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Патент USA US2115083

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April, 26, 1938.
R. c. PIERCE
'
'
2,115,083
BRAKE
Filed March 6, 1930
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
I
I
April 26, 1938.
'
R; c, PIERCE
' r
2,115,083
BRAKE
Filed March’ 6, 1950
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
2,115,083
Patented Apr. 26, 1938
UNITED. STATES
ATENT OFFICE
2,115,083
"
ham
_ Raymond 0. Pierce, Bronxville, N. Y., assignor,
by mesne assignments, to United Aircraft Cor
poration, a corporation of Delaware
Application March 6, 193%, Serial No. 433,737
37 Claims. (Cl. 188-72)
The present invention relates to brakes of the the arms overlie annular discs 9 and Ill and are ‘in
multiple disc type. In the form illustrated these
brakes are adapted among other things for ap
plication to the landing wheels of aircraft.
An object of the invention is the provision of
a brake of extraordinary power and at the same
time of relatively simple construction and light
weight.
.
Other objects and advantages will be apparent
10 from the speci?cation and claims and from the
accompanying‘ drawings which illustrate what is
now considered the preferred embodiment and
in which
I
‘
Figure 1 is an elevation of the brake as applied
15 to the axle and wheel hub elements of an aero
plane landing gear, and
Figure 2 is an enlarged section on the line 2—-2
of Figure 1.
~
'
.
Referring to the drawings, reference numeral
20 5 denotes a wheel axle and'G a wheel element
which may be any convenient part of the wheel,
for example, it may be the rim on which the tire
is placed, or it may be the hub. At intervals equi
angularly spaced about the-wheel hub are se
25 cured a number of brackets ‘I, each of which pre
sents a ?nger 8 of substantially rectangular sec
tion and ‘projecting parallel to the axle. A pair
of annular plates or discs 9 and [0 are provided
with registering slots adapted to be engaged by
30 the ?ngers 8. The ?ngers thus support discs 9
and I0 and secure them against relative rotation
to the hub while permitting their relative adjust
ment or movement axially of the hub. Cotter
pins i I retain the discs 9 and ID on the ?ngers 8.
35
alternated relation with the latter. Arm H’ has
secured to the inner face ‘of its extremity a strip
i8 of friction material; the extremity of arm l5’
has secured to its faces strips of friction material 5
i9 and 20 and arm i‘l.’ has secured to its inner
face a strip of friction material 2i.
.
Free in apertures 22, 23 and. 24 of plates l4’,
l5’ and I1’ is an expansible chamber device com
prising essentially a cylinder 25 and a piston 26 10
slidable therein. A rubber packing cup 21 is dis
posed on the end of the piston and limits inward
movement of the latter relative to the cylinder.
The head of cylinder 25 is provided exteriorly
and centrally with a lug 25' having a chamfered l5
extremity, while a boss'28 of piston 26 is provided
‘with a central projecting lug 26' likewise having
a chamfered‘ extremity. A rubber cap 29 is ?tted
over?the open end of cylinder 25 and provided
with an opening through which lug 26' projects. 20
The reference numeral 30, Figure 1, denotes a
lever ‘comprising two angularly disposed side
members 3| and 32 having their intermediate
portions joined by an integral web 33. Between
the converging ends of the side members is se- 25
cured a block 34 recessed to‘ ?t rockably over the
extremity of lug 25'. A similar lever 35 has a
recessed block 36 rockably engaging the extremity .
of lug 23’. The web portion of each of the levers
is provided with an aperture through which loose- 30
ly extends a bolt 31 which also passes through
suitably disposed apertures in plates l4’, l5’ and
i1’. Bolt 31 is provided with nuts 38 and 39 hav
On the axle 5 is keyed a collar l2 having a pe- ‘ ingopposed spherical faces seated on conforming
ripheral ?ange l3. A pair of three-armed plates margins of the lever web portion apertures. The 35‘ '
l4 and I5 are bolted to ?ange l3 by means of bolts
iii. A third three-armed plate I‘! is mounted on
collar I2. by means of the bolts l6 and spaced from
40 plate l5 by means of washers l8 surrounding
bolts I 6.
p
'
The arms of plates“, l5 and I‘! are equi-an'gu
larly spaced and those of each plate are in sub
stantial register with those of the other plates.
