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ADI‘? 26, 1938~ ” I H. L. (SIEVER ‘2,115,218 Filed Dec. 20. 1933 . .1“ N111] I m I H MWHIHI “a, MNVENTOR. Patented ‘Apr. 26, 1938 ' - 2,115,218 UNITED ‘STATES ; PATENT. oFFICE ' 2,115,213 _ FIBER TREATMENT ‘Hughes L. Siever, Keyser, W. Va. I Application December 20, 1933, Serial No. 703,241 '9 Claims (01. 19-66) ditions. Since this invention primarily concerns cotton,‘ this ?ber will serve to illustrate the point The invention relates to the application of liq uids to textile ?bers and particularly cotton in in view. Normally, cotton ?ber contains ap the course of its manufacture into yarn, either for conditioning it for such manufacture or for 5 imparting color or some other property thereto. proximately 8%, of water. When in this ap-' proximate condition, it is considered ideal for 5 manufacturing purposes. Due to its hygroscopic nature it is difficult to maintain this'moisture. Current methods of applying liquids to textile ?bers involve the use‘ of spraying devices and the Just as the ?ber will absorb moisture under nor- . like, and are subject to the objection that the surfaces of the apparatus wherein the textile is 10 being worked or being handled, become wetted' mal conditions, so will it give it up under ab normal conditions. ‘ , 10 For the purpose of manufacturing the raw cot ton into spun yarn through all the processes in a. cot n manufacturing plant, it: is ‘desirable to keep t e ?bers at or near the normal contentof by'the liquid and this not only interferes with the manufacture process, slowing down produc tion, but also represents'a waste of the liquid amounting in some cases to a substantial loss. > 15 ' moisture, because in this, state the staple is soft, 15 pliable, and'the minimum friction results. If it becomes dry the ?bres become brittle, break, ?are out and are uncontrollable. .In dry'cli This invention provides a practical way to ap ply the treating liquid so that there is no con tactthereof with the textile apparatus and vso that the waste referred to is avoided and better and closer regulation made possible and other . mates nature does not provide a constant humid 2 '. condition and arti?cial means must be used to 20 advantages also obtained as will presently be come apparent.‘ ' . humidity the plants. The variations in climatic changes are so pronounced from day to day, that According to this invention the treating liq uid, which is by preference a light mineral oil of even' the best arti?cial systems of humidifying lubricating property or a liquid not too quickly are not capable or dependable to assure thebest 25 drying, is delivered to an applicator device ‘of manufacturing conditions. Therefore, from a 25. suitable form and transferred therefrom to the manufacturing standpoint, humidi?cation may be cotton by the wiping action ‘of the latter thereé. considered nothing more or less than lubrication, inasmuch as it provides a; condition of working on as it advances into, through or from a tex tile machine. Preferably the oil or liquid is the ?bers into yarn and since the object of this 30 wiped off by the advancing cotton as the latter invention is to-facilitate the machining of these 30 converges into a trumpet or other condensing instrument and by that part only of the cotton which is presently-to form the interior part or core of the resultant delivery. Thus disposed 35 the liquid is immediately enveloped or wrapped up in the- larger mass of unwetted ?bers where it ‘remains until by further workings or other-' wise it has become'spread out in andv taken up by them, imparting to them‘ the desired prop 40 ertie's. .The amount thus applied is gauged ac cording to the amount of stock and the ultimate liquid percentage desired for each ?ber, and in consequence‘ there is_no_ excess or external wet ‘delicate ?bers, the problem of lubrication falls within this scope. - _ - V Humidity refers to the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere.- Absolute humidity. means the actual density of water vapor regardless of 35 its temperature'or whether or not the air is sat ‘urated. ' Relative humidity is_ the ratio of the weight of vapor actually existing at the same ‘ temperature. Saturated air has a relative hu midity of 100%. 40" To maintain a‘ relative humidity in rooms and large cotton mills, and particularly at, the point’ the ?ber is actually throwing oil! its moisture, ness, to wet the machinery at any stage of man'- ' as .in the drawing, intermediate roving frames, 45 ufacture and hence no difliculty in maintain spinning frames,'is almost impossible and ?uc- ' 45 ing an [exactly constant percentage of. liquid in the pr, uct. Though not limited to oil the in tuations in ‘the moisture content- are constant as I am aware in no other way can slowly or non of this invention to displace the necessity and _ and will vary throughout the mill in spite of- all vention is peculiarly related thereto, since so far' natural and arti?cial humidity. _ It is an object 50 vaporizing liquids 'be so ef?cientlyv applied to‘ expense of humidi?cation, by a satisfactory and 60 ~ permeate textile fabrics. - ‘ ' . ,. A“ Practically all animal and vegetable ?bers are hygroscopic and according to' their own indie viduai characteristics 'will absorb their normal’ I 55 amounifof moisture, under'certain humid con suitable ?xed lubricant, capable of remaining with the ?ber throughout all the manufacturing ‘pirocesses, thus eliminating arti?cial humidi?cae" on. > - - - - I am awareqthat certain methods are in - 56 2 2,115,218 ‘ ‘for oiling the stock prior to the carding process, but the carding process being such a close, ef fective combing system composed'of approxi mately 500 square feet of metallic wire,'will not permit sui?cient amounts of a ?xed lubricant to ‘be applied until the stock has passed the cards. ‘ Cotton manufacturers claim little or no humid regulator and in virtue of the constant af-. for‘ded thereto by the ?oat-controlled supply, the liquid ?ow into the tube can bev nicely regulated to any predetermined number of drops per min ute, observable in the sight tube. .“Thus a'con 5 stant. supply is maintained in and at. the end of - the tube which'is constantly being wiped off by ity is required up to the point of converting the stock into the ?rst sli'ver, because prior to this point manufacturing is a matter of cleaning the ?bers which immediately contact with the wