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Патент USA US2115152

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April 26, 1938.
Filed Nov. 15, 1936
N0. 2
N0. /
, ‘
Patented Apr. 26, 1938
Edward Vroom, Ossining, N. Y., assignor to Bell
Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated,
York, N. Y., a corporation of New York
Application November 13, 1936, Serial No. 110,615
6 Claims.
(Cl. 179-—170)
This invention relates to protective circuits
and more particularly to a safety and alarm ar
rangement for telephone repeaters.
In the operation of thermionic repeaters from
5. a common grid potential supply heretofore, one
difficulty encountered has been the trouble oc
casioned by an inadvertent grounding of grid
I o.
terminal of impedance 23 and the negative bus
bar ll. Potentials developed across the imped
ances 23 and 24 are supplied over leads 28 and
29, respectively, to the grids of the electron dis
charge devices. Normally, no current ?ows on 5
these leads.
Milliammeter 25 serves to indicate the mag
nitude of current ?owing through impedances 23
It is understood that this current is to
leads. To clear this it has been necessary to re
move from service a group of repeaters, and test
the several grid leads associated therewith to
and 24.
isolate the defective one. This required not only
auxiliary repeaters for emergency use but also
across the impedances 23 and 24.
be maintained at a predetermined value so that 10
substantially constant potentials will be produced
A more de
tailed description of the circuit including the
tended period due to the considerable time con- _ requisite regulatory apparatus may be had by
involved the loss of a repeater group for an ex
sumed in hunting the nature and source of the
It is an object of this invention to provide an
arrangement for thermionic repeatersv operating
from a common grid-potential supply that will
quickly indicate a fault and its location.
In a preferred embodiment, the invention com
prises copper-oxide recti?ers bridged across the
grid impedances of the common grid-supply cir
cuit. The recti?ers poled against the flow of
25 grid current connect the grid leads, each of which
embodies a. current-responsive means, and a
referring to the Vroom patent, supra.
In a preferred embodiment of this invention,
copper-oxide recti?ers 34 and 35 are bridged
across the impedances 23 and 24, respectively.
The recti?ers are so poled that normally no cur—'
rent from grid battery 18 will ?ow therethrough. 20
The number of recti?ers included in each bridge
will depend on' the operating conditions for a
particular circuit. It is understood that other
means restricting current flow to one direction
may be substituted for the copper-oxide recti?ers.
Fuses 36, 36 connected in the grid leads 28 and
common ?lament battery. An accidental ground
occurring on a grid lead draws adequate current
from the ?lament battery to actuate the current
responsive means. This operates a signaling cir
29 are of a type disclosed in the patent of M. C.
Rorty et al. No. 761,916, issued June '7, 1904.
cuit which includes an audible alarm and an in
dicator showing the nature and location of the
38, when retracted due to a rupture of the fuse
link 39, is adapted to engage contact 40. The
contacts 40, 40 of the two fuses 36, 36 are con
nected by a lead 45 to one terminal of the wind
ing of an alarm relay 46. The opposite terminal 35
of this winding is connected to battery 41. Re
lay 46 is normally unoperated, hence its asso
ciated contacts are normally open. It is under
The invention will be readily understood from
the following description taken together with the
accompanying drawing which is a circuit diagram
showing the invention employed with a plurality
of repeaters.
The drawing is a portion of the system for
energizing and testing repeaters disclosed in the
patent of E’. Vroom No. 1,616,156, issued February
1, 1927.
Referring to the drawing, repeater No. I is
represented as comprising electron discharge de
45 vices ill and II, each of which includes a control
grid and a cathode, input transformers I2 and
I3, and output transformers l4 and I5. Cathode
Each of these comprises a terminal 31 and a
tongue 38 ?exed by a fuse-link 39. The tongue 30
stood that a relay or circuit breaker having a
relatively low alternating current impedance, or 40
similar current-responsive device, may be sub- .
stituted for the fuses 36, 36.
Contact 48 is connected through a key 49 to
ground 50, and contact 5| is connected through
a signal lamp 52 to battery 53. Both of these 45
contacts are associated with armature 54 which
is directly joined to the lead 45. ‘Contacts 55
heating current is supplied from a common 24
and 56 are connected through a lamp 5'! and a
volt battery I6 which has its negative terminal
connected to a negative bus-bar I1 and its posi
tive terminal ,to ground.
contacts are associated with armatures 60 and-6|, 50
both of which are grounded at 62.
Grid potential is obtained from a common
grid-supply circuit comprising a 10-volt grid bat
tery l8, impedances 23 and 24, milliammeter 25,
55 and rheostat 26.
A link 2‘! joins the positive
bell 58, respectively, to the battery 53. These
In operation, let it be assumed that an ac- .
cidental ground indicated at 63 occurs on lead
Current Will ?ow from cathode battery; 16
through ground 63, tongue 38, fuse-link V39, ter_- 55
'21:": "
minal 31, lead 29, mamas '35 and 34, link 21, m indicates that the accidental ground occurred on
the common negative bus-bar l1.’ Adequate one of the two grid leads‘ associated withrepeater
currentwill flow in this'circuit to burn-out the: No. 2. The blown fuse isolates the particular one
fuse link 39. This ‘causes the ?exed tongue '38 of these two on which the accidental ground oc
to, retractsu?iciently to engage contact 40.
Also, the operation’ of-alarm relayvr'l5 effects the’.
Acircuit is now established to energize relay
46. This comprises ground 63, tongue 38, contact’ closing of contacts‘ 84 and 85'to establish ener
40, lead, 45, winding of’ relay 46,,and battery 41. gization circuits for the common signal lamp ,5‘!
Relay 46 operates, thereby actuating armature '- and the common alarmubell 58. The energization ;
; x10
54.1707 close, the ‘contacts 48 and 5|. Relay 46 is , circuitfor the signal lamp 57. includes ground 86,
locked up by a'circuit consisting of battery '41,‘ closed contact 85,.lead 81, the ?lament of lamp ~ I
. Winding of relay 46, armature 54, contact 48,, key " 51; lead 83,‘,and battery 53. _Thefenergization
circuit for the alarmbell 58 embodiesgroundt?; ‘
' 49,’ andground 50. ' At'th'e- same time, the?la
ment of signal lamp 52 is energized by 'a circuit
closed‘contact 84, lead 88,,bell '58, lead 83, and
including battery 53, ?lament of lamp 52,, closed ’ battery 53.
contact 51, key 49, ‘and. ground 50.j Signal lamp‘; ‘ Thus, again, Lbell 58 announces the occurrence
'52 indicates that the? ground occurredfon' re? of a fault while the lamp 5'! indicates the latter
as involving the grid leads of one of several ire-f3 .
. Also, when Valarmrelay
‘I is operated,.the
peaters. As ,prreviously‘pointed out, signal lampsf]
matures 60and'6l areiactuated into engagement ‘52 and 82 identify. the particular repeater on
This, 'Whichthefault occurred. 'After ,tl'ie'blowneout
' with the .contacts 55 and 56, respectively.
fuse ‘I4 is replaced and the accidental ground. is
. energizesfthe alarm bell 58 and the ?lament of ,
' lamp 5‘! through circuits comprising ground 62,
the respective contacts associated with the arma
tures 60. andiGl, lead 83;. and battery 53. Bell
removed from the grid lead'l? or ‘H , the signaling
circuit associated with repeater No. 2 isrestored'i
to normal by deenergizing the alarm relay ‘l5. 2.5
This'is accomplished by operating. the key‘ ‘ieto'
interrupt the holding circuit for this relay”
56' ringsto call attention to the occurrence of a
troublewhilethe ‘lamp 5'l i’ndicatesthat the trou
.‘ble involves the’ grid lead of arepeater. As pre ' ' The number of repeaters included ina group
viously pointed out,'lamp 52 identi?es thepar
energized from the oommon-grid-supply circuit
ticular repeater, or group of repeaters as the case v is, of course, determined by the efficiency at which
may- be, on which the fault occurred.
itis desired to operate the individual repeatersi
5As.shown in the drawing, lamp 52 is connected . Inasmuchas the number may, in some cases, ex-. '
' to indicate a groundfon' either ‘grid‘lead 28 or
ceed two, it is obvious that-the signalinglcircuit ' " 7
29 ofirepeater No. I. The blown fuse will indicate
the particular lead of’ these two on which the 1
ground voccurred. .It isobviouséthat-the circuit
'may'be so designed‘ that "relayr4? andan indi»
can be readily adapted to accommodate anyrnuma
ber of repeaters. In this connection ‘reach re
peater may have its individual signal lampand,
in addition, be operatively connected with the
commonsignal lamp 5lrandrthe common alarm
‘ eating lamp~52 ‘would beindividual to each grid
bell v58. .
When a ground shown at 64occurs on'the grid‘
In the event of operating the repeaters'in con
'7 I ‘lead Z8,1the operationv of the signaling circuit will ' junction withia telephone central oliice, the sig- :
' be the same as that aforedescribed in‘ response .1
toasimilar fault on gridlead 29.
.Afterithe ground is, cleared. and the'burnt-out
fuse is replaced, key 49 is operated, to interrupt
the locking ‘circuit for relay 46. Thereupon, this
naling circuit associated with'th'e repeaters lends
itself readily for combination with the central f
o?icealarm apparatus. Thus, the common alarm
bell 58 may ‘become the all-purpose alarm. of. the
central office, and‘ theccmmon lamp 51 may be
a relay becomes'deenergized'andithe signaling .c'ir-V ‘incorporated as indicating. one type of fault in a
cuit controlled thereby is returned to normal.
group ' indicator- The :latter may be a drop, or
J It is further seen in: the ‘drawingthat leads l6 other suitable type, many of which are wellknown
.50 and 1 l j connected to the common grid-supply cir hin telephone practice. ' The individual ‘signal .50
cuitjat the points]? and 13, respectively'fare
.lamps should, of course, be lccatedas close to, r
>7 “ utilized to energizethecontrol' grids of repeater 7 the repeaters as local conditions will permit; "A ,
'No. 2.’ It‘is understood that the lattercomprises
the same'apparatus shown and described. above in‘
preferred location would be the relay
which the repeaters are mounted.
connection with repeaterNo; l. It'is alsoevident
’ :that the gridsof additional ‘repeaters'may be en‘
ergizedyfrom the common grid supply circuit by
a , tapping their respective leadsfto ‘the points 12
- r
It is understood that the signaling circuit illus
"trates one simple formand further, that other
signaling apparatus ‘may be substituted if desired-Q‘
Furthermore, it is apparent that'the signaling cir- ' ‘V
cuit maybe modi?ed inia-‘manner that eliminates;
. Current—responsive,devices 14, Hembodied'in "the individualI1amps/52, andr82, and utilizes, only to
' ‘ the grid leads '10 and ‘H are duplicates of the ‘de
the general >larnp551; In thisevent, the'rblown 7‘
' vices ,36, 36 both with regard to their; structure ~ fuse would identify the particular gridlead-andf
androperation. Therefore, an inadvertent ground ' in ‘addition, the" repeater on which the ground
r 165,
occurring ‘on either grid lead :10. or;1l will cause
the respective current responsivejdevice to burn
, outiandloperate, thereby completing'an energi-Q
ZatiOnI-circuit :for. alarm relay 215. whose winding
What is claimed
l. Incombinat'ion, anelectron'discharge device;
f’ '
"including af'conftrol grid-jandia cathode, a’gridé
' is 'connectedtobattery 16. This relayoperates; potentialIcircuit'comprising.a source of current
. and locks-Vup' through" ajcir‘cuit" comprising bat‘
andian impedance, a source, or, current- for energ
tery 16,‘; winding. of‘irelay‘15, armature '11; con
giz'ing‘" the cathode, a‘ leadconnecting- thegim
, tact 18,,key l9,~and ground 80. "
' pedance and the controlg'ri-d, means bridgingethe' 7'
.Since'contactlll is now closed, the ?lament of impedance and'restricting' current flow there- >
; :signallamp 82~is energized in a circuit including through to one directionfor joining thefcontrol»
.battery‘53,‘l_ead 83, the ?lament of lamp 82, con
'tacti8l‘,~key 19,~and‘ ground 80. Signal lamp 82
grid lead
the vcathode ‘source of current,and '
current-resl'ao‘nsive[means in the lead connecting 1‘
the impedance and control grid to e?ect an in
terruption thereof.
2. A combination according to claim 1 in which
the bridging means is a copper-oxide recti?er
poled against the source of current ?owing in
the grid-potential circuit.
3. In combination, an electron discharge device
including a control grid and a cathode, a grid
potential circuit including a source of current
10 and an impedance, a source of current for en
source of current, and means responsive to cur
rent in the control-grid leads for disconnecting
the control grids from the impedances.
5. A combination according to claim 4 in which
the bridging means are copper-oxide recti?ers,
and which includes a signalingmeans associated
with the control-grid leads and operatively re
sponsive to the interruption for indicating its oc
6. In combination, a plurality of repeaters each 10
ergizing the cathode, a lead joining the impedance ' comprising a pair of electron discharge devices, a‘
and control grid, a copper-oxide recti?er bridged each of the latter including a control grid and
cathode, a common grid circuit embodying a
source of current and a plurality of impedances, a
15 the grid lead and the cathode source of current, ' common source of current for energizing the 15
current-responsive means for interrupting the cathode, leads connecting the impedances and the
across the impedance and poled against the cur
rent in the grid-potential circuit for connecting
grid lead, and signal means responding to the in
terruption for announcing its occurrence.
4. In combination, in a repeater comprising a
20 pair of electron discharge devices each of which
control grids of the repeaters, a copper-oxide rec
ti?er bridging each impedance and poled against
the flow of current in the common grid circuit for
connecting the control-grid leads to- the cathode 20
includes a control grid and a cathode, a com
source of current, means in each control-grid lead
mon grid circuit embodying a source of current
and a plurality of impedances, a ‘common source
to respond to current flow therein for disconnect
ing the respective grid leads from the common
grid circuit, and signaling means operatively re
sponsive to the interruption for announcing the 25
occurrence of the latter and identifying the re
peater on which it happened.
of current for energizing the cathodes, leads con
25 necting the impedances and the control grids,
means bridging the impedances and restricting
current ?ow therethrough to one direction for
joining the control-grid leads and. the cathode
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