the casting surface; This permits com
missible, irrespective of the chemical composition
plete drying without danger of curling and suc
of the cellulosic portion of the nlm, when cast
cessive coating solutions may be applied without
impairing the uniformity of the iilm or distorting
matter of this invention these disadvantages are
substantially overcome, with the result that more
es Si uniform films are obtainable as to composition
and physical characteristics, and the operationV
may be made continuous with the formation of
posited upon the casting surface to within one or n
deposited and the subsequent operations by which
the film is produced in final form.
lutions is ordinarily a very slow process, but may
one complete cycle of the casting surface has been
In heretofore proposed apparatus, the film
formìng solutions have been deposited upon sup
ports having an even, close or vpolished surface 5
to which the ñlm in the dried condition will not
adhere, or at least adhere so tenaciously as to be
removable with difficulty. It is, as a rule, de
films of indeñnite length and of great uniformity
in composition.
My herein described apparatus involves a proc
according to the methuods herein described with
the apparatus herein illustrated.
For example, when an endless belt or drum is
Because of the ability of the guide-guard strips
employed the viscosity of the film-forming com
ponent must permit of great fluidity. The sol
vents or solvent combination must be sufliciently
on my machine to retain thoroughly dried ñlms
(and particularly very thin and very thick films)
in intimate contact with and upon the plane sur 50
of the travelling-supports, it becomes pos
volatile so that the deposited solution will have a
sible to cast very thin multi-layer laminae-i. e.,
deñnite, known and controllable speed of evap
oration and hence time of setting, in order that . composite films of one to two one-thousandths
the' solid or solids deposited from the solution of an inch thick-and dry under tension each
may be stripped from the casting surface before successive layer without the films separating from 55
the support at theedges, and without distortion,
wrinkling, warping, or curling of the-ñlm during
the process of manufacture or after removal from
the casting-surface.
Y In the depositing of this iilm I have provided
form a continuous surface on which the cellulose
solution may be deposited and subsequently
treated. In the drawings this machine is shown
to consist in a stand or table I I having at one end
a pair of trunnions I2. Between these trunnions
an improved discharge hopper by which the solu
I2 there is a table which'extends for the full
tion is ñrst maintained in the proper condition of length of the stand II. This table I3 is sup
low viscosity and then delivered in accurately' . ported at the other end of the stand by means of a
measured quantities as is desired in order to make pair of standards I 4 which arelocked in adjusted '
a suitable ñlm.
position tojtherstand II.V
Among the objects Vof Ymy_invention isthel pro
vision o-f an improved casting surface which is
` A cross bar I 5 at this end of the stand forms a
journal for the lifting screw I 6, one end of whichk
mechanically advancedrpast the above mentionedY is manipulated by the hand wheel I1. The upper
hopper. InV the use of this casting-surface it is Y end ofthe lifting screw I6 supports the cross '
15 maintained at thev proper temperature in. con
bar I8 beneath the table I3 and serves tolift
formity with the temperature of the solution so the latter to give it any desired inclination or
that the evaporationV of the film will Vnot be dis- , gradient. In this way the left or discharge end
turbed by localtemperature changes which might ' of the table I3 is raised relatively tothe opposite
cloud the ñlm Y'or produce irregularities or` end an ,amount dependent upon the operating
20 blemishes in it.
factors ofthe casting machine such as the viscosity
» Another object of my invention is tov provide of the material, the rate of travel of the'casting 20
Y improved means in the form of guide strips by surface and the rate of evaporation. j
which the full'surfac'e area ofthe casting-surface
is made available. for -the ñlm and thelnecessity
of trimming wastage from the latter is minimized
The table I3 has a series of transverse shafts ~
I9 which carry a pair of parallel spaced endless
conveyor chains 20,120 by means of appropriate 25
Ysprocket-_wheels or the like. Y This may form one l
As an incidentof this object of my invention it
Vendless conveyor connecting the opposite ends of
Í is _to be noted` that the devicezprovides means by ' the table I3 ror the >conveyors may be arranged
«whichïthe ñlm, whenV once cast on ‘the surfaces, in overlapping relation serving successive zones
23,0l is held rigidly in place without distortion, warping along
the table anddeliveringY the casting plates
' Y or curlingand mayY thus be subsequently treated Y from one conveyor or zone to another.