45 At their outer or free ends the arms, as here
shown, are circumferentially expanded. It will
be noted from reference to Fig.1 that the ex- ~
upper diverging ends of levers 30 and 3| bear
against wear ‘and distributing strips 40' and 4|,
secured to the outer faces of arms l4’ and I1’
respectively. A pin 42 is loosely retained in aper- 40
tures in plates l4’ and I1’ and extends through a
clearance in plate l5’. This pin is surrounded by‘ -
a compression spring 43, interposed between
plates l4’. and i1’, which tends to force thev fric
tion strips away from'discs 9 and J0, thus form
ing the brake release.
ther than those of the other plates. Inasmuch as
The remaining series of registering arms are~
equipped with devices identical with those de
scribed with reference to Figure>2 and the ex
50 only one series of registering arms is shown in
Figure 2. and since all of the series are the same,
at 42' and 43' respectively. The expansible cham- ;
tremity of the arms of plate 15 is expanded fur-.
those shown in Figure 2 are designatedas I4’,
I5’ and II’ respectively, and the description will
proceed with particular reference to ‘them.
55 It will be noted from Fig. 2 that the ends of
45
pansible devices of these other armsare denoted 50 -
ber .devices are adapted to be expanded by the
introduction therein of ?uid under pressure in
the manner well known in hydraulic braking 'sys- ' 3 ‘'
tems, and a suitable pedal or lever for supplying {,1
2
the pressure will be arranged for operation by
set being alternated with the plates of the other
the vehicle operator.
set, an expansible chamberdevice disposed within .
_
In Figure 1, reference numeral 44 denotes the
main lead from the pressure generator, and 45
a distributing connection into which are connect
the hub element periphery, means for leading
?uid under pressure to said device, and, a lever
system comprising opposed levers actuated upon
ed tubes 46, 4'! and 48 leading respectively to cylin
der 25 and the annular cylinders of devices 42'
expansion of said device to urge the plates of the
one set into frictional braking contact with those
and 43'.
of the ‘other set.
As here shown, connection 45 is ec
centricaliy arranged relative to axle 5, but tubes
10' 46, 4-1 and 48 are of equal length so that delivery
to the expansible chamber devices will be uniform
and their action simultaneous.
‘
Upon the introduction of the pressure ?uid into
cylinder 25, it and piston 28 will be mutually dis
15 placed on a line parallel to axle 5.
This dis
placement of parts 25 and 25 will cause levers 50
and 35 to swing about fulcrunis 38 and 59 thus
causing the outer ends of the levers tobear against
plates 40 and 4! so that frictional braking con
20 tact will result between friction strips ll, I9, 20,
2| and discs 9 and Hi. It has been found that the
central arm l5’ may be provided with greater
' frictionsurfaces than the outer arms without risk
,
3. The combination with axle and wheel hub
elements, of a set of radially disposed plates se 10
cured to each of said elements, the plates of one
set being alternated with the plates of the other
set, a plurality of, expanslble chamber devices
equi-angularly spaced about the axle element
within the hub element periphery, means for 15
leading ?uid under pressure simultaneously to
said devices, and a lever system associated with
each of said devices actuated upon expansion
thereof to ‘exert compressive pressure on the two
sets‘ of plates at equi-angularly spaced areas 20
- thereon.
