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Патент USA US2115212

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April 26, 1938.
2,1 15,212
.1. E. PADGETT
AUTOMATIC POWER TRANSMITTING MECHANISM;
Filed Dec. 19, 1934
7 Sheets-Sheet 1
W”
W5
April 26, 1938.
I
; J. E. PADGETT
2,115,212
AUTOMATIC ‘POWER TRANSMITTING ‘MECHANISM
Filed Dec. 19, 1934
‘IIIIIIIIIIQI
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'7 Sheets-Sheet 2
April 26, 1938.
'
'
J. E. PADGETT
2,115,212.
AUTOMATIC POWER TRANSMITTING MECHANISM
Filed Dec. 19,‘ 1934
551 0.2111" I.
'
Y‘Sheets-Sheet 4
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April 26, 1938. .
2,115,212
J. E. PADGETT
AUTOMATIC POWER TRANSMITTING MECHANISM
Filed Dec. 19, 1934
7 Sheets-Sheet 5
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3 mm
Joseph E Paa'ycff
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April 26, 1938- >
I
J. E. PADGETT
2,115,212
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Filed Dec. 19, 1934
7 Sheets-Sheet 6
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Patented Apr. 25,1938
"2,115,212 ,
UNITED STATES‘ PATENT
OFFICE . A‘
, arisen
AUTQVMATIO POWER TRANSMITTING MECH
1
>
ANISM
~
'
Joseph 1;. Padgett, Toledo, Ohio
Application December'?, 1934, Serial No. 758,327 I
'
" 4 Claims.
(cl. 14-200)
posed, and which were ostensibly developed to
The present invention relates to power trans
mitting mechanisms, and is ‘more particularly ‘simplify the control of automotive vehicles, have
as a matter of fact been equipped with controls‘
concerned with transmissions for automotive ve
that are far more complex than those now used
hicles, although it is not limited to such use. ' The transmission of the present invention is
with conventional hand-shifted transmissions.
5‘
It is ‘accordingly a major object of the present ‘
‘ -tion,,as it automatically effects a change in the invention to devise a transmission which will au
torque multiplication when a reversal of drive oc ' tomaticaliy shift and change the torque multi
curs therein. Although transmissions of this plication ratio between apriine mover and a load
in response to a change in the driving relations of 10V
10 general character have been heretofore proposed,
semi-automatic, or selective automatic in opera-l .
the parts in the transmission, without entailing
any substantial loss of headway of the load, and
they have not proved altogether satisfactory ‘for
several reasons. One of the ‘defects of such prior
‘transmissions, which are of. complex and ex
without imparting to the load\a sudden forward
pensive construction, is'that they are so designed
15 that it is necessary .to decelerate the'engine to
driving or retarding impulse of any considerable
magnitude.
-‘
'
'
It is a further major object 'of my invention _
speeds below the speed of the driven, shaft in order
to effect the shift, with the result that-when the . to devise automatic transmissions that fully meet
shift does occur, the vehicle must pick up the all of the operating requirements of- automotive
and similar drives, and yet that are'of low cost,
engine with the result that the vehicle loses con
siderable headway while this shift operation is
20
being
e?ected. .,
~
-
,
r
v
The shift operation just described'is also de
fective because proper consideration has not been
given the design of the parts of such prior trans
25 ,missions,'with the result that when the shift .oc
curs the vehicle is suddenly retarded in an un
desirable manner. It has been proposed to rem
edy this defect of such prior transmissions by in
.‘
in complicated impractical structures, and did
not fully cure the trouble because with such
transmissions the loss of considerable headway
engine to decelerate to speeds below the speed‘
‘My improved transmission also embodies an
auxiliary transmission, disposed in the drive line ,
for affording. an emergency torque multiplication
range, and although prior transmissions have
‘been heretofore devised utilizing an arrangement
of this general character, in such prior arrange
" ments it is almost impossible to shift the amt
iliary transmission unless the vehicle is at rest,
because of synchronizing difficulties due to the
' ‘constructions used.
Prior transmissions of this‘
general character which have been heretofore
50 proposed have been complex and expensive
mechanisms and they also possess the further
serious disadvantage of being dimcult if not im
possible to adjust when the parts become worn
through use.
55
‘to devise, for use on automotive vehicles, or the
like, a transmission that will drive the vehicle
through a certain torque multiplication when the 25
shift into a lower torque multiplication or higher
gear ratio without a perceptible shock or impulse
when the transmission is momentarily driven by
the vehicle, and before the engine decelerates to
speeds below the speed corresponding to the ve
hicle speed in the lower torque multiplication.
It is another object of my invention to devise
was still involved in shifting. It was still neces
sary to wait a substantial period of time, during . a transmission having a selective auxiliary trans
which no power. was transmitted, to allow the mission so associated with it that the auxiliary
of the driven shaft and effect the shift. ,
'40
be readily installed in the space allotted to such 9°
units in automotive vehicles and the like.
A further important object of my invention ‘is
vehicle is started, and that will automatically
- corporating a clutch therein‘ that would slip to
30 ‘some extent in one direction, but this resulted
" 35
‘simple and compact design. permitting them to '
a
7
V
'
Prior automatic transmissions heretofore pro
transmission maybe readily shifted during any
phase of operation, without synchronizing di?l
culties.
-
‘ A further object of the invention is to devise
a transmission having a forward-reverse gear
train and a. uni-directional gear train disposed
between a prime mover and a load, and to pro
vide means for automatically preventing the uni
directional gear train from overrunning when the 45
forward-reverse gear train is operating in reverse.
It is another object of this invention to provide -
a transmission of the character that automati;
cally “shifts" in response .to changes in driving
relations, with 'novel means for selectively pre
venting the transmission from responding to such
. changes.
Subordinate to the above, it is an object’ of this
invention to devise novel simpli?ed“ transmission
controls, novel structural‘ designs and other im- 55
2
2,110,212
portant, but more detailed transmission features
that will hereinafter appear.
My invention further aims to design a trans
mission of the general character that automati
cally shifts‘ when a reversal of drive occurs there
in, through which the vehicle or other load will
be smoothly picked up in a new gear ratio when
the transmission shifts, irrespective of the man
ner in which the transmission is operated.
Another object of this invention is to devise a
10
novel remote-control mechanism for actuating
transmissions and the like.
'
A still further object of this invention is to de
vise an automatic clutch having means associated
15 therewith that are constantly operable to trans
mit power from the driven to the driving member
even when the clutch is disengaged, and yet
which is incapable of transmitting power from
the driving to the driven member.
I My invention also aims to provide selective or
other transmissions with a novel device for ia
cilitating shifting the same into different gear
ratios and reducing shifting noises to a minimum.
It is another object of this invention to devise a
transmission that normally will automatically
lar to Figure 1, of an alternate form of my inven
tion.
'
Figure 11A is a sectional view taken on line
ilA-I IA of Figure 11, and illustrating the over
running clutch assembly employed therein.
Figure 12 is a sectional view taken substan
tially on line l2--i2 of Figure 11, and illustrates
the actuating assembly for controlling the gear ,
box thereof.
Figure 13 is a bottom elevational view of the
gear box clutch sleeve disclosed in Figure 11.
Figure 14 is a fragmental elevational view as
seen when looking in from the right of Figure
12, parts thereof being omitted for clarity of
illustration.
Figure 15 is a view in elevation of the control
assembly associated with the form of my inven 20
tion disclosed in Figure 11, as seen when it is
viewed from the opposite side thereof.
Figure 16 is a fragmentary elevational view of
further parts of the control assembly associated
with the form of my invention disclosed in Figure
11 as it appears when it is viewed from the near
drive is reversed, and yet which may be operated
side of the transmission.
the appended claims.
In the drawings:
Figure 1 is a longitudinal sectional view of the
preferred form of my invention, and in order to
clarify the illustration, the section through the
upper part of the carrier has been taken at 90°
from the section of the cover part thereof.v
Figure 1A is a detailed sectional view of the
40
knife edge assembly associated with the primary
clutch throwout mechanism disclosed in Figure 1
of the drawings.
Figure 1B is a view partly in section and partly
45 in elevation as seen when looking down on top
of the structure Figure 1A.
Figure 2 is a fragmental detail view' of one of
the holdback bolt assemblies employed in the
~
\ With continued reference to the drawings,
wherein like reference characters designate like
parts throughout the several views thereof, my 30
novel power transmitting mechanism is enclosed
in a housing denoted generally at i.
The mechanism, when broadly considered, con
sists of a low speed, or primary clutch which is
adapted to initiate the drive through a'torque
multiplying mechanism, a high speed or second
ary clutch which is adapted to establish a direct
drive between the prime mover and the load
when the latter has been accelerated to snare
determined speed, and an auxiliary gear box
adapted to selectively provide a further ampli? 40
cation of the torque transmitted to the load. The
description of the various parts will accordingly
be divided into separate parts, so as to facilitate
understanding the various phases of the inven
tion. The primary clutch will be considered
first.
'
'
Primary clutch
form of my invention disclosed in Figure 1.
Figure 3 is a view taken substantially on line
3-4 of Figure l, and illustrates the overrunning
A driving shaft 3 is adapted to have rotational
efforts applied to it by a'suitabie prime mover in 50
any desired manner, and in the present instance,
clutch assembly utilized therewith.
it is shown as constituting the crank shaft of an
Figure 4 is a view taken substantially on line
4-4 of Figure 1, and illustrates the pinion car
'
55 rier lock mechanism.
Figure 5 is a view of the manual clutch and
latching means therefor employed in the form of
my invention shown in Figure 1.
Figure 6 is a view taken substantially on line
6-6 of Figure 1, and discloses the control mech
anism for actuating the gear box thereof.
Figure 7 is a view partly in section and partly
in elevation as seen when looking from the right
of Figure 6, with certain of the parts thereof
65
shown in Figure 9.
Figure 11 is a longitudinal sectional view, simi
shift into a higher gear when the direction of
to maintain the transmission in the higher gear
at all times, irrespective of the direction of drive.
30
Further objects of my invention will become
apparent as the description thereof proceeds in
connection with the annexed drawings, and from
35
‘
control employed with the secondary clutch
omitted for clarity of illustration.
Figure 7A is a fragmental View in section taken
substantially on line 'IA-—1A of Figure 4.