` by the' deposition of successivezlayers of similar orV
dissimilar material.
Among the further objects of my invention is '
the completion of the film-forming operation by
Ysubjecting the solution when cast to travel along;
an upward gradient-opposite to the direction in
which the solution isrñrst applied, in van atmos
phere of the solvent used in the Iilm and kept at
40 a degreeof saturation and moderate tempera
' ture that will permitl the evaporation of the film
inthe most effective and prompt manner.
The ñlm produced by this invention may beïthe
subject of a further successive deposition; by which
its Waterproof, moisture-proof or fire-proof prop
One ofV
.3Q Y _
the transverse shafts I9 is provided withra drivenv n
Wheel 2|Y by which the> conveyor or series ofcon
Vveyorsis caused to operate. The conveyor chains
20 are provided at appropriate distances withfen- .
gagement pins 22 by which the casting plates Vare Y
advanced along the length .of the table.
The casting plates consist‘of polished glass orVV
metal plates 23 which rest at their sideV edges ' .
on'appropriate tracksor shoes and are advanced „40
byY means of transverse metal bars 24 also rest
` ing upon the shoes and being engaged by the pins Y;
22. ~ As is shown in the drawings the metal bars
24 /are of substantially 'the same thickness as .
the glass casting plates but are‘undercut or
erties will :be improved ormodii'led. yAsa final ' rab-beted along one edge to» accommodate the“1
step the invention contemplatesV the conditioning pins 22. ’ The lengths of the plates 23 and bars 24
. of the ñlm as a continuous Vstrip' or‘in‘shortened are such as to provide a continuous topsurface
sections-in a conditioningchamber. Y 't .
order to illustrate the preferred'formrwhich
56 myvIninvention
may take, I have ‘shown in thefol
upon'which the solution may be cast or caused to
In those instances whereit is feasible and de-V .
lowing drawings, for the purpose of example only, "sirable
to use a metal casting plate it may- take
a machine by which the above and other related
objects may beattained. In the drawings
1 is a top plan view of the improved »ma
„ 55
the form of a plate 25, (not shown in drawing);4
the opposite ends o-f which are rabbeted as shown
inv26 (not shownv indrawing) to accommodate 55
Fig. 2 is a side elevation thereof;
Referring to Fig. 9 it will be seen that Ythe cast
Fig. 3 is a, side elevation showing the adjust- Y ing plate 25 is urged in a forward direction by
ment in inclination» of the casting machine;
the pins 272».
Fig. 4 is Van end elevation;
Fig. 5 is a top plan view of the improved hopper;
Fig. 6 is a side elevation thereof;
Fig. 7 is an end elevation of the same; 'Y
Fig. 8 is a verticalsection on'the line 8-8 of
. Fig. 9 is an enlarged transverse detailed section
>of the casting element and associated parts;
Fig. 10 is an enlarged'view of the hopper dis
The plate rests upon an accurately Y
proportioned shoe or track 21 which in turn is 60
mounted on the side member of the table I3.
The table I3 also carries along'its upper side
edge a curbing 28 and above that an inwardly ex
tending flange 29. This Vflange begins in advance
of the point where the solution is deposited on
the casting-surface and maycontinue into the
subsequent zone of evaporation.V
A guard strip 30 having a U-shapedcross-sec
charge shown in Fig. 8;
tion is provided >to be> carried along the side edges
70 ; Y Fig.` 11 is av fragmentarydetail
side view of the of the casting plate 25; This guard strip> 30 vfits
_ casting plate and itsrmounting and '
snuglyv against Vthe side wall of the curbing `28
FigllZ is a longitudinal section of the'casting but Vthere is sufficient vertical clearance between
surface drive means. f Y
theiiange 29 and the side member of the table I3
Thecasting machine consists generally of a de- V to prevent the guard strip from 'binding against
vicev for advancing a seriesçofcasting plates to
either the ilange or the side member of the tableV
and the overlap of the strip 30'with the side edges
of the casting plate 23 compensates for variations
in the horizontal direction.