4. The combination'with axle and wheel hub
elements, of aset of radially disposed plates se-'
of unequal distribution of braking pressure and it
cured to each of said elements, the plates of one
hydraulic pressure, the brake is released by means
of spring 43, other springs, of course, being pro
equi-angularly spaced about the axle element
ing andthree, stationary plates, it is to'be understood that‘ the number of plates may be increased
or decreased in accordance with the requirements
of any particular construction and still be com
6. The combination with axle and wheel hub
elements, of a set of radially disposed plates se
cured to each of said elements, the plates of one 50
set being alternated with the plates of the other
set being alternated with the plates of the other 25
25 is for this reason that the extremity of this arm
is wider than the others. Upon relieving the - set, a plurality of expansible chamber devices
within the ‘hub element periphery, means for
vided in conjunction with the other expansible ' leading ?uid under pressure simultaneously to
devices 42' and 43'. The action of spring 43 said devices, and a lever system associated with 30
moves cylinder 25 and. piston 26 together, this each of said devices actuated upon expansion
movement, as above mentioned, being limited by thereof to exert compressive pressure on the two
sets ,of plates at equi-angularly spaced areas
' the cup 21. Due to spring 43, lugs 25' and 26' are
always securely engaged in the recesses of blocks thereo , each of said lever systems comprising
opposed levers‘ disposed at the outside of the two 35
35 34 and 36, this engagement, it will be noted, form
ing the sole support of the expansible chamber plate sets.
5. The combination with axle and wheel hub
devices which are thus freely ?oating.
Discs 9 and ID, as has been pointed outv are elements, of a set of radially disposed plates_se
relatively'movable to themselves and to ?ngers 8. cured to each of said elements, the plates of one
The arms of plates I4’, l5’ and i1’ have su?lcient set being alternated with the plates of the, other 40
springiness to enable their ends to undergo adee set, an expansible chamber device expansible on
quate relative displacement. For the purpose of a line parallel to the axle element and disposed
heat dissipation, discs 9 and Ill may be provided within the hub element periphery, means for lead
ing ?uid under pressure to ‘said device, and ‘a
with marginal cut-outs, as indicated at 9', Fig
lever system actuated upon expansion of said .45
Y '
'
45 ure 1.
Although the specific embodiment of the brake device to urge the plates in one set into frictional
braking contact with those of the other .set.
descrlbedherein is shown as having two rotat
prised within the scope of this application. The > set, a ' ?oating expansible chamber device ex
term set of plates as used herein is ‘intended to pansible on a line parallel to the axle element
comprise a set consisting of one or more plates, and disposed within the hub element periphery,
means for leading ?uid under pressure to said
55 so that if but one rotating plate was required in
any particular construction, that one plate would ‘device, and a lever at each end of said device ac
- vtuated upon expansion thereof to compress‘ the
be the set of rotating plates.
'
,
While I have described a speci?c embodiment of two plate sets. between them.
"l. 'Hie combination with axle and wheel hub
my invention, it will’ be understood that I do not
elements, of a set of radially disposed plates se
60 limit myself except as determined in the following
claims.
'
I claim:
‘ l. The combination with axle and wheel hub
elements, of a set of radially disposed plates se
65 cured to each of said elements, the plates of one
set being alternated with the plates of the other
set, an expansible-chamber device disposed with
in the hub element periphery, means for lead
ing ?uid under pressure to said device, and a
70 lever system actuated upon expansion of said de
vice to urge the plates of the one set into fric
tional braking contact with those of the other set.
2. The combination with axle and wheel hub
elements, of a. set of radially disposed plates se
75, cured to each of said elements, the Plates of one
cured to each of said elements, the plates of one
set being alternated with the plates of the other
set, a plurality of expansible chamber devices
expansible on lines parallel to the'axle element
and disposed within the hub element periphery,
said, devices being equi-angularly spaced about
the axle element, means for leading ?uid under.
pressure simultaneously to said devices, and a
lever system associated with each of said devices
actuated upon expansion thereof to exert com-' 70
pressive pressure on the two sets of plates at equi
angular areas thereon.
8. The combination with axle and wheel hub
elements, of a set of radially disposed plates se
cured to each of said elements-the plates of one '75
3
8,115,088
set being alternated with the plates of the other , arms and the annular plates into frictional brak
set, -a plurality of ?oating expansible chamber ing contact.
