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Патент USA US2115161

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Patented Apr. 26. 1938 “
umran STATES
Ernest 0. Frederica,‘ .Bronxville, and’JamesO.
Brown, Mount Vernon, N. K; said Brown/aa
signor to said Frederic:
No Drawing. , Application March. 16, 1934
Serial No. 715,916,
10 Claims.
(01. 16747.1)
monia may predominateto a certain extent. The
'- This invention relates to compounds and meth
quantity of the various ingredients used may vary
ods used in the permanent waving of human hair.
It has for a primary object the production of an
improved compound and the development of new
5 operating conditions by which an exceptionally
according. to the character of hair ‘being treated ‘
and other considerations, such as the nature‘ of
theprocess being employed. It has been found
that from 1 to 10 grams of each of the com
tight wave may be imparted in a brief time to all
types of hair. The invention is‘particularly effec
tive for the waving of thin, fine hair which is al
pounds, diethylamine, ethylamin e, and ammonia,
added to su?cient' water to produce 100grams of
solution, will form a very satisfactory ‘hair waving
ways the most difficult to deal with.
In the permanent waving'of human hair, tufts
solution under practically all conditions and for
or groups of strands are ordinarily coiled more , all types of hair. Ordinarily it will be found that
from 2 to 5 grams of each of the constituents in
or less tightly about metal rods and are then sur
sufficient water to make up 100 grams of solution
will be most satisfactory. As explained in the
above mentioned application, it is desirable that
the solution, when utilized at ordinary atmosé
rounded with pads of absorbent material which
have previously been saturated with a solution
15 of some special compound. The pads usually
have metal foils attached which when wrapped
around the tufts of hair provide reasonably tight
pheric pressure, should have a pHvalue of not
less than 11.6 and not higher than 12.2. Sum;
cient water should be added at alltimes tokéep
encasements. Each tuft of hair as so prepared is
then inserted in'a suitable heater, or other device,
the pH value below the higher limit speci?ed. 20
Furthermore, to be effective, the water content
should be low enough not .to producev a pH value
20 in which the temperature may be raised to, say,
100° C.>and maintained for a'suitable' period of
below 11.6., While‘, as stated above, it is consid- '
ered preferable to employ substantially equal '
amounts of the three amino compounds, this may 25
Solutions of various characters have been sug
gested for use in saturating the pads. In the
pending application of James C. Brown, Ser. No.
be varied to suit particular circumstance'sso that
656,147, filed February 10, 1933, there is disclosed
one ingredient may be used in two or three times
the advantage of using any of a number of or
ganic amines under speci?ed conditions either‘ greater ‘proportion than another. In fact each
ingredient may be varied between the limits pre
alone or in combination with ammonia. / Now,
viously speci?ed, i. e., 1 gram to 10 grams in '1001 30,
30 we have discovered that exceptional results may grams of ‘solution, independently'of the otherln- ’
be obtained by the‘employment of a solution con-,
taining three or more distinct amino compounds '
having successively higher boiling points.
constituent has been vaporized, the ammonia is
set free ‘in greater quantities and ?nally the di
ethylamine is more largely vaporized. There
fore, in a treatment extending over a period of,
say, 10 minutes, active vapors of ?rst one and
then another of theamino compounds will be
more or less constantly liberated. It will be un
derstood, of course, that a certain amount of
each of the compounds will be volatilized at all
times, or until completely driven oil, butas the
temperature rises, the higher boiling constitu
ents will come into greater prominence. In this
way effective actionof the vapors throughout the
treating period is insured with the result that the
time of the treatment may be reduced.’
In using the mixture of three amino com
tion employed should vary somewhat with the
example, a solution containing a low boiling
35 amine, (such as ethylamine) ammonia, and a
higher boiling amine (such as diethylamine) has
been found to give most excellent results. Apparently as a solution of this character is brought
to a temperature of between 75° and 100° C., the
40 vethylamine is first volatilized most rapidly; then
as the temperature rises and a large part of this
As already indicated, the strength of the solu
character of the hair being treated. 'For example, '
fine, thin hair, which is di?icult to provide with '
a wave, should ordinarily be treated with ' a
stronger solution, i. e., one having a higher pH
valueithan coarser.or_ heavier hair. we have also
discovered that the pH ‘value desired in the con 40
duct of the process may be varied considerably v
by the development of pressure around the coiled
tufts of hair.