These guard strips 30 are of the same length
as the individual casting plates 25 and travel
with the plates from the point of their placement
on the conveyor to the opposite end of the
handwheels 44 so that a close control can be made
ment of the plates.
The casting operation is carried out along a
portion of the table I3 which is equipped with a
15 suitable cover to form a chamber for the solvent
vapors. iAs illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2 this cham
ber comprises panels 32 which latter extend along
the sides, ends and top of the frame to form a
relatively closed chamber 33. Panels 32 are illus
trated as being of framed sheet glass so that the
casting operation can be observed readily. The
ends of the chamber 33 are open at the bottom
suiîiciently to permit the introduction and with
drawal of the casting plates or similar elements
25 without substantial loss of the solvent vapors or
the production of undesirable air currents.
The chamber 33 is provided with suitable
means, not illustrated, for its temperature control
and for the withdrawal of excess vapors produced
30 from the evaporation of the film solution. In this
oi' each end of the hopper and a uniform spacing
for the casting nlm thus` maintained.
The top 45 of the hopper has an opening 46
through which the inlet 41 of the film solution
The to-p 45 also supports a heating coil 48 the
convolutions of which extend generally through l5
the body of the film solution and serve to main
tain it at such a degree of temperature as will
lower its viscosity and control the conditions un
der which the solution will be delivered with
greatest effectiveness. The back wall 49 of the
hopper is formed of a panel which is hinged at
corresponding lip 5| on the back wall 49 is adapt 25
ed to be spaced, both lips serving to reinforce the
sheet metal walls 33 and 40. In this way a deliv
ery slot is established through which a thin stream
of the nlm solution passes to the casting-surface.
The upper edge of the wall 49 has two or more 3()
hinged brackets 52 by which the wall is suspended
evaporation is also controlled by changes in the
in turn, is freely journalled in bars 54 on the ends
31 and carries calibrated dials 55. The free ends
The casting plates with the deposited film may
be subjected to further treatment before being re
moved from the closed chamber, for example, by
the deposit of one or more subsequent film lami
nae of the same or dissimilar character, either
40 prior to or subsequent to the substantial comple
tion of the evaporation from the originally de
posited film.
The ñlm, either of single or multiple layers, is
discharged from the chamber 33 into a condi
“ tioning chamber 34 which may be a mechanical
dryer or other device by which the ñlm -is further
and finally treated.
In the delivery of the film from the chamber 33
it may pass as a continuous strip or web or may
be cut into pieces of the desired length. In the
latter case the sections of the casting surface
will be made of the selected length so that the
individual sections of the casting surface together
with the film deposited thereon will be trans
ferred to the chamber 34.
4One standard 35 is bolted or otherwise attached
to each side member I3 of the frame and extends
upwardly within and above the chamber 33.
These standards provide guides and supports for
GO the casting hopper 36. This hopper includes a
pair of end walls 31 and a rear wall 33. l'I‘he end
walls 31 have yokes 39 by which the hopper is
slidingly held by the standards 35. Each end
wall 31 has bolted thereon a bar 40 which extends
beyond the front of the end Wall 31 and has a
rearward extension 4I. This extension 4| is
screw-threaded at the point which overlies the
end of the standard 35. 'I'he extreme end of the
extension 4| carries a gauge 42.
Vertically extending through each extension 4!
is an adjustment screw 43 the lower end of which
rests upon a bearing in the end of the standard
35. 'I'he upper end of the adjustment screw 43
carries a handwheel 44 the edge of which is cali
the top and the lower end is free to» move in
wardly with respect tothe rear wall 38. The rear
wall 38 has a depositing lip 5U toward which a
way these vapors are recovered and the solvent
made available for use again while the rate of
vapor tension.