1
devices, expansible on lines parallel'to the axle
13. The combination with’ axle and wheel hub
element and disposed within the hub element elements, of a set of annular plates disposed in
periphery, said devices being equi-fangularly radial relation to the axle element and secured
spaced about the axle element, means for'lead
to the 'hub element against relative rotation‘ to
ing ?uid under pressuresimultaneously tosaid' the latter, said plates being relatively adjustable
devices, and a lever at each end of each of said in their axial directions set of plural-armed
devices actuated upon expansion of the latter'to' plates secured to the axle element in radial rela-.
10 compress the two plate sets between them.
tion thereto, the arms of said plates being equiv 10
9. The combinationwith axle and wheel hub angularly spaced and those of each plate being
elements, of a set of annular plates disposed in . in substantial register with those of the other
radial relation to the ‘axle element and secured plates, the free ends 01' said arms overlying said
to the hub element against relative rotation to ' annular plates and being. alterrmted therewith,
15 the latter, said plates being relatively adjustable an expansible chamber device carried in ?oating 15
in their axial direction, a set of plural-armed
plates secured to the axle element in radial rela
tion thereto, the arms of said plates being equi
angularly spaced and those of each plate being
20 in substantial register with those of the other
plates, the free ends of said arms overlying said
25
relation in each of said series of registering arms
with its axis parallel to said axle element, means
for leading ?uid under pressure simultaneously
to said devices, and a radially extending lever
operable by each end of each of said devices to
compress between them the ends of said arms and
annular plates and being alternated therewith,
the annular plates.
and means for simultaneously urging the ends of
the arms and said annular plates into frictional
14. The combination with axle and wheel hub
elements, of a set of annular vplates disposed in
radial relation to the axle element and secured
to the hub element against relative rotation to
braking contact.
I
_
.
p
10. The combination with axle and wheel hub
elements, of a set of annular plates disposed in the letter, said plates being‘relatively adjustable
radial relation to the axle element and secured in their axial direction, a set of plural-armed
to the hub element against relative rotation to the ‘ plates secured to the axle element in radial rela
30 latter, said plates being relatively adjustable in tion thereto, the arms of said plates being equi 30
_ their axial direction, a set of plural-armed plates
secured to‘ the axle element in radial relation
thereto, the arms of said plates being equi-angu
larly spaced and those of each plate being in
35 substantial register with those of the other plates,
the free ends of said arms overlying said annular
'plates and being alternated therewith, the arm
ends of an inner one of said plural-armed plates
.being broader than the arm ends oi.’ the outer
angularly spaced and those of each plate being
in substantial register with those of the other
plates, the free ends of said arms overlying said
annular plates and being alternated therewith,
an expansible chamber device supported in each“
series of said registering arms and spaced from
the free ends of the latter, means for leading
?uid under pressure simultaneously to said de
vices, and a two-armed lever extending along
ends of the arms and said annular plates into
each of said arm series, one of said devices being
adapted to act on one end of each of said levers
frictional braking contact.
11. The combination with axle and wheel hub
said levers overlying the extremity oi’ its asso- ‘
elements, of a set of annular plates disposed in
ciated arm series.
plates, and means for simultaneously urging the
45 radial relation to the axle element and secured
to the hub element against relative rotation to
the latter, said plates being relatively adjustable
to swing the latter, the other end of each of
-
,
15. In a brake, a set'oi ?xed plates and a set
of revoluble plates in alternated arrangement, a
pair of opposed levers pivotally supported from
in their axial direction, a set oi’ plural-armed the ?xed plates, an expansible chamber device
plates secured to the axle element in radial rela- , ' supported by the opposite ends of the respective
50 tion thereto, the arms of said platm being equié‘ levers, means for leading ?uid under pressure to 50
angularly spaced and those of each plate being in said-devices to expand the latter and swing the
substantial register with those of the other plates, levers to bring their other opposite ends into com; ,
the free ends of said arms overlying said annular " pressive engagement with the two sets of plates. _
plates and being alternated therewith,‘ and means
55 acting in opposed directions parallel to the axle
element for simultaneously urging the ends of
the arms and said annular plates into frictional
braking *contact.
12. The combination with axle and wheel hub
60 elements, of a set of annular plates disposed in
and means yieldingly opposing'the expansion of
55
said device.