Figure 8 is a view in elevation illustrating the
manual control assembly utilized with that part
of my invention disclosed in Figure 6.‘
Figure 9 is a longitudinal sectional view of a
modi?ed form of secondary clutch which may be
associated with the embodiment of my invention
shown in Figure 1.
-
'
Figure 10 is a view in elevation of the manual
internal combustion engine. The ?anged end of
shaft 3 is secured to a flywheel 4 by bolts 5, or
in any other suitable manner. Bolts 5 extend
through aligned apertures in the ?ywheel and the
?ange of shaft 3-, and have nuts turned thereon.
‘Shaft 3 is further provided with a bore 6 in
which is carried a bearing assembly ‘I for sup
porting the reduced end 8 of a shaft 9. The rear 60
end of shaft 9 is adapted to be journalled in a
bearing assembly that will be described herein
after.
A hub H is splined upon shaft 9 and is pro
vided with a ?ange l2. Operatively secured to 65
?ange l2, by means of rivets or the like, is a
vibration dampener designated generally by ref
erence character l3, which provides a resilient
driving connection between hub II and a driven
disc M. This vibration dampener is employed to F
dampen out any torsional vibrations that may be
set up in the crank shaft of the engine, and in
viewof the fact that it forms no part of the
present invention, it will not be further described.
Facings l5 and I 8 are secured to opposite sides
9,115,212
of disc l4 near its periphery. and they may con
3.
by means of a throwout mechanism that will
sist of- any material that has the required char
presently be described.
'
acteristics to give the correct frictional gripping
The automatic and reaction‘ plates may be
force, and at the same time has wearing qualities . actuated away from each other by .any suitable
adapting it for this purpose. I prefer. however, speed-responsive mechanism, to produce clutch
to use the‘ types of material which in practice engagement, but in the present instance it pref
- have given very satisfactory results in automatic erably takes the form of a centrifugally oper
slipping drive and clutch mechanisms of the able mechanism. Preferably three weight levers
4l, having integrally formed heads 42,'are sym
“Power?o” type. One form of material, embody
10 ing colloidally associated copper particles and metrically arranged between the pairs of pres 10
powdered graphite, is disclosed in co-pending 1111- > sure springs 35, and have their heads 42 re
plication Serial No. 685,603 ?led August 1'7, 1933, ceived in rectangular recesses 43 formed in auto
_ '
and which is particularly suitable for use in the matic plate 23. -~
Each lever 4i isprovided with a pair of thread
present mechanism. Frictional facings l5 and.
15 l 6 may be secured to disc l4 in any suitable man
ed portions 44 to which is secured a weight ele~ 15
ner; as for instance by rivets or the like, and‘they, _
ment 45 by means of nuts 41.
along with disc M, will be hereinafter referred to
Levers 4| are of substantial width and extend
through recesses 48 formed. in reaction plate
24. Heads 42 are provided with ?at faces that
as a driven member.
Facing i5, secured to disc l4, cooperates with
20 the ?at driving face of flywheel 4 and is adapted
to be frictionally driven thereby. ‘ Facing 15, co
operates with a plate 23 which will be hereinafter
termed the automatic plate.
Secured to the ?ywheel. rim portion in any
25 suitable manner as for example by bolts 18 (Fig
ure 2) is a cover member l9 which carries on
its. inner wall driving lugs or key members 2|
which are preferably three in number and sym
metrically arranged about the inside of the cover.
30 The key‘members are received in and cooperate,
with the walls of recess 22 formed in automatic
plate 23.
Y
'
Disposed parallel to plate 23 is a plate 24, and
it will be hereinafter referred to as a reaction
,
normally abut the bottoms» of recesses 43 when 20
the driving shaft is operating at, or below-idling
speed, and by the term “idling speed”, I mean
the particularly desired automatic uncoupling or
disengaging speed of shaft 9, and if an internal
combustion engine is employed as the prime
mover, the idling speed will lie in the neighbor
hood of four‘ hundred to ?ve hundred revolutions
per minute.
.
_ ‘Heads 42 are also provided with reaction faces
49 which abut the face of reaction plate 24 at 30
all times, and are designedfor fulcruming en
gagement therewith during operation of the
weights.
.
Heads 42 have their outer sides relieved to
35 plate,» because it takes the reaction of a speed
responsive mechanism in “a manner to be pres
‘ ently described. Reaction plate 24 is driven by
provide knife-likeedges 50 which are adapted to 35
rock or pivot in the dihedral anglesde?ned by the
bottom and outer faces of recesses 43 formed in
automatic plate 23 through the medium of a
plurality of cap screws 21. Referring particu
40 larly to Figure 2, each cap screw 21 is provided.
automatic plate 23.
with a reduced end 28 that is threaded in auto
matic plate 23, and the thread employed is pref
erably of the Dardelet or other self-locking type
-
When shaft 3 is stationary, or is operating at
or below a speed corresponding substantially to 40
the idling speed of the prime mover employed
to drive it, the parts assume the positions in
which they are shown in Figure l.- Heads 112 of
levers 4! are clamped between plates 23 and 24.
under the in?uence of springs 35 acting against
and lie in the path of driving engagement with plate 24 and cap screws 21, and plate 24 is held
the walls of recesses 29 formed by reaction plate in the position shown, against the action of.
23, and are encircled by washers 3| and 'compres-;" springs 35 by means of a throwout mechanism
sion spring 32. Spring 32 acts against the head now to be described. ‘
Extending through apertures 5i formed in re
50 of bolt 21 and reacts against the plate 24 to
thereby urge the automatic and reaction plates action plate 24, and preferably symmetrically
so as to-prevent the cap screws from working
45 loose in operation. ' Cap screws 21 extend through,
55
disposed between the weight assemblies, are a
toward each other at all times, and they will ‘be
hereinafter referred to as holdback springs. The
holdback spring assemblies are preferably sym
plurality (three)
metrically‘ disposed in pairs about the periphery
of the bolts with respect to the reaction plate.
Referring in particular to Figures 1A and 13,
of the plate, and-in the present instance six are
employed. Theuholdback spring assemblies ac
' cordingly establish a driving connection between
the automatic and reaction plates, and at the
60 same time resiliently urge them toward each
other.
‘
\
'
Reaction spring. 24 is normally urged toward
of bolts 52 provided with
knurled portions which serve to prevent rotation
it will be seen that bolts 52 are provided with
slots 56 in the end of the bolts remote from the
reaction plate. The exterior of each bolt in this
region is threaded as indicated at 51 and is 00
adapted to have threaded thereon a castle nut
58 which may be locked in position uponv the bolt
the flywheel by a plurality of compression springs - by peening the nut within the slot formed in the
35, which are retained in position against plate
bolt.
24 by means of depressions 36 formed in the lat
in turn is adapted to bear against the cross head 65
ter.‘ Springs 35 react against the surface of
60 of a T-shaped member 5|, formed with a stem
52. As will be seen from Figures 1A and 1B, stem
52 is designed to lie within slot 56 adjacent
the castle nut 58. Cross head 60 of the T~shaped
member is adapted to extend through and out
wardly beyond the con?nes of bolt 52 as shown
cover l9, and are'centered thereon by means of
pressed out portions 31 formed in cover 13.
Springs 35 are preferably six in number and are
disposed'in substantially common radii with the
holdback assemblies.
'75
Reaction plate 24, how
Castle nut 58 abuts‘a washer 59 which '
ever, is normally held in the position shown in
Figure 1, against the action of springs 35, when
in Figure 1B.
the driving shaft is operating at or below the
idling speed of the engine or other prime mover,
The knife edge 63 abuts washer 59 within a re
cess 85 formed in the washer while knife edge 75
The cross head 60 is relieved as ’
indicated‘ at 63 and 64 -to provide knife edges.
4
2,115,212
64 serves a purpose to be presently disclosed.
Althoughnot shown in the drawings, due to di?i
culties of illustration, a slight clearance exists
between the T-shaped member and the walls of
tion, or are rotated in a clockwise direction about
pin ‘H into “completely released” position, the
line of contact existing between knife edge 84 and
recess 18 of the throwout ?nger will be rotated
the slot formed in bolt 52, for a reason to pres
about pin ‘II as a center either to the left or the
ently appear.
right of the “automatic” position. The angular
'
Mounted on pins 1| carried by brackets ‘I2 se
cured to a depressed portion "pf the cover mem
ber 18 is a plurality (three) of clutch- ?ngers 14
each of which at its upper end is provided with
bifurcated portions 15, which lie one on each side
of bolt 52. One face of each of the bifurcated
portions is recessed as shown at ‘I8 and is adapted
for contact with knife edge 84 of the T-shaped
15 member. The other edge of each bifurcated por
tion is rounded as indicated at 11 and is adapted
displacement which the line of contact undergoes
in the transition from “automatic” position to
"conventionally engaged" position is substantially
equal in magnitude to the angular displacement
occurring in the transition from “automatic” po-'
sition to "completely released" position and
differs only in the direction in which such dis
placement takes place with‘ respect to automatic
position.
It will be appreciated that when the line of con
to abut a washer 18 positioned on bolt 52 and - tact between knife edge 84 and the throwout
spaced from reaction plate 24 by means of a light
compression spring ‘I8. Bifurcated portions 15 of
lever undergoes angular displacement from “au
tomatic” position into either of the two positions
above described, the line of contact suffers a dis
20
the clutch lever are adapted through the T mem
ber SI and castle nut 58 to cause movement of re
action plate 24 toward or away from the ?ywheel
4 and washer 18 is designed to retract and hold
and vertical components. The horizontal com
ponent of such displacement is effective to cause
clutch ?ngers 14 against rattling when they are
not under the in?uence of springs 85.
Bolts 52 and nuts 58 are adapted to partially
extend through apertures 8| formed in cover
member l8, and the apertures are preferably of a
reciprocation 'of throwout bolts 52, and such hori
zontal component comprises by far the major
part of the resultant displacement which occurs.
The vertical component of displacement is but
very slight, and as previously described is effec
size su?icient to allow a wrench or the like to be
tive to cause the T-shaped member to rock slight
ly within slot 55 of bolt 52 in effect comprising 30
applied to nut 58 for adjustment purposes.
Throwout ?ngers 14 and throwout bolts 52
which are symmetrically disposed about the pe
riphery of the reaction plate are staggered with
respect to the centrifugal weight assemblies, and
in the present instance three throwout ?ngers
and bolts are employed.
-
Movement of the inner ends of ?ngers 14 to the
left in Figure 1, through the intermediary of bolts
52, causes actuation of plate 24 away from the
flywheel against the action of springs 85Yand this
in turn produces similar movement of plate 28
because the holdback assemblies hold the two
plates in unitary relationship at all times. Con
versely, movement of the inner ends of ?ngers 14
to the right as seen in Figure 1 allows movement
of the automatic and reaction plates as a unit
toward the ?ywheel under the in?uence of
springs 85.
Rotation of the throwout ?ngers in the manner
just described is e?ective to cause reciprocation
of throwout bolts 52 in a smooth and even man
ner by virtue of the fact that each knife edge 58
is at all times in line contact along the same line
with recess 85 of its washer 58,- and each knife
edge 64 is at all times in contact along the same
line with recess 18 of its throwout ?nger. Con
stant line contact between each knife edge 88 and
each washer 58 is insured since neither’the knife
edge nor the washer undergo any vertical dis
placement. Constant line contact between knife
edge 84 and recess 18 of the throwout ?nger is in
sured since recess 18 undergoes only a slight ver
tical displacement of approximately .004 inch
during rotation of the throwout ?nger, and knife
edge 84 is allowed to undergo a similar vertical
displacement by virtue of the slight clearance
previously described existing between the T mem
ber 58 and the walls of slot 55 of bolt 52.
‘With the throwout levers and bolts disposed in
70 “automatic position" as seen in‘ Figure 1, line con
tact between knife edge 84 and the throwout lever
exists in a perpendicular plane passing through
the axis of pin ‘II. If the throwout ?ngers are
now rotated in a counter-clockwise direction
15 about pin ‘II into v“conventionally engaged” posi
placement whichmay be resolved into horizontal
lost motion.
It is thus seen that even minute
rocking motion of the throwout ?ngers is trans
lated into an almost identically equal linear mo
tion of the throwout bolts with substantially no
friction as only a slight loss of motion occurs due 35
to the rocking of the T-shaped member within
the throwout bolt slots.
‘
Actuation of ?ngers ‘I4 is effected by means of
a throwout assembly that will now be described.
Cooperating with curved faces" 83 formed on 40
?ngers ‘I4 is the ?at face of a ball race 84, which
cooperates with anti-friction balls 85 disposed
between race 84 and a cooperating ball race 86.
Ball races 84 and 88 are held in assembled rela-\
tion with respect to each other by means of a 45
combined retainer and reservoir de?ning mem
ber 81. The bearing assembly is preferably pack
ed with lubricant during assembly. Ball race 88
is rigidly mounted upon a sleeve 88 which is
adapted for axial movement on a sleeve 18 mount 50
ed concentrically with respect to shaft 8 in a
manner to be presently set forth.
,
A sealing member 88 is secured to sleeve 88 and
frictionally cooperates with ball race 84 so as to
retain the lubricant in the bearing. Sleeve 88 is 55
provided with lugs 88 which cooperate with
throwout ?ngers 84 rigidly carried by a throw
out shaft 85. Shaft 85 is preferably journalled
in, and extends outwardly of clutch housing I,
and is adapted to be actuated by mechanism to
be hereinafter described.
Although I have disclosed a speci?c throwout
assembly in connection with my invention, it is
to be understood that any suitable throwout
mechanism having a face that is substantially 65
normal to the clutch axis for cooperating with the
inner ends of ?ngers ‘I4 may be employed if de
sired, and a thoroughly practical mechanism ob‘
tained.
Shaft 85 is preferably adjustably held by any
suitable mechanism in such a position that the
throwout bearing assembly will hold the parts in
the positions in which they are shown in Figure
1 when driving shaft 8 is stationary or is operat
ing at or below a predetermined'idling speed of
5,110,211:
_.
.
5
extent. During the disengaging opera
the prime mover'utilised therewith when it is miles:
tionthe-riding face'ofiatch lllridesupon edge
desired to obtain normal, or speed-responsive _ lllof'plate-lil.
clutch operation. Under these conditions,’v a
clearance exists between the plates and there is trollingtheprimaryclutchiseaentialaswillbe
Manualactimtbnoftheclutchpedelforcon
accordingly no driving connection between shafts
3 and
.
,
.
hereinafter pointed out in connection with the
>
operation of the transmission.
,
Any suitable latch in
may be asso
Automatic cperationpj primary
ciated with shaft OI or the. clutch pedal for hold- .
clutch
ing shaft 95 in the position shown in Figure l,
Acceleration of shaft 3 slightly above the idling 10'
10 but I preferably employ the mechanism disclosed speed of the prime mover does not cause actuation
.in Figure 5.
of the weights because springs 32 hold them in
As seen in this figure, shaft 95 extends out
check. As driving shaft 3, and ?ywheel l are
wardly from housing" I. A clutch pedal Ill pro
of v
accelerated to a speed substantially in excess
‘
vided with a split hub II! is mounted for. rotation idling speed, which is determined by the strength is
of springs 32, the mass of weights 4!, the pro
15 with shaft 85 by means of a bolt I03 which rig
idly clamps split huh II! to the shaft. -Also portions of the parts. and other factors, weights
mounted for rotation with shaft 95 is a lever Ill ‘6 gradually swing or rock outwardly about their
which is thereto keyed. A link IDS is secured to , knife-edges II as axes in response to centrifugal
‘the upper end of lever “II by means of apin force. As this occurs, reaction faces 4! of heads
106. Link I05, provided with a riding face I" 42 fulcrum and slide on the face of plate 2|, and
and a latching face ll'l, extends through an knife edges II, by virtue of their engagement and
aperture I" ‘located in, and cooperates with fulcruming action upon the flat bottom sur
' latching edge or portion I09 of aplate I I0 secured faces of recesses 43 located in automatic plate 23,
to the ?ywheel housing inany suitable manner. force the automatic plate away from reaction
Plate H0 is provided with an apertured finger plate 24 against the action of holdback springs
25 ill to which a tension spring “2 is secured, the 32, and into engagement with facing I‘ of disc
spring at its other.end being secured to an'aper
I‘, thus causing disc ll to move axially and bring
tured member Ill which is swiveled on a pin ill the facing I! thereof into contact with the fly
carried by latch member I05. Spring “2 tends
to hold link I05 in contact with latch portion
Movement of automatic plate 21 away from re
It! at all times. An actuating wire “5 extends action member 24 is opposed by holdback springs
wheel.
-
I
-
_
.
through an aperture in pin |H_an_d is secured-) 32, and therefore weights II are held under ccn
therein in any suitable manner. Wire “5 ex
trol. Holdback springs 32, therefore, in addition
tends upwardly and is encased in a ?exible hous- ' to predetermining the speed of the mechanism
ing member Ill, which terminates short of , the ' at which automatic engaging operation is in
latch assembly so that movement of member II!
will not kink wire I [5. Wire H5 and housing Ill itiateiexert a steadying in?uence upon the clutch
constitutethe well known Bowden wire structure '
which is led up to the vehicle dashboard H8 and
.40
is thereto secured in any suitable manner. Wire
“5 adjacent the dashboard is provided with a
knob “9 which may be withdrawn to lift latch
member I05 with its latching face I01 clear of
latch portion ll! of the bracket “ii, to effect en
gagement of the clutch ,independently of cen
45
trifugal action as will now be set forth.
>
The parts are shown in Figure 5 as they appear
when clutch pedal III .is latched against rotation
by means of link I05 and bracket ill. ‘When the
parts are held in this position the throwout mech
anism assumes'the position shown in Figure 1,
and if the engine is operating at idling speed, the
clutch will be disengaged as shown in this ?gure.
The parts are normally held in’ this position when
clutch is being utilized as air automatic clutch,
55. the
and it will accordingly be hereinafter termed
“automatic position”.
‘
Shaft 95 may be released to allow rotation
Pa m -
.
-
.
After‘ the driven member is thus frictionally
clamped or gripped between automatic plate 23 40
and ?ywheel I movement of plate 23 issubstan
tially arrested and further rocking movement of
weights 4‘, in response'to a further increase in
centrifugal force, causes faces" of heads 42 to
force reaction plate 21‘ away from the ?ywheel 45
against the action of springs 35. Movementvof
plate 24 in this manner causes pressure‘to slowly
'build up in springs II and a‘ corresponding pres
sure is built up between the edges SI of heads
42 and the bottoms of the recesses in, automatic 60
plate 2;. This action causes the plate pressure
to build up comparatively slowly, with the result
that the clutch smoothly picks up shaft 9.
When shaft I and ?ywheel 4 attain a predeter-i
mined speed the plate pressure builds up suffi
ciently to establish a non-slipping drive between
shafts l and I, This speed is determined by the
magnitude of the torque transmitted by the
clutch, as under heavy loads, the speed will be
thereof and reciprocation of the throwout bear‘ higher than that required to establish a non-slip
ing assembly for causing manual engagement or ping drive when the load is light. When a still
60 disengagement of the primary clutch by drawin?
higher predetermined speed is attained, weights
‘
vcontrol knob
IIQ outwardly‘ away from the ve
4. ‘rock out into contact with flanges formed on ‘ '
hicle dashboard. Such operation lifts link ill plate II, and‘are thereby arrested.
andits latching ‘face out of engagement with
I My mechanism embodies a selective transmis
latching bracket 1 II to allow springs 35 to force sion and a semi-automatic transmission arranged
plates 23 and 24 to the left as a unit, which brings in series, and in order to distin'gill?l the two in
plate ?linto engagement with the driven mem
the description, the former will be termed the
ber. This results in movement of the throwout selective gear box and latter will be termed the
assembly to the .right and effects ‘rotation of transmission although it is understood that this 70'
shaft .5.
‘
.
_
_ i
The parts may then be restored to automatic terminology is purely arbitrary.
position by manually de
chitch pedal Ill
and retracting knob I". The primary clutch
maybeatanytime,atthewillofthe
operator by d
the clutch pedal to its
With continued reference to Figure 1, housing‘
lisjoined at its rear end toahousing III which
is
6
2,115,212
encloses the rear portion of the automatic trans
mission, and is secured thereto in any suitable
manner as for example by bolts I29. Sleeve 18,
which supports the throwout bearing assembly
of the primary clutch, is at its rear end provided
with a flange I3I which is secured to housing
I28 in any suitable manner as for example by
means of bolts I32. Housing I28 is provided with
inwardly extending partition forming walls I34
which are adapted to accommodate a ball bear
ing assembly I35 designed to support an enlarged
portion I36 of shaft 6.
A snap ring I36 is designed to be accommo
dated within a groove formed in the outer race
15 of ball bearing assembly I35, and the outer cir
cumferential portion of the snap ring is ac
with further teeth I13 for a purpose that will
presently appear. Member I 69 is journalled by
means ‘of bushings I14 and I15 upona counter
shaft I16 disposed parallel to shaft I46 and at
its forward end received in partition forming wall CI
I34 of housing ‘I28,v its rear end being secured
against rotation in a manner to be presently de
scribed. The forward end of collar I69 is spaced
from partition forming wall I34 by means of a
10
thrust washer I16.
Keyed to shaft I46‘to the rear of splines I5I is
a gear I6I provided with external teeth I82 which
lie in the plane of teeth I13 formed on collar I66
and are adapted to be geared thereto by means
of an idler reverse gear to be presently described.
Gear I8I is spaced from hub I 53 on shaft I46 by
commodated between the flange I3I of sleeve 16 \ means of thrust washer I83, and is thus prevent
and the partition forming wall I34. The outer ed from displacement in a forward direction.
race of bearing assembly I35 is thus retained The rear face of gear I8I abuts an enlarged por
20 in position with respect to the transmission hous
tion I84 of shaft I46, which prevents displace 20
ing by the action of split ring I38 and further ment of gear I M rearwardly. Portion I94‘. of
by the abutting action of ?ange I3I which over
shaft I46 is journalled in a ball bearing assembly
laps the outer bearing race. Received in a groove
I85 received within a partition forming wall
formed in enlarged portion I36 of shaft 9 adja
I66 which extends inwardly from housing £26.
25 cent the inner race of ball bearing assembly I35
The inner race of bearing I85 is retained in
is a snap ring I39.
The inner race of the ball
bearing- assembly is thus maintained in proper
axial position upon shaft 9 by the action of the
split ring and the enlarged portion I36 of shaft 9.
30
The portion of shaft 9 which extends into
housing I26 is enlarged and provided with exter
nal teeth I42 and internal teeth I 43.
Enlarged portion I 36 of shaft 9 is provided with
a bore I44, designed to accommodate the reduced
35 end I45 of a shaft I46; Reduced portion I45 is
journalled in bearings I41 which are adapted to
positionby means of a snap ring I81 accommo~
dated in a groove formed within enlarged portion
I84 of shaft I46 and an enlarged portion I68 of
shaft I46. The outer race of bearing I85 is re
tained in position by means of a snap ring I69 30
received in a groove in the outer bearing race, and
a plate member I9I, which is secured to the par
tition forming wall in any suitable manner, as
for example by bolts I92 and which extends in
wardly into overlapping relation with the outer
race. The outer portion of plate I9I extends
receive lubrication from bearing I35 by means of ’ into a recess I93 provided in the rear portion of
an oil groove I46 formed in portion I36 of shaft shaft I16 previously described and is effective in
9. The rear end-of shaft I46 is supported in a
Shaft I46 is
40 manner to be presently described.
provided with splines I5I, and bearings I41 are
adapted to be positioned away from the splines
by means of a spacer ring I52.
Rotatably mounted upon the rear portion of
45 splines I 5I is a hub I53, provided with external
teeth I54, and having a forward extension I55
provided with internal teeth I56. The forward
wall of hub I53 is adapted to abut a collar I51
mounted on splines I5I and which in turn abuts
a snap ring I58 accommodated within a groove
formed in the splines, the hub I53 in this man
ner being prevented from displacement in a for
ward direction on shaft I46.
Splined on shaft- I46, between hub I53 and the
55 expanded portion I“ of shaft 9 is a sliding clutch
I6I provided with a ?ange I62 having an en
larged groove I63 for receiving the fingers of a
shifter fork to be presently described. The for
ward portion of sliding clutch I6I is provided with
external teeth I64 and the rear portion thereof
is provided with external teeth I65, the teeth I64
being adapted to mesh with internal teeth I43
_ formed on expanded portion “I of shaft 9, and
the teeth I65 being adapted to mesh with the in
ternal teeth I66 formed on hub I53. With the
parts disposed in the position shown in Figure 1,
sliding clutch I6I is disposed in its neutral posi
tion, neither teeth I64 nor I65 cooperating with
the internal teeth just described.
70
External teeth I42 formed on the expanded
portion “I of shaft 9 are adapted to mesh with
teeth I68 formed on a cluster gear member I69,
which is also provided with teeth "I adapted to
mesh with external teeth I64 formed on hub I63.
76 Member I69, to the rear of teeth "I, is‘ provided
this manner to prevent rotation of said shaft.
Concentric about shaft I16 and lying against par 4.0
tition forming wall I86, is thrust washer I94
which is adapted to space collar I69 from the
partition forming wall.
From the structure thus far described, it will
be readily appreciated that when shaft 9 rotates
external teeth I42 formed thereon will drive
gear I68 to cause rotation of member I69 about
stationary shaft I16. Rotation of member I 69
is accordingly effective to produce rotation of
teeth “I thereon formed which mesh with teeth 50
I 54 and thereby cause rotation of hub I53. Thus
any rotation of shaft 9 is effective to cause si~
multaneous rotation of collar I69 and hub I53.
With the parts disposed in the position shown
in Figure 1, rotation of the elements in the man
ner just described is ineffective to cause rotation
of shaft I46, due to the fact that hub I53 is freely
mounted upon shaft I46. However, should slid
ing clutch I6I be reciprocated in a forward direc
tion so as to bring external teeth I 64 thereon 50
formed into meshing engagement with teeth I43
formed on shaft 9, any rotation of shaft 9 would
be effective to cause rotation of shaft I46 since
teeth I43 and I 64 would act in effect as keys to
lock shafts 9 and I46 for unitary rotation. Dur 65
ing such operation, collar I69, of course, rotates
and causes hub I53 to merely "idle" about shaft
I46, as there is no driving connection between
hub I63 and shaft I46.
If, however, with the parts disclosed in the 70
positions disclosed in Figure 1, sliding clutch I6I
is reciprocated rearwardly to bring external teeth
I66 thereon into meshing engagement with in
ternal teeth I66 formed on hub I63, rotation of
shaft 9, by means of teeth I42 and I68, and in 76
7.
2,115,212
' turn through the medium of teeth In and m.
will be effective to cause rotation 'of hub I63'
through a speed reduction gear ratio. As hub I63
is effectively keyed to shaft I46 by means of
teeth I66, I66 and splines I6I, any rotation of
the hub is effective to transmit torque to shaft
I46. Thus, under these conditions, rotation of
shaft 22I is a sliding clutch 222 comprising a
collar 223 and a gear 224. This gear will herein
after be termed the reverse idler gear. Reverse
clutch 222 is mounted for reciprocation on re
verse shaft 22I by means of a bushing 226. Go
operating with collar 223 of the reverse gear is a
shifter fork 226 provided with fingers v 221.
Shifter fork 226 is provided with a hub 226, which
transmitted to shaft I46 is amplified since gear is rigidly mounted for movement with a shaft 229
by means of a set screw 23I-, which is held in set 10
10 I42 is ofiess diameter than gear I66 and gear, position by means of a wire 232 extending about
I'll is of less diameter than gear» I64.
Although I have illustrated a gear box having a a projection 233 formed on hub 226. Projection
single forward gear reduction, and I prefer to 222 extends upward In parallel relation to pro
use this arrangement, it is to be understood that jection2II of hub 203, and terminates in a gear ,
234,~which is disposed in the same horizontal 15
if desired a further ‘set of gears may be provided rack
plane as gear rack 2I2. Shaft 226, as seen in
to give either a further gear reduction or an Figure '1, is at its forward end adapted to re—
voverdrive ratio, without departing from the spirit ciprocate within a bore 226 formed in partition
of my invention.
I34 and at its rear end is~adapted for re
In either of the two selected operations just wall
ciprocation in a bore 236 ‘formed inboss 209 of 20
described, which are effective to cause simulta20 neous‘ rotation of shaft I46 with shaft 6, it is seen partition wall I66. Shafts" 228 and 206 are thus_ »
mounted for similar reciprocation with respect to
that shaft I46 rotates in the same direction as
housing I26.
v
shaft 9. If, however, it is desired to cause shaft transmission
Shaft 228 is adapted to be selectively positioned
I46 to rotate ina direction the reverse of the with respect to the transmission housing by
direction in which shaft 6 is rotating, this may means of a ball detent 231 located in a bore 238
26
be accomplished through the‘ medium of collar formed in extension 2" ‘previously described, and
I68 and gear I6I, which may be selectively caused is urgedby means of a light compression spring‘
to rotate simultaneously by. means of a reverse 239 into any one of two depressions 2“ formed
idler gear, to be presently described. The shifter -' on the shaft. The ball detent assembly just de 30
30 mechanism for actuating ‘sliding clutch I6I will scribed is similar both in structure and function
now be described together with the reverse shifter to the ball detent assembly described in connec
' mechanism and controls therefor.
with shaft 266, but is provided with only
with continued reference to Figure 1, and with tion
two depressions corresponding respectively to‘
‘reference to Figures 6 and '1, it will be seen that
and reverse position. From the struc
‘sleeve I6I is adapted for cooperation with‘ a neutral
ture thus far developed, it will be apparent that
35
shifter fork 20I , provided with fingers 262, which selective positioning of sliding clutch I6I may be
are disposed within groove I63 formed in sliding effected by lateral displacement of gear rack 2 I2,
clutch I6I'. Shifter fork 2" is provided with a
hub 203 which is adapted, by means of a set which by virtue of its rigid connection with shaft
causes displacement of the, shaft into select 40
screw 204, to be rigidly secured to a shaft 206. 206,
ed position where it is yieldingly maintained
40 The end of shaft 206 disposed toward the for
through the medium of ball detent 2I4.
‘ward end of the transmission, is adapted to re
As will be readily appreciated from an inspec
. ciprocate within a bore 261 formed in partition
tion
l, sliding clutch I6I may be dis
wall I64 of transmission housing I26. The end posedofinFigure
any
of
'three positions. _With the parts
of shaft 206 disposed toward the rear of the trans
45 mission is adapted to reciprocate within a bore disposed as shown in Figure 1, the clutch is dis
208 formed in a boss 266 on partition wall I66. posed in what will be known as "neutral? posi
Hub 203 of the shifter fork is provided with an tion, while if the clutch be shifted until teeth ‘I64
mesh with teeth I43 of shaft 6, it will be
extension 2“, which at its upper- extremity is thereof
disposed in what-will be known as "high” posi 50
,formed into a gear rack 2I2.
Shaft 266 is adapted to be selectively retained tion, and if the clutch be disposed with teeth I65
in its selected longitudinal positions with respect thereof in meshed engagement with teeth I66 of
to the transmission housing by means of a ball hub I63, it will be disposed in'what will be.
* detent 2“ located within a bore‘ no formed in known as "low” position. As there are three
an extension 2" integral with transmission selective positions for sliding clutch I6I, three 55.
55 housing I26.‘ Ball 2I4 is urged by a spring 2I5 depressions 2I3 are formed in shaft 206 in order
that detent 2“ may hold shaft 206 in any one of
into any one of three longitudinally spaced de
pressions 2I3 formed on shaft 206. The depres the three selected positions.
Referring now to the mechanism for estab
sions. correspond to direct drive, neutral and
lishing reverse drive of shaft I46, it will be ap- '
geared drive.
‘
In Figure 6, gears I3I, I13 and a reverse gear preciated that reciprocation of the reverse clutch
presently to be described are indicated for clarity 222 may be effected by lateral displacement of
of illustration in phantom lines, to show their gear rack 234 and shaft 226 rigidly assembled
position with respect to each other, although the therewith. Thus it is possible to bring reverse
gear 224 into meshing engagement with gears
gears do not actually lie in the plane of the illus
I13 and I62 or to bring gear 224 out of' engage
tration, but are located in fact between the ob
~ment with said gears. It will therefore be ap
server and the plane of the illustration.
, shaft 6 produces rotation of shaft I46 and torque
Positioned parallel to shaft I46 and I16, and
disposed in the same horizontal plane with shaft
I16 is a shaft 22I having its forward end sup
ported in a web 226 extending inwardly from
housing I26 and at its rear end supported in' a
manner ‘similar to countershaft I16, with its
rear end locked against rotation in partition waif
75
I86.
preciatedthat there are only'two selective posi
tions for the reverse sliding clutch‘ 222, and in
consequence it is necessary to provide only two 70
‘depressions 2“ in shaft 220 in order that detent
231 may retain shaft 226 in either of its selected
‘ positions.
With reverse‘ clutch 222 disposed in the position
Mounted for rotation and reciprocation on ' disclosed in Figure 1, they clutch will be said to
15
8
9,115,212
be in its "neutral" position. However, should the
collar 222 be disposed so as to bring gear 224 into
engagement positively with gears I13 and I82,
the reverse collar 222 will be said to be disclosed
in its “positive” position.
From the reverse structure thus far described,
it will be readily apparent that if sliding clutch
I6! be disposed in “neutral” position, that is the
position indicated in Figure l, and the reverse
10 sliding clutch 222 be disposed in its “positive”
position, rotation of shaft 9 is effective through
teeth I42 and IE8 to cause rotation of collar I89
in a reverse direction and this collar, by means of
teeth I13 and reverse gear 224 is effective to cause
rotation of the reverse idler gear in the same di
rection as shaft 9 is rotating. Rotation of gear
224 in this direction is effective through teeth I82
to cause rotation of gear I 8| in a reverse direc
tion with respect to shaft 9 and, as gear l8I is
keyed to shaft I46, such rotation of gear I8I will
be effective to cause shaft I46 to rotate in a re
verse direction with respect to shaft 9. It will
thus be appreciated that by proper manipulation
of gear racks H2 and 234, shaft 9 may be made
to cause shaft I46 to rotate in a direction im
parting reverse drive to the wheels of the vehicle.
Actuation of gear racks H2 and 234 in the
manner just described is e?ected by means of a
segmental pinion gear 245 provided with teeth
30 246, which by means of a pin 241 is secured on
the reduced end of a shaft 248. Shaft 248 is
adapted to be reciprocated and rotated within a
bore 249 formed in a cylindrical housingyZSI.
Shaft 248 and gear segment 245 are urged to the
35 left as seen in Figure 6 by means of a spring 252,
disposed within bore 249, and which at one end
bears against a shoulder 253 formed on cylindri
cal housing 25I and at its other end bears against
a shoulder formed on shaft 248.
40
Cylindrical housing 252 is integrally formed
‘with a cover plate 254 which is adapted to be se
cured to bosses 256 formed on housing I28 in
any suitable manner as for example by bolts 251
or the like. Cover 254 is spaced from bosses 256
45 by means of a gasket member 258. It will thus
be apparent that plate cover 254 is elfective to
close aperture 268 formed within the transmis
sion housing I28. However, by the simple ex
pedient of removing bolts 251 and withdrawing
50 cover plate 254. from the transmission housing,
opening 268 will be exposed, and access may be
had therethrough to the high and low shifter
mechanism or to the reverse shifter mechanism
tion of shaft 248, to which the sector member is
secured, and segmental gear 245. Such rotation
of gear 245 when teeth 246 and 2 I2 are in meshing
engagement as shown in Figure 6 is effective to
cause displacement of the shifter fork 28I into its
various operative positions in the manner previ
ously described. Should it be desired however to
effect displacement of the reverse shifter fork 226,
it is only necessary to cause lateral displacement
of shaft 248 to the right (as shown in Figure 6)
until teeth 246 of gear 245 are meshed with gear
rack 234. Rotation of shaft 248 under such con
ditions is accordingly effective to cause selective
displacement of reverse shifter fork'226. It will
be observed that under ordinary conditions gear 15
245 is urged to the left (as seen in Figure 6) by
virtue of ‘the fact that compression spring 252
constantly tends to displace shaft 248 to the left.
Rotation and reciprocation of shaft 248 within
bore 249 in the manner just described may be
effected by means of sector gear 264 in a manner
to be now described.
To housing section 26I is secured a mating sec
tion 28I adapted to house the assembly for actu
ating gear sector 264 and secured to section 26I 25
in any suitable manner, as for example by means
of cap screws 282 or the like. Extending inwardly
from the wall of section 28I is a longitudinal boss
283 having a bore 284 adapted to accommodate,
for reciprocation and rotation therein, a cylindri 30
cal rack member 285 on which are formed rack
teeth 286 designed for meshing engagement with
the teeth of sector gear 268.
One end of housing 26I is provided with an
opening 281 to facilitate accessto the interior of 35
the housing during manufacture, and this opening
is adapted to be closed by means of a cover 288
which is secured in place within the opening.
Rigidly secured to one end of the cylindrical
gear rack, by means of a recessed soldered con
nection, is a control cable 298 which enters hous
40
ing 28I by way of a sheath anchoring assembly
29!. Control cable 298 is specially constructed
so that it possesses substantially no torsional de
?ection under the loads to which it is subjected, 45
and as cables of this character are known in the
art, it will not be further described.
Control
cable 288 enters a sheath 293 and is led up to the
vehicle dash-board. Adjacent the vehicle dash
board, the cable is rigily connected to a control
knob 294. Control knob 294 is connected to a
plunger 295, to which cable 293 is secured in a
manner similar to its connection to rack 285, and
previously described for adjustment or servicing. plunger .285 is mounted for reciprocation and
Cylindrical housing 25I adjacent, its end re
rocking movement in a bracket 296. The latter is
mote from transmission housing £28 is enlarged connected to the vehicle dash 291 by means of a
to form a casing member, indicated at 28I. The resilient bushing 298, so as to prevent transmis
reduced end 262 of shaft 248 extends into the sion vibrations from being communicated to the
casing 26I, and by means of a pin 263, a sector dash instruments, 8. pin 299 connected to plunger
60 gear 284 is secured onto the reduced shaft‘ end.
285 and working in an enlarged slot in bracket
Sector gear 284, having a gear track 285, is pro
288 is operable to prevent excessive strains being
vided with a ?ange 286 which lies adjacent one set up in cable 298 through improper actuation of
side of the gear rack. The other side of the gear knob 284. Tube 283 extends into bracket 296 and
rack is enclosed by a plate member 281 which is is adjustably related thereto by means of a nut
65 secured to sector member 284 in any suitable
and screw assembly 888, for securing the proper
manner. Plate member 281 extends below ‘the working length of the cable after the device has
reduced end 262 of shaft 248 as seen at 288 and been installed in the vehicle.
.
'
is provided with an arcuately formed recess 288.
Control knob 284 may be either rotated upon
A boss 215 is formed on the inside of casing manual twisting thereof by the vehicle operator
70 258 and held there-against is a disc member 218 ‘or may be reciprocated toward and away from the
which is retained in place by means of a bolt 211 vehicle dash-board and such actuation of the
having a nut 218 threaded thereon.
knob is effective, through the medium of control
With the parts disposed in the position shown wire 288, to cause corresponding rotation or re
in Figure 8, it willv be appreciated that rotation of . ciprocation of cylindrical rack 285 within bore 284.
76 sector member 284 will be effective to cause rota
Rotation of cylindrical rack 285 within its bore
55
60
65
70
75
2,115,212
9
,
results in lateral displacementeor reciprocation of
which is, spaced from needle bearings 383 by
sector gear 264 since under such conditions teeth
286 on the cylindrical rack, which are in meshing
means of a ring 381.
engagement with teeth 265 on the sector gear, are
urged intoabutting engagement with either ?ange
266 or plate 261 which enclose opposite sides of
gear track 265, and in this manner will cause re
ciprocation of the sector gear and shaft 248 into
I
Disposed concentrically about the rear portio
of shaft I46 and the forward portion of shaft 385
is a pinion carrier or cage member 389, the for
ward portion 3I8 of which is mounted for rotation
about enlarged portion I88 of shaft I46 by means -
of roller bearings 3II. Bearings .3“ provided
with an outer race 312, are spaced from ball
either of their operative positions.
Reciprocation of cylindrical rack 285 within its bearing assembly I85 by means of a bearing guard 10,
10
bore results in rotation of sector gear 264, since
under such conditions the elements cooperate as
a simple rack and pinion fortranslating linea
motion into rotary motion.
v
v
>
295 in the manner just described is thus effective
through the medium of sector gear 264 to cause
secured to cage 389 and sealingly cooperates with
shaft 385 to prevent lubricant ‘from working
therebetween and getting into the secondary
corresponding rotation and reciprocation of shaft
248 with resulting actuation of the control shafts
286 or 229 in the gear box and selective condition
ing of the latter for transmission of torque there
through. Thus it will be appreciated that con
20
ent invention, it will not be ‘further described.
Cage member 389 is- provided with preferably
two openings 322 in each of which is disposed a
Rotation and reciprocation'of cylindrical rack
15
ditioning of the gear box is at all times under the
Y complete control of the vehicle operator who may
25 at will selectively actuate knob 294 on the vehicle
dash-board for any condition of torque transmis
sion through the gear box.
With the parts ofthe mechanism disposed in
the position shown in Figures 6 and 8, reciproca
tion of shaft 248 within bore 249 may be readily
effected. ‘It will be‘ appreciated, however, that if
so
3 I3, and are spaced from gear teeth 381 by means
of a bearing guard 3“. The rear'portion 3I1 of
cage member 389 extends inwardly toward shaft
385 to form a hub, and an oil seal assembly 3I8 is‘
sector member 264 should be rotated so that re
15
clutch chamber. Seal 3I8 may bev of any suitable
form, ‘and as it per se forms no part of the pres
gear member 323 mounted for free rotation about
a shaft 324 by means of a. bushing 325. Each
shaft 324 is-secured at both its forward and rear 25
ward end within the cage member 389 with a
friction fit, as indicated at 326. Each gear mem
ber or pinion 323 is spaced from the walls of ‘cage
member 389 by means of anti-friction discs 321
and 328 respectively, and is provided with exter
30
ml teeth 338 which are adapted for meshing en- -
gagement with external teeth 38I formed on the
cess 269 in plate 261 would no longer be aligned rear ‘end of shaft I46. Pinion 323 is further
with disc 216, reciprocation of shaft 248 length \ provided with external teeth 333 which are adapt 35
wise within bore 249 would be prohibited as plate ed to mesh with teeth 386 formed on the forward
end of shaft 385. Lubrication of bushing vmem
268 would abut disc 216. It-is thus-seen that re
ciprocation of shaft 248 is prevented unless sector bers 325 is effected by means of an oil ‘slot 335
formed in pinions 323.
‘ member 264 and plate 261 thereto fastened is dis
Gears MI, 386, 33I, and 333 may be of the
posed in the particular angular position shown in common
vspur variety of desired, but 1 preferably 40
40 Figure 8, with recess 269 aligned with disc 216.
helical gears so as to promote‘ quietness of
However, with the parts disposed in the position employ
operation. Although it is possible to design the
‘ shown in Figures 6 and 8,'shifter fork 28I is in its
“neutral” position and His thus seen that shaft
3 45
248 may not be reciprocated to bring gear 245 into
meshing engagement with gear rack 234 to cause
' actuation of the reverse shifter fork 226 to‘ posi
tive reverse position unless shifter fork 28I is dis
gears so that the axial thrusts set up thereby com~
pletely balance each ‘other, I preferably so design
the gears that there is a slight unbalance of thrust 45
applied to cage 388, because if the thrusts
were
completely
balanced
or “‘neutralized",
the assembly would possibly have a tendency to
posed in its neutral position. It is therefore im
produce noise.
\
possible to shift the parts into reverse drive unless “?oat’?and
Rotatably mounted in housing I28 by means 0
sliding clutch IN is in its neutral position.
It will further be appreciated that if shaft 248 » a bearing 3“ and piloted on cage member 389 is a.
and gear 249 are in meshing engagement with cylindrical sleeve 343', which is secured to cage
388 by means of cap screws 342. Sleeve 343 is
gear rack 234 to dispose reverse shifter 226 in re
concentric
with and spaced from-shaft 385 and
verse position, it will be impossible to reciprocate
both the inner and outer faces of sleeve 343 are
shaft. 248 in bore 249 until the reverse shifter fork cylindrical
in con?guration.
,
226 is brought into its neutral position. The
Concentric
with
sleeve
343,
as
seen
in
Figure
3,
, mechanism just described therefore comprises an I
a collar member 344 provided with internal
automatic and fool proof interlock for preventing is
bosses 345 having camming faces 346. Disposed
both the forward and reverse shifter forks and between each camming face 346 and the exterior
sliding clutches from being disposed simultane
face of sleeve 343 are roller members 341. Collar
ously in positive operative, position because of 344
is closely fltted'in a cylindrical housing or supcarelessness or inadvertence on the part of the port ‘348, which is flanged as shown at 349.
-_ vehicle operator.
Flange 349 is piloted in a cylindrical recess 358
formed in transmission housing I28, and is se
- , Automatic transmission and related mechanisms
The enlarged portion I88 of shaft I46 is pro
vided at its rear extremity with external teeth
‘3M, and is provided with a bore 382 in which is
70 journalled, by means of bearings 383, the‘ reduced
end portion 384 of a shaft 385.
Shaft 385 at its
‘ rear extremity is supported in a bearing in a
manner to be hereinafter disclosed. Shaft 385, to.
the rear of reduced portion 384, is provided with
.78 a preferablyintegrally formed external gear 386,
50
55
60
_
cured to the latter in any suitable manner, as for
example by cap screws 35I or the like. In order
to prevent ?uid leakage between ?ange 349 and
housing I28, a gasket member 352 is preferably
interposed therebetween. Collaror clutch race 70
344 is locked against rotation in its support. 348
by means of a plurality of keys which take the
form of three‘ pins 355 (Figure 3) disposed in re
cesses in the two parts.
‘
'
.
c
As seen in Figure 3, each roller 341 is urged in 78
10
2,115,212
a counter-clockwise direction by means of a
plunger 362, received within a cylindrical sleeve
ing mechanism is as follows: When rotational
tendencies are transmitted through the primary
363 accommodated in a bore 363 formed in collar
clutch and the gear box to rotate shaft I46 in ~a
clockwise direction as viewed from the left of
Figure l. pinion 301 formed on the rear end of
shaft I36 tends to cause counter-clockwise rota
member 3“. Each plunger 362 is provided with
a head 363 adapted to abut its corresponding
roller 331. Each plunger and head is urged away
from sleeve member 333, for urging each roller
into engagement with its camming face, by means
of a light compression spring 366.
'
The rear end of support 333 is provided with an
oil seal assembly 356 which sealingly cooperates
with the outer surface of sleeve 333 to prevent
lubricant leakage between housing 333 and sleeve
333. Collar or clutch race 3“, and the outer race
15 of bearing 3“, are respectively prevented from
tion of planetary pinion 323, and, by means of
gear 306 formed on the forward end of shaft 305,
\to cause the planetary pinion to planetate rear
wardly or counter-clockwise about gear 306, 10
which is initially held stationary by the load.
The resulting tendency of cage 309 to rotate in
a counter-clockwise direction is prevented, how
ever, by means of one-way clutch rollers 331 in
the manner previously described.
‘
a snap ring 361 accommodated in a groove formed
Accordingly, counter-clockwise rotation of
planetary pinion 323 therefore causes clockwise
in housing 333. A shoulder 363 formed on sleeve
rotation of gear 306 and shaft 305. Torque is
displacement in a forward direction by means of
333 prevents rollers 331 from shifting forwardly._
20 Collar 3“ is prevented from displacement rear
wardly by abutting contact with the ball bearing
assembly 363, the outer race of which is adapted
to abut a shoulder formed onhousing 333, and the
inner race of which is adapted to abuta snap ring
353 accommodated in a groove in sleeve 333.
,Sleeve 333 is prevented from shifting rearwardly
15
thus transmitted through the torque multiplying
mechanism, and as gear 311i is of less diameter
than gear 33i of the planetary pinion, and gear
333 of the planetary pinion is of less diameter
than gear 306, it will be appreciated that torque
transmitted from shaft “6 to shaft 305 in the
manner just described undergoes a double am
pli?cation.
in bearing 3“ by means of a snap ring 360 which
After the load has been started and attains a
is sprung into a groove located in sleeve 333 and
predetermined speed under the in?uence of the
torque multiplying drive just described, the
engages the front face of bearing 33!.
From the structure thus far described, and transmission may be shifted to establish a direct
with attention directed particularly to Figure 3 ' drive between shafts I36 and 305, and the mech
of the drawings, it will be appreciated that if anism employed for effecting this result will now
sleeve 333, and cake or spider 303, which will be be described.
hereinafter collectively termed the carrier, tends
Secondary clutch mechanism
to be rotated in a counter-clockwise direction
Secured to the rear face of‘sleeve 333, and
with respectv to collar 333, rollers 331 will be
wedged between the exterior face of sleeve 333 mounted for rotation therewith in any suitable
and the camming face 336 of collar 3“. Under manner, as for example by bolts 310, is a web 3"
such conditions, with the rollers wedged as just of a flywheel-like member 312. Positioned with
40 described, sleeve 333 is locked against counter
in the ?ywheel and mounted concentrically about
clockwise rotation and such action occurs under shaft 305 is a plate 313 which will hereinafter
be termed the automatic plate.
,
certain special conditions of operation to be here
Automatic plate 313 is adapted for rotation
inafter disclosed in detail.
>
with ?ywheel 312 and for’longitudinal reclpro-I
If, however,.sleeve 333 should tend to be ro
45 tated in a clockwise direction withrespect to col
cation therein by means of internal splines 383
formed on the ?ywheel and external splines 334
lar 3“, rollers 331 will tend to disengage them
selves from camming surface 333 against the formed on the automatic plate, which mesh
action of plungers 362 and will be urged out of therewith.
Threaded into self-locking engagement in plate
wedging engagement between sleeve 333 and col
lar 333. Under such conditions sleeve 333 will be 313 as indicated at 313, and extending outwardly
allowed to rotate freely in a clockwise direction through openings 316 in the web of the ?ywheel
with respect to collar 333, and such action occurs and through disk plates 316 covering openings
316 is a plurality of bolts 311 which will herein
under normal operating conditions to be herein
after be termed “holdback bolts". Each hold-_
after described.
,
65
Since under normal operating conditions, sleeve back bolt 311 is provided with a head 313 against
333 is rotated in a clockwise direction, and since which bears a compression spring 313 that en
the surface of sleeve 333 which is in contact with ‘ circles bolt 31] and the other end of which bears
rollers 331 is cylindrical in configuration, it will ' against plate 316 previously described. The
beappreciated that no wear occurs between sleeve holdback bolt assemblies are preferably symmet
333 and roller 331 under normal conditions of rically disposed in pairs about the periphery of
operation, as it has been found that a wedge of ‘plate 313 and in the present instance, six may
be employed. It will thus be appreciated that
oil is formed in front-of each roller and substan
tially lifts it free and away from engagement automatic plate 313 is at all times urged toward
with sleeve 333. This is made possible‘by lo ' the ?ywheel web by means of springs 313.
Mounted upon a splined portion 335 of shaft
35 eating the rollers in a stationary member, so
that they will not manifest centrifugal forces.
and by using comparatively light springs for ac
tuating the rollers. This feature is of great im
portance and marks a distinct advance over prior
70 overrunning clutches or free wheeling units, which
under normal conditions of operation allow wear
to take place between the free wheeling rollers
and‘ the rotating parts, with the result that their
usefulness is greatly impaired.
76
.
Brie?y, the operation of the torque multiply
333 is a hub 331 provided with a ?ange 333 to
which is secured in any suitable manner as for
example by rivets 333 or the like, a disc member
330, the outer portion of which is disposed in
parallel relation to automatic plate 313.
70
Facings 33i and 332 are secured to the op
posite sides of the disk 330 and they may consist
of any material that has the required charac
teristics to give the correct frictional grip, but
they are preferably similar to facings I5 and i6
11
2,115,212
employed with driven disc 14 of the primary
clutch.
'
-
Facing 391 is adapted to cooperate with the
rear face of automatic plate 313, and facing 392 is
adapted to cooperate with the .front face of a
plate 393 which will be hereinafter termed the
“?oating” plate.
-
'
.
'Ihe floating plate is adapted for rotation‘ with
?ywheel 312 and for reciprocation therein by
10 means of external splines 394 formed on the
mechanism similar‘ to that disclosed in connec
tion with the primary clutch, and as the centrif
ugal mechanism of the secondary clutch is ‘simi
lar to the centrifugal mechanism previously de
scribed in connection with the primary clutch,
only brief description thereof will be made.
Preferably three weight levers 4| 1 provided with .
heads 412 having knlfeedges 413 are received
within recesses 414 formed in the automatic
Levers 411 extend through rectangular
?oating plate which cooperate with the internal slots 419 formed in the ?ywheel web, and at their 10
splines 393 formed on the ?ywheel as previously ' other ends carry weight assemblies 416 secured
described.
.
‘
A cover member 396 is located at the rear face
15 of ?ywheel 312 and is secured theretoin any suit
able manner, as for example by means of bolts
391 or the like. Through apertures 399 formed
in cover 396 extend a plurality of bolts 399, each
of which is provided with a reduced portion 491
20 which is threaded into self-locking engagement
with ?oating plate 393. 'Bolts 399 may be equal
plate.
thereto by means of nuts 411 or the like.
The
face of each head 412, remote from the bottom
of recess 414, is indicated at 419 and reacts against '
the web of the ?ywheel. With the ?ywheel oper
ating at or below a predetermined speed,- the force
exerted by compression springs 319 will be ample v
to prevent movement of the automaticplate 313
away from the web 311 of'the ?ywheel. Under 20
these conditions, heads 412 of the centrifugal
in number to and disposed in opposite relation weight assemblies will be held in the position
to bolts 311 threaded in the automatic’plate, six shown in Figure 1, and a clearance will exist be
bolts . thus being employed. Each bolt 399 is tween automatic plate 313 and the driven disc
provided with an enlarged head 492 which is 399, and also between plate 393 and the driven 25
greater in diameter than the aperture 399- in’ disc clearance may exist.
the cover member, and bolt 399 is in consequence
prevented from lateral displacement further to"
the left of its position as seen in Figure 1, by vir
tue of the abutting relation existing between
heads 492 of the bolts and cover plate 396. A
plurality of washer-like shims 493 are preferably
disposed between the heads of bolts 399 and cover
396 for adjustment purposes. Disposed between
the ?oating plate 393 and the cover member 396
‘ are a plurality of compression springs 495 adapt
. ed at one end to be received within recesses 496
The rear end of shaft 395 is supported in the ball
bearing assembly 421 supported in a cover member
422 secured to the rear end of transmission hous
ing 129 by cap screws 423 or the like. Bearing 30'
assembly ,421 is retained in position with respect
to housing 422 by means of a split ring 424. The
inner race of the bearing assembly is maintained
in position on the splined portion 395 of shaft
395 by means of a split ring 425. Also splined 35
upon shaft 395 is a worm gear 421 adaptedto -
drive a pinion gear 423 connected with the speed
formed in the ?oating. plate, and at their other , ometer mechanism to indicate the speeds at which
end adapted to be received in recesses 491 formed
40 in the cover member. ‘Springs, 495'are prefer
ably six in number and may be symmetrically
. disposed in pairs about the peripheryof the ?oat
ing plate and staggered with ‘respect to bolts 399.
It will be‘readily appreciated that compression
45 springs 495 tend at all times to urge the ?oat
ing plate 393 to the left as seen in Figure l, away
from'the cover member ‘396. As just described,
however, bolts 399 are effective to prevent more
than a predetermined movement ;of plate 393
50 away from cover member 396 by virtue of the
fact that heads 492 of bolts 399‘abut the cover
plate.
‘
From the structure thus far described, it will.
. be appreciated that automatic plate 313 and the
55 ‘web-portion 311 of the ?ywheel are at all times
urged together by means of compression spring
319 in vthe manner previously described. It will
further be appreciated that ?oating plate 393 is
at all times designed to be urged away from cover
60 member 396 by virtue of the action of compres
sion springs 495. With the engine dead or idling
at very low speeds, the parts may be disposed in
the position disclosed in Figure 1, and under such
circumstances, driven disc 399 has no torque
65 transmitted to it through either the automatic
plate 313 or the ?oating plate 393,-by virtue of
the fact that aclearance exists between’ facing
391 and the automaticsplate 313. This clearance
corresponds substantially to the idle release clear
70 ance of the primary clutch, previously described.
The automatic plate may be urged away from
web portion 311 of the ?ywheel in any suitable
manner to produce clutch‘ engagement, but on
the present embodiment of my invention it pref
75 erably takes the form of a centrifugally operable
the vehicle is travelling. Lubrication of speed
ometer mechanism 429 and ball bearing 421 is 40
effected by means of a grease ?tting 429 con
nected into cover ‘member 422.
-
Shaft 395 may be connected to the driven load
in any suitable manner, but in the present in
stance a sleeve‘ 439,-provlded with a ?ange 431 45
is splined upon shaft 395 and is adapted to be
secured to the forward universal joint of an
automotive vehicle in any suitable manner.
Sleeve 439 is retained upon driven shaft 395 by‘
means of a nut 432 threaded upon the end of 50
shaft 395 and retained in adjusted position by
means of a cotter pin indicated at 434. Nut 432
forces sleeve 439, gear 421 and bearing 421 to
the left and brings the inner race of bearing
421 into tight engagement with split ring 425. 55
Shaft 395 is accordingly positively ?xed against
__axial displacement in bearing 421, and certain
gear thrusts are taken in this manner-by this
bearing in a manner to ‘be hereinafter set forth.
,An oil seal assembly 435 is disposed between cover 60
member_422 and sleeve 439 for the purpose of '
preventing leakage of oil therebetween.
Integrally- formed upon rear‘cover 422- is’an
apertured lug 436 which is adapted to be secured
to a vehicle frame member for supporting the 65
transmission in operative relation, to the vehicle.
The operation of the secondary clutch mecha-.
nism is brie?y as follows: Should the rotational
speed of the ?ywheel exceed a predetermined
value, masses 419 will be centrifugally thrown out— 70
wardly with the result that levers 411 pivot about
knifecdges 413 and cause reaction face 419 of each
centrifugal head to fulcrum against the web of
the ?ywheel. In this manner, automatic plate
313. is urged away from the. web of the ?ywheel,
J
,
‘2,115,212
12
wall of protuberance 452, while spring 441 spaces
the collar from the other wall of the protuber
- and as rotational speed of the secondary clutch
is increased, weights “6 w?l swing further out
ward, automatic plate 313 being displaced further
ance
Reverse shifter shaft 229 is provided with a
away from the ?ywheel web until it comes into
depressed portion 454 adapted under certain con
ditions to receive offset 448 to thereby allow'
spring 441 to effect counter-clockwise rotation
engagement withfacing 39I of the driven disk
393. Upon further increase of the rotational
speed of the secondary clutch, masses “6 will
swing still further outwardly and automatic plate
of lever 444, as shown in Figure 4 and bring de
tent portion 443 thereof into engagement with
10
teeth 442 of the planetary cage member.
313 which is now in engagement with driven disc
10 393, will urge the latter toward the rear of the
Referring to Figure?, it will be seen that with '
clutch until face 392 thereof is in engagement with
the parts disposed in the position therein dis
the ?oating plate 393.
As the weights “6 swing still further away
closed, portion 454 and offset 448 are not in reg
istry. However, upon‘ lateral shifting of reverse
shaft 229 to the left as seen in Figure 7, portion 15
454 thereof will be brought into registry with
offset 448 to allow ~the latter to be received in
from shaft 335 into their maximum outward posi
15 tion, automatic plate 313, driven disk 393 and
?oating plate 393 will together be urged toward
cover 394 of the ?ywheel against the action of
compression spring 435. Pressure is thus built up
portion 454 and allow counter-clockwise rotation
of shaft 444 as seen in Figure 4, to bring detent
443 into engagement with teeth 442 formed on 20
between the plates, and the automatic plate, the
driven disc and the ?oating plate are brought into
synchronism without shock.
the planetary carrier member.
_
With offset 448 received in depression 454 of
shaft 229 and with planetary carrier 3I3 locked
Since the web of the ?ywheel is rigidly bolted
to the carrier, and since driven disc 393 is splined
to rotate with shaft 335 when the automatic plate
and the driven disc attain the same angular
velocity, cage member 339 and shaft 335 will also
be rotating at the same angular speed. Pinion
shaft 324, carried by.cage member 339, will then
revolve about the axis of shaft 335 with the same
angular speed with which shaft 335 is rotating
about its own axis. When such motion of pin
ion shaft 324 and shaft 335 is eventuating, it will
against rotation in a clockwise direction as seen
in Figure 4, release of carrier 3I3 may be effected 25
by reciprocation of shaft 229 to‘ the right to
move depression 454 out of registry with offset
448 and cause clockwis'e rotation of lever 444
to bring detent 443 out of engagement with teeth
442. It will therefore be readily seen that lock 30
ing and unlocking of carrier member 3I3 is ef
fected by a lateral shifting‘ of reverse shifter
be appreciated that there can be no rotation of
shaft 229.
‘
.
Such reciprocation of reverse shifter shaft 229
is effected as previously described by reciproca 35
tion of gear rack 234 to cause movement of the
reverse idler gear into or out of its operative po
sition. When shifter shaft 229 is moved to the
left as seen-in Figure '7, the reverse idler gear
pinion gear 323, as pinion shaft 324, pinion 323
and vgear 336 will under such circumstances be
rotating as a unit. As a result, teeth 33I on pin
ion 323 and teeth 33I on shaft I46 act merely
to key shaft I46 to the pinion gear and cage
unit. It will therefore be readily appreciated
is brought into 'meshed engagement with teeth 40
that shaft I46 and shaft 335 under such condi
tions will be rotating at the same angular speed
I13 and I82 to cause positive reverse drive of
shaft 335 with respect to shaft I46. Such recip=
rocation of shaft 229 is simultaneously effective
due to the fact that shaft I46, pinion 323, pin
ion shaft 324 and shaft 335 rotate as a unit at
a common angular speed.
to bring depression 454 thereof into registry with
offset 448 and allow detent 443 to mesh with teeth
442 formed on the pinion carrier and thereby
lock said carrier against rotation. It will thus
be seen that by means of the structure just de
The operation just described will occur when
the secondary clutch is engaged and a condition
of direct drive will exist from shaft I46 to shaft
335’. If, however, the parts are disposed in the
position in'Flgure 1 with the secondary clutch
disengaged, torque will be transmitted to shaft
scribed, planetary carrier 339 is automatically
locked against forward rotation when the idler 50
I46 and shaft 335 through the torque multiply- , reverse gear is brought into positive operative
position, and the planetary carrier 339 is un
ing mechanism including pinion 323 in the man
ner previously described.
locked and allowed to rotate automatically upon
'
,mo'vement of the reverse idler gear into its neu
tral position; This result is - essential to the 55
proper transmission of reverse torque to be here
Pinion carrier lock mechanism
Under conditions of reverse drive, to be here
inafter described, it becomes desirable and nec
essary to lock cage member 339, together. with
the secondary clutch, against rotation.
inafter described.
Such
result is accomplished by means of the struc
ture about to be described.
,
Shrunk upon-theforward portion of member
339 is a gear ring “I provided with teeth 442.
.Adapted for cooperation with teeth 442 is a de
tent portion 443 of a lever 444 mounted upon a
collar 445 positioned on a shaft 443. A spring
“I constantly urges detent portion 443 toward
teeth 442 at all times. However, engagement
of detent portion 443 and teeth 442 is prevented
under certain conditions by means of an offset
70 443 formed on lever 444 and which contacts shaft
229, the reverse shifter shaft. As seen in Figure
7A, shaft 446 is accommodated at 45I in the
walls of a protuberance 452 formed on housing
73 I28. A spacer 453 positions hub 445 from one
'
,
Before proceeding to a description of the op
eration of my device, I will brie?y describe the
action of the gears used in the gear box and 60
transmission. The gears employed in these units
may assume any suitable form, but I preferably
use helical gears to promote quietness of opera
tion, and as “constant mesh” gear boxes are well
known in the art, the action of the gear box gears 65
will be readily understood without further dis
cussion.
With reference to the transmission, gears 33I
and 333 are of opposite pitch and are designed
so that when they are transmitting power from 70
the engine to the load, the thrust tends to force
gears 33I‘ and 336 axially apart, and when the
vehicle tends to drive the engine these gears tend
to be brought toward each other. The two direc
tional axial thrust applied to gear "I as a result 75
13
9,110,219
of the action just described is resisted by bear
gaged in the manner previously described, there
ing I66, which is locked against axial movement ‘ by coupling shafts 3. and 6.
7
in the manner previously described. The axial
Transmission of torque from shaft 0 to shaft
thrusts applied. to gear 306 are taken by bearing I46 is effected through the medium of internal
42 I, which is also looked against axial movement. ‘teeth I 43 on pinion I4I formed on the rear end
Bearings I65 and 42I are designed primarily to of shaft 0 which teeth are in meshing engage
sustain radial loads, and loads of this character ment with external teeth I64 formed with collar
constitute the major part of the loads ~»imposed I6I. By virtue of the fact thatcollar I6I is
thereupon. However, in view of the compara ' splined to rotate with shaft I46, clockwise rota
10 tively deep ‘races with which these hearings are tion of pinion “I, as viewed;v from the left of 10
provided, they can e?iciently handle axial loads ' Figure 1, is effective through teeth I43 and I64
of considerable magnitude and they can accord
and spline I6I, to cause rotation of shaft I46 in
ingly adequately handle the thrusts imposed a clockwise direction and torque is thus trans
thereupon by the gears.
I
mitted from shaft 0 to shaft I46.
As previously explained, the thrusts of the
15
Simultaneously with such operation, pinion I“
gears are only partially neutralized, with the on shaft 6 tends to produce; counter-clockwise 15
result that an unbalanced'thrust of low magni
rotation of gear I66 in the forward gear box by
tude is applied to carrier 309 through thrust virtue of the fact that shaft "I16 on‘which gear
washers 321 and 328.v The direction of this I66 rotates is rigidly supported in the transmis- '
,20 thrust depends upon the direction of the drive, sion housing. Gear I60 is in meshing engage 20
but it is completely resisted, irrespective of-its ment with gear I63 which is freely rotatable upon
direction, by bearing 3“, whichrestrains carrier
shaft I46, and gear I63 is therefore rotated in a
309 against axial movement in either direction.
clockwise direction freely upon shaft I46.
When the device is placed in operation, both
‘the gear box and the transmission chambers ‘are
‘ Thus under normal starting c'onditions'with
the gear box conditioned for direct drive, torque
.
supplied with lubricant of suitable grade, and it .will be transmitted directly and without amplié
?cation from shaft 6 to shaft I46.
' is allowed to'circulate from one chamber to the
(not shown) .'
motion under conditions which are other than
“
30
v
,
If, however, it is ‘desired to put the vehicle in
other through suitable openings in partition I66 '
' normal, as for example upon a steep ‘grade or 30
General‘ operation
with an unusually heavy load, sliding clutch I6I
may be reciprocated to the right as seen in Fig
scribed will now be set forth in detail. Assum- . ure l‘into its “low" position until teeth I66 there
‘ing that the parts of the mechanism are ‘disposed of are in‘ engagement with teeth I56 formed on
The operation of the mechanism thus far de
35 in the positions which vthey will occupy under
starting conditions, forward drive sliding clutch
I6I and reverse drive sliding clutch 222 of the
gear box will be disposed in neutral position as
shown in Figure 1. _If the engine is now started
and operated at a predetermined speed, for ex
ample at a speed corresponding substantially to
the idling speed of the prime mover utilized
therewith; there will be no driving connection
betweenshafts 3 and 9, as the primary clutch will
v
45 be disengaged as illustrated in Figure 1.
gear I63. As previously explained, such recipro
cation of sliding clutch I6I may be effected by ,
means of the dash control assembly described in
connection with Figures 6 and B of the drawings.
With the parts disposed-in this position, clock
wise rotative tendencies of shaft 9 as viewed from
the left hand end of Figure 1 are, in the manner
just described,‘ effective by means‘ of pinion I“
and countershaft gear I69 to cause pinion I53
to rotate in a clockwise direction. By fvirtue of
the fact that gear I63 and sliding clutch I6I are
The prime mover may now be warmed up and - now keyed, together through the medium of teeth‘
the driving shaft 3 operated at a speed substans I66 and I66 and that sliding clutch I6I is fur
ther splined to rotate with shaft I46, it will be
tially above idling speed, and although the pri
mary clutch under these conditions will engage, ' appreciated that rotation of gear I63 in the clock
and power will. be transmitted from shaft 3 to wise direction just described will be effective to
shaft 9, there will be no transmission of power cause rotation of shaft I46 in a clockwise direc
between shaft 9 and shaft I46 due to the fact tion, and torque will therefore be transmitted '
that both sliding clutch I6I and reverse sliding from shaft 6 to shaft I46 with a torque multi-__
clutch 222 in the forward gear box are disposed
:With shaft I46 rotating in a clockwise direction 55
55 in their neutral positions, as previously described.
If desired, while warming up the prime. mover, in the manner just described, transmission of
the primary clutch may be manually disengaged torque to shaft 305 is effected in the following
plication.
to prevent transmission of torque to‘ shaft 9 by‘
60
depressing clutch pedal “II.
V
_
Low speedutorque multiplying drive
.If, under normal conditions it is now desired
to start the vehicle in motion, the dash controlis
manner:
.
-
,
,
Pinion 30I formed in the rear end of shaft I46
tends to rotate in .a clockwise direction and by
virtue of its meshing engagement with planetary
pinion 323, tends to cause counter-clockwise rota
tion of the latter. As pinion 323 is also con- -
nected to gear 306 formed- on shaft 306, and
rotation of shaft 306 is resisted by means of the
clutch I6I to the left ‘as seen‘ in Figure 1 into its _ load imposed thereon whenplanetary gee-r323
. “high” position ,until teeth I64 thereon are in tends to rotate in a counter-clockwise direction,
engagement with teeth I43 of the rear end of it tends to planetate about gear 306 and carry
manipulated to cause reciprocation of‘ sliding
shaft 9', and the engine is accelerated. By “nor
70 mal conditions” I mean with the vehicle located
on a substantially level, hard surface.
As the driving shaft is accelerated, the cen
trifugal weights of the primary clutch fulcrum
outwardly in response to centrifugal force and
cause the primary clutch mechanism to be en
its shaft 324 and cage member 309 therewith.
Counter-clockwise rotation of cage member 309 70
and planetary shaft 324 thereby carried, how
ever, is prevented by the overrunning clutch.
Any counter-clockwise rotation of planetary
gear v323 about its shaft within the locked cage
300 is therefore effective to cause clockwise rota 76
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