The adjustment screw 43 supports the weight of
the hopper and its load on the ends of the stand
ards 35 and the hopper is prevented from move
ment in any but a vertical direction by means of
the yokes or guides 39. The spacing of the hop
per with respect to the casting-surface is indi
cated by the gauge 42 and the calibration on the
The vertical adjustment of the shoe or track 21
10 insures a straight line of travel for the casting
plates while the curbings 28 prevent lateral move
pivotally on the cross bar 53.
The cross bar,
of the brackets 52 are apertured to carry ad 35
justment screws 58. The heads of the screws 55
rest upon the free ends of the brackets 52 and
carry operating levers 51. 'I'he lower ends of the
screws 5S pass through screw-threaded openings
in a bar 58 which in turn extends transversely of 40
the hopper between the bars 43. In this way the
adjustment of the screws 53 will cause the wall
49 and the lip 5l to vary the size of the discharge
slot. When operating circumstances demand, an
operating handle 53 mounted on wall 49 may be 45
used to move the latter inwardly until the dis
charge slot is entirely closed. It is to be under
stood that the side edges of the wall 49 will come
in such close contact with the end walls 31 of the
hopper as to prevent undesirable discharge of 50
the solution at these points.
It is not intended primarily that the discharge
from the hopper will control directly the opera
tion of depositing the film but mainly will serve as
. a feeder for the solution.
The solution passing 55
from the hopper flows backwardly and forms a
slight pool on the casting-surface due to the up
ward slope of the latter. The deep end of the
pool is formed by a baiile 60 which extends in
front of the feeding lips 55, 5I and for the full 60
width of the hopper of the end walls 31.
A cross
plate 6I connects the end walls. 31, 31 and is ver
tically slotted as at 52. The baffle 6B has adjust
ment screws E3 extending horizontally therefrom
and passing through the slots 62 in plate 6i. 65
Locknuts 54 are used to adjust the position of the
bafñe Bü relative to the discharge end of the hopper
and also to control the clearance of the lower edge
of the baffle 50 with respect to the casting plates
passing thereunder.
In place of individual casting plates 23 the end
less conveyor 20 may have a casting-surface or
member carried directly thereon. Such a casting
member will be in the form of an endless belt
of flexible material. The coated surface of this 75
' conveyor belt issmoothly polished to provide an
appropriate. casting-surface which will ho-ld the>
rsolution'during the evaporationof the nlm.A
Such a casting-surfacemay also be equipped
ond or subsequent discharge hopper. ThusY the
film deposited from the ñrst hopper may be‘par- . Y
tiallyv or substantially evaporated and'coated'with
a second fllm of the same or a different nlm solu
f as desired with flanges orledges upon its side `edges
tion and the composite nlm evaporated prior to .
which will operate similar to the guideV strips 30 to
hold the edge of the film while drying.
The operation of this device may be brieñy de
reaching Vthe discharge point fromrthe conveyor. 'Y
charge hopper fof ra roasting-surface which may
either be continuous or in'suitableV removable
Ythoroughly between successive coatings.' The
scribed as the continuo-us presentation toY a dis
Through the procédure outlined above and by '
means of the machine as described, provision is
made for‘casting laminated sheets and strips in
continuous operation and for .drying the sheets
castingësurface . or
member is
brought'to uniform temperature with the solu
firmness With which‘the films areheld under ten-.
sion on the surface of the Ycastingelement and
tion and the conditions in chamber 33 so'that
the operation of evaporation of the solventV will
the particular atmosphereof solvent'vapors main
¿not .beYV attended by undesirable eifects such Yas
ities such as craters and pits.
tained reduces the likelihood of surface irregular
>occur when a composite iilm comes in contact with
a plate of a differenttemperature causing a dif
trol of the conditions Vof temperature permits the
ferential solidiiication and separation out of the
ñlm of that component which solidiñes at a tem
peratures and upon pre-heaœd casting surfaces.
perature lower than the remaining components.
f1.5 .