16. The ‘combination with a wheel hub, oi’ a
plurality of brackets secured thereto and present
ing portions extending parallel to the hub axis,v
and a plurality of friction plates having periora-'
tlons engaged by said portions, whereby the plates 60
are secured against rotation relative to the hub
but are'capable of relativeaxial adjustment.
1'7. In a brake having alternately arranged ro
the latter, said plates being relatively adjustable
in their axial direction, a set or plural-armed tating and stationary plates, means fori’orcing
said plates into braking relation, comprising a 65
plates secured to the axle element in radial rela
tion thereto, the arms oi’ said plates being equi ,pair of opposed levers and a tension member con
angularly spaced and those of each plate being necting said levers on which said levers may os
in substantial register with those. of the other cillate.
_
‘
18. In a brake having alternately arranged ro
plates,‘ the free ends of said arms overlying said
.70 annular-plates and being alternated therewith, tating and stationary. plates, means for forcing’ 70
an expansible chamber device supported in each said plates into braking relation, comprising a
pair of opposed levers, a tension member on which
series of-said registering arms, means for lead
ing ?uid under pressure simultaneously to said said levers may oscillate and means for adjust- ,
devices, and a radially extending lever operablex ing the e?ective length of the tension member,
75 by each of said devices yto'fg'u'rge the ends oi! the whereby the brake may be adjusted for wear.
.radial relation to the axle element and secured
to the hub element against relative rotation to
' 4
‘2,115,088
I
,
to swing the levers to bring their other adjacent
tating and stationary plates having braking sur
’ ends into compressive engagement with the two
faces, a lever supported by at least one stationary
plate for forcing'the plates into braking relation,
sets of plates and means yieldingly opposing the
expansion of said device.
‘ and expansible chamber means located between
the braking surfaces and the axis of the rotating -
the levers swing upon-a tension piece connecting
.plates for operating said lever.
20. In a brake having alternately arranged ro
tating and stationary plates, a lever supported by
10 at least one stationary plate for forcing the plates
together and expansible means supported by the
lever for operating said lever.
21. In a brake having alternately arranged r0.
tating and stationary plates, a lever supported
by at least one stationary plate for forcing the
plates together, an adjustable tension member on
which said lever may oscillate and expansible
" means for'operating said'lever.
22.‘ In a brake having alternately arrangedro
20 tating and stationary plates, a lever supported by
at least one stationary plate between the periph
ery and axis of a rotating plate for urging the
plates into braking relation and expansible means
arranged in an aperture in the stationary plates
for operating said lever.
,
’
23. In a brake, in combination alternately ar
ranged plates, comprising a set of stationary plates
and a set of rotating plates, braking surfaces as
sociated with said plates, one set of said plates
30
'
19'. In .a brake having alternately arranged ro
having portions thereof removed whereby portions
of the braking surfaces associated with the other
., plates are. exposed. and means for forcing said
plates into braking relation. v_
' 24. In a combination with axle and wheel ele
ments of a set 'of plates secured to the axle ele
ment and a vset of plates secured to the wheel
element, means for urging the plates into contact
to produce a braking eilect, perforations in the‘
set of elements secured to the wheel, a plurality
40 of brackets secured to the wheel ‘rim, ?ngers pro
jecting from said brackets and adapted to pro
28. A device, as described in claim 27, in which
them and in which the yielding means is adapted
to separate the plates to release the brake as
well as hold said levers in position upon the ten
sion pieces, collapse said expansible device and v10
hold said expansible device in position on the
lever'ends.
29. A brake, comprising a rotatable part and
a non-rotatable part, braking elements associ-4
ated respectively with the parts, the elements as 15
sociated with the non-rotatable part having-a
plurality of .radial arms supporting braking sur
faces and means operating on the arms for effect-x
ing movement of certain of the braking elements
axially_of the assembly into frictional engage 20
ment with other of the braking elements to brake
the rotatable part.
_
.
.