For example, if' a vapor pressure 7 '
of .5 pound is created and maintained within‘the
foil or similar enclosure for the hair, the pH value 45,
of the solution may, and preferably should, be ,
dropped to between 10 and'10.5. If a higher
vapor pressure is employed, ‘the pH value may'and
should be reduced evehfurther- For example, 1 “
if a pressure of 2 vpounds is employed, the pH 50,
value of the solution may be as low as 9 and
preferably should not be a great ‘deal higher. »
For a vapor pressure of 5 pounds above atmos-,
pheric, a pH value of 8 is quite satisfactory.‘ If‘
a :pressure as high as 15 pounds above atmos 55,
pheric were maintained around the coiled hair,
the permanent wave could be imparted .'with
steam alone. It would not be necessary to add the
found most satisfactory to use substantially equal ‘ammonia or any of the amino or other alkaline
compounds. Ordinarily the di?iculty of main 60
amounts of the three ingredients, or the am
pounds, as suggested above, it will ordinarily be
taining a steam-tight jacket ‘capable of with- ‘ under which the treatment is carried out without 1'
standingv15= pounds pressurearound the hair and departing from the general spirit and ‘scope‘of'
the danger of having steam at this pressure es:v
cape near the scalp of the personbeing treated
vwill prevent the-use vof such a. high.v pressure;
;, 0n the'other hand, a pressure of between .5 and
the invention. Although a water solution is pre-. . Y 1
ferred, it will ‘be understood that the amino com- : ~
pounds may be incorporated in the pads directly 5"
or may ‘be distributed ‘over or .through the ab
' 2 pounds, orleven up 1:05 pounds, above atmos- ; sorbent pads‘ in other ways. ' j‘
pheric may veryreadily be employed with the
result that a much weakergsolutionwillbe suin
. '10
‘What we claim isi ,
, 1. Av hair waving, composition comprisingjalso- ,
cient to impart a permanent'waye to the hair
lution in water of at least'three compounds of
, > .
within the time ordinarily required for treatment *the group consisting} of aliphatic amino com-e
'of- this character,'or if the strength of the solu
‘tion is maintained, the time may be reduced.
v poundscontainingitwo to six‘ carbon atoms and
_ ammonia, each of said compounds having diil’er.~
{Whileithe three specified amino; compounds, entboiling points all below 100°v C.
15, iie., ethylamine, diethylamine and ammonia, have I
. 2. A hair waving composition comprisingvasojf
been found tov be particularly e?e’ctive forv the _‘ lution inwater of at least three compounds of the '
production of a tight and permanent ‘wave, in a ‘ group consisting of ‘aliphatic amino compounds
relatively-short period iof time,'.other combina-v
containing two to six carbonatoms andammonia.
each of said compounds having boiling pointsall.v
.20 ‘be employedlto advantage, .It will ordinarily be ' below 100°v CV.‘ and spaced more than 10°‘ C; apart.
‘ vtions of three o'rlmoreeamino compounds may also
desirable to employ. ammonia as one of the in
,3. A-hair waving-composition comprising a so? '
lution in water of ammonia, .~.ethylami_ne. and ’
gredientsand it" has beenifound thatethylamine
anotheraliphatic. amine contalning'two‘ tosixcar
‘I ~‘j is? more effective than‘ any other-compound as
a second‘iin'gredient of . the mixture’; However,
bon atoms of higher boiling point than ethylamine
“25 the diethylamine, andevenithe ethylamine, may
but below
aliphatic. amines containing from 2- to 6' carbon
or butyl amines-and piperavzine maybe substituted
, ‘
- - ’
,5. A hair, waving-‘composition comprising a so
for one orboth of the amines speci?ed inr-thejpre
lution‘ in .wateroi ammonia, ethylamine and in", j
.-a_toms; For _example,>such compounds; as propyl
ferred solution.