The accurate _con
casting of pre-heated solutions at elevated tem- .
The provision of the chamber of solvent vapors
is of primary importance as permitting the userof
- V>The casting plate 23 as it is advanced to the
inexpensive low-boiling solvents in conjunction ’
hopper is equipped with the guide strips 3ft which
prevent the lateral spread'of the solution depos
with inexpensive diluents.
At the same time it is
a great improvement in preventing Yblushing whichV Y
would .be otherwise’ caused by precipitation of i
The solution is discharged from the slot in the ' moisture. It will also be evident that such a
base of the hopper and between walls 31 and38
.and the'panel 49. The rate of discharge is ac'
controlled atmosphere Yduring evaporation pre
vents surface-sealing and pin-holes.
By causing the solution to accumulate iirst in a. Y
Thel solution onY dischargeY .pool of substantial depth and >in contact with the 30
curately controlled by the adjustment of the dis-Y
30f charge lips 50 and 5I.
spreads laterally into contact with the guide strips "guide strips, theV latter Vpare» thoroughly wet to
30 and drains downwardly tothe >baiile 5D. The 'forman edge contact with the film which remain
bailie E0 causes the Ysolution to accumulate in Ya
throughout the-‘subsequent operations'.
shallowA pool, the upper surface Vof Ywhich extends
Where the solutionrcontains oxidizing products,Y
glycerol, phthalate resins orY drying oils, which .35
slightly'to the left of the lip 5D'as shown in Fig. 8.
Due to the upward slope of the casting plate 23
require baking or other heat treatment to dry,; .
and lits continuous movement towardV the upper f the upwardly inclined travel `through the heated
end of the conveyor, there is a tendency for the chamber of solvent vapors is of. particular advan-y
solution to ñow in the opposite directionYY from tage.
The mechanism> above >described will thus'be 40
40 vthat ofthe casting plate and to return to the
seen to be suitableY for the continuous production.
pool. This action insures'iirst, an adequate de
of ñlrns of various types and kinds. .While one
posit of- the solution upon the casting plate re
gardless of variationrin viscosity and immediately Yparticular form of the device has Vbeen described,
'thereafter the draining of excess solution to the many variations in structural detailsY andopera
pool so that the desired thinness of the nlm may tion are comprised within the scope of theI in
be attained and its upper surface remainquite . vention as defined by the following claims.
In the course of the?travel of the plate together
u with the> deposited nlm solution through the rcharn
1. A ñlm
I claim
Y ' comprising'a
Y i
able casting surface, iilm retaining membersV onV
the side edges of said surfacaand means Vfor de
bar 33, there is produced an evaporation of the sol
vent dependent> upon the rate of travel, the .tem
positing a film solution on the surface between»
perature maintained and the surface tension or and in contact withsaid retaining members, said. .
retaining Vmembers being adapted to hold nlm- ’
vdegree of saturation'of the solvent which ’is per
mitted to remain in the chamber. YThe film, forming compounds against retraction.
2. A ñlrn casting machine comprising a casting
55 therefore, dries or evaporates uniformly. Thereis
no'tendency for the surface of the film to dry too surface, Vmeans for moving said surfaceY longi~
fastV and form aV coating through which the solu tudinally and upwardly, detachable ñanges on '
vent cannot escape from the interior of the nlm. the side edges of said surface, a baiile transversely
" It is also Vpossible in this Yway to regulate the evap
60 oration Without producing a` current or draft of
air which might injure the desired surface ofthe
. film.
above said surface and'means for depositing a
nlm solution to form a pool over the surface 60
within the baffle and said flanges.
3. A nlm casting machine comprising a mov
The nlm on reaching the discharge end of the
able casting surface, flanges detachably carried
chamber 33 will be VVsufiiciently hardened tcrpermit
on the side edges of said surface, means for de
positing a pool of ñlrn solution Yon the surface, a
65 it to be cut into sections deñned by the size of
.the casting plates. VQ'I‘he latter with theñhn still chamber for enclosing said surface and for dry
Yadhering both to the plates and to the guide strips Ving they film attached to the surface and said
may then be ‘transferred to the conditioning flanges, said chamber comprising a regulatable
Where the conveyor itself carries the casting
surfacefthe conveyor may be extended to pass
atmosphere of solvent vapors,¿and means forV
withdrawing said surface from the lchamber and
depositing same into a conditioning chamber.
>through the conditioning chamber 34 and thus
4. A ,film casting machine comprising _a mov
able casting surface having means for adjustably
In like mannerthe chamber 34 may extend Ylifting one end, and a discharge hopper for film
carry the film in a continuous strip.
75 for suflicient distance to permit the use‘of a sec
solution, supported above and across said surface.'
11. A iilm casting machine comprising a cast
5. A film casting machine comprising a mov
able casting surface having means for adjustably ing surface movable upwardly in a straight,
slightly inclined direction, means for depositing
lifting one end, a hopper for film solution sup
ported adjustably above and across said surface. a film solution on said surface, a relatively closed
6. A film casting machine‘comp-rising an ad ' chamber into which said film solution passes and
justable movable casting surface having means a baffle supported adjustably and across said sur
for adjustably lifting one end, a hopper for ñlm face for maintaining a shallow pool of solution
solution supported adjustably above and across through which the surface moves.
12. In an apparatus of the kind described com
said surface, and means for varying the rate of
prising means for continuously moving a casting
discharge from said hopper.
surface upwardly in a straight, slightly inclined
’7. A film casting machine comprising an ad
justable movable casting surface having means direction, a hopper for film solution supported
for adjustably lifting one end, a hopper for ñlm adjustably above and across said surface, means
solution sup-ported adjustably above said surface, for varying the discharge from said hopper, and
a discharge outlet from said hopper extending a relatively closed chamber into which said ñlm 15
uniformly across said surface and means for
varying the size of said outlet. Y
8. A ñlm casting machine comprising a mov
able casting surface having means for adjust
20 ably lifting one end, a hopper for film solution
supported above and across said surface, means
for varying the discharge from said hopper and
means for controlling the temperature of the
solution in the hopper.
9. A casting surface adapted to receive one or
more evenly applied uniform coatings of similar
or dissimilarv nlm-forming solutions and hold
same against retraction, said casting surface
having means at its opposite sides or edges
30 adapted to firmly hold the forming and formed
solution passes.
13. A film casting machine having means for
conveying and mechanically advancing a series
of casting plates which form a continuous top sur
face under a discharge hopper, said conveyor 20
being provided with means to engage said casting
plates on the under side thereof and advance said
plates in a forward direction, a series of casting
plates having means on the under side thereof to
accommodate said conveyor engaging means, 25
regulatable means for depositing ñlm solution
upon said surface, and a relatively closed cham
ber into which said film solution passes.
14. In anl apparatus of, the kind described com
prising means for continuously moving a casting 30
film rigidly in place without substantial distor
tion of the nlm, said surface being adapted by
surfacel upwardly in a straight, slightlyinclined
said means to receive and retain said coatings
over substantially the full surface area of said
said surface, means to partially evaporate vola
tile solvent from said deposited solution to form a
film within a relatively closed chamber, a condi
tioning chamber, means to subsequently substan
35 casting surface.
l0. A ñlm casting machine comp-rising a cast
ing surface movable upwardly in a straight,
slightly inclined direction, means for depositing
a film solution on said surface, and a relatively
closed chamber into which said film solution
passes and through which the said surface moves
during and subsequent to the deposit of the film.
direction, means for depositing a ñlm solution on
tially completely evaporate Volatile solvent from
said film within said conditioning chamber.
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