30. A brake, comprising a rotatable part and
a non-rotatable part,'brake elements associated
respectively with the parts, the elements associ
ated with the non-rotatable part having a plu
rality of arms radiating from a central structure, -
said central structure secured to the non-rotat
able part, means operating on the arms for ef
fecting movement of certain of the braking ele 30
ments axially of the assembly into frictional en
Basement with other of the braking elementsto
brake the rotatable part.
31. In a brake, in combination, a set of ‘plates
having substantially continuous braking surfaces 35
associated therewith, another set of plates hav
ing interrupted braking surfaces associated
therewith and alternating with said ?rst men- .
tioned plates and means supported by said other
set of plates,vwithin the periphery thereof, and ‘
acting thereon for forcing said interrupted brak
jectinto said perforations whereby the perforated
ing surfaces into frictional engagement with said
plates are secured to the wheel element-and the
vbraking force is transmitted from the wheel rim
‘to the axle element and the set of plates secured
.continuous braking surfaces.
to the wheel element may move axially.
32. In a brake, in combination, a set of »an
nular discs, a set of plates alternated therewith,
overlying said disc at spaced portions only, the
remainder of said discs between the spaced por
tions being exposed, an expansible chamber de
25. The combination with axle and wheel ele-'
ments, of a brake having plates, comprising a set
of stationary plates and a set of rotating plates, ‘vice, means for leading ?uid under pressure to 50 one set of said plates having cut-outs whereby said device, and alever system actuated-upon ex- 50
. portions of the other plates are exposed, a bracket ‘pension of said device for forcing the portions
attached to the wheel element for securing one _ of said plates overlying said discs into braking
relation with said discs.
set of-said plates to the wheel element, said brack
33. In a brake having alternately arranged~
et extending outwardly from said wheel so that
65 the entire set of plates is supported in an exposed rotating and non-rotating plates, a lever sup
position and means for forcing said plates into ‘ ported by at least one of the non-rotating plates
for forcing the plates together, and expansible '
braking relation.
26. In a brake, a set of rotating and a set of chamber means for operating said lever.
stationary plates, a pair of opposed levers mount
.34. In a brake having alternately arranged‘
ed on one set of said plates, a tension member rotating and non-rotating plates, a lever sup
connecting said levers, means for separating the ported by at least one of the non-rotating plates
adjacent ends of said levers to cause them to os . for urging the plates into braking relation and
cillate-on the tension piece, and to bring the op
expansible chamber means arranged in an aper
posite ends of the levers into compressive engage
ture in at least once! the non-rotating plates
1o
' ment with said plates, said levers, said tension
for operating said lever.
piece, said separating means, and said plates
forming a unit adapted to absorb all the axial
forces, incident to bringing’ the two series of plates
into‘ compressive engagement.
27. In a brake, a set of fixed plates and a set of
revolvable plates in alternated arrangement, a
pair of opposed levers pivotally supported from
35. A brake, comprising a rotatable part and
a non-‘rotatable part, brake elements associated
respectively with the parts, the elements ‘associ
ated with the non-rotatable part having a plu
rality of arms extending outwardly from a sup 70
porting structure, said supporting structurev se
cured to the non-rotatable part, expansible
chamber means operating on the arms for eifect
' one of-the sets of plates, an. expansible'device
supported by adjacent ends of the respective le
75 vers, means for expanding said expansible device
.
ing movement of certain ofthe braking elements
axially of the assembly in the frictional engage
_ 65
75
8,115,088
5
ment with other of the braking elements to brake ~ ?ange on said tire carrying member, a’iriction
member attached rigidly to said axle, a second
_
36. A brake comprising annular friction discs, friction member carried by said ?ange and ?xed
?uid power vdevices located part-way toward the against rotation relative to the wheel. and means
the rotatable part.
center from said discs, and a lever operated by for causing a movement of said second friction
' member to cause it'tc coact with the ?rst tric
each of said devices for actuating thedisca.
tion member and arrest the movement of the
37. A vehicle wheel comprising, in combina
tion, an axle, a tire carrying member surround
vehicle.
RAYMOND C. PIERCE.
ing said axle. an axially
tire re = 1w;
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