100° C.
,4. A hair waving- compositionv comprising
berepla'ced vby other amines-and particularly by
lution in water of ammonia, ethylamine and dl-‘
ethylamine in‘ su?icient quantity to produce (a;
a specific"; example of‘ afhighly satisfactory
pH-value of; between 11.6 and.12.2. ‘
composition ‘for the waving of an average type of I 176. A hair waving composition comprising‘a’ so- U ‘1
7 hair, 2 ‘grams of‘each' of-vthe ingredients,- ethyl-v‘ lution in water of ammonia,1ethyla,mine and di- ‘ amine, diethylamine and'ammonia, may be added‘ ethylamine, each of said ingredients being present
‘ w to 94 grams of water or to a similar quantity of in. the proportion of ._ to .10 grams in sumcient
‘a. solution‘prepa-red in accordance with "Letters ‘ water to produce 100 ‘grams. of solution. _
Patent No. 1,637,469'017 1,681,170. Other’ speci?c 1
mixtures which will be found superior-“to waving
pounds of thegroup consisting of aliphaticamino
Ethylamine_‘___e______'__~_ __________ __"___.._.
Ammonia ____________
compounds containingtwo to six carbon atoms
and ammonia, each of. said‘ compounds having
7., A method of imparting alpermanent wave to ' '
while‘ coiled about a rod to the successive ‘action
of the vapors of a plurality of di?erentycomr
di?erent boiling points during aisingle treatment.
8. A method of imparting a permanentwaye
tc humanrhairiwhichncomprises subiectingrthe _ ‘
hair whileycoiled about airod tothenction of
the vapors ‘ofra plurality ot'diilierent compounds
of ' the group consisting of aliphatic‘ amino" com
“In employing a solution ofrfthe type contem
pounds containing 2 to 6 carbon atoms-and ame
monia‘, the. vapors of the several compoundsbe- '
plated byfthe- present invention,‘ thetemperature 'ing successively liberated in greaterv proportions
need not andxpr'eferably shouldinot be raised to duringthe period of treatmentIrom' a1 solution ‘
the boiling point oi'water. ’ Atemperature of,‘_ containing all of said compounds;
9. A method of imparting a permanent wave
i say, 80° C'. or between. 709:’ and 90° C.;will ordi
narily'be foundquite e?e’ctive, particularly it’ the
to human hair which comprises, winding'a' tuft oi’
v ‘ solution .used hasv a'lrelatively‘high pHvalue.»
hair about a rod, wrapping thehair so ‘coiled in
When av weaker solution is employed, and es-v
pecially if. the pressurena-round the hair is raised
an absorbent pad saturated with a solution of am;
monia, ethylamine anddiethylamine having a pH.
to arpoin't ‘above atmospheriaa somewhat higher
value of between 11.6 and 12.2, and applying heat ;
temperature Willordinarily-.berequired or found ' tolvaporize the ‘constituents. f ,
desirable.‘ When the-{treatment isv carried outv w 10; “A method of imparting'a permanent wave]
- under pressure, this maybee'stablished eitherby q to-human hair, whichcomprises winding a tuft or.
the vaporizationlof the’ solution ,andthe con?ne-‘ hair about a rod, wrappingthehair so coiled in '
. ment of thevapors or in,‘ any other convenient an absorbent pad saturated‘with' a solution oi
7 way. as by the direct introduction of’ steam or, ammonia_,ethylamine and diethylamine having a‘
vapors, generated at, any'poin't, into the enclosure‘
pH value of between d-and 10.5,v applying heat to
around the hair.
vaporize the ' constituents, and con?ning thev va
While, the preferred‘ and other ‘illustrative forms
orrthe invention have beendisclosed in ‘consider
pors so formed to establish'a super-atmospheric ,0
pressure between. .5 and 5 pounds ‘around the hair.‘
' able detail, vit will be ‘understood, that ‘various ’
changes maybe made in the nature, and quantity '
ofthe ingredients employed-and in‘ the conditions. ,
a ,
‘ ' -
human hair which comprises subjecting thehair
compounds previously employed may contain'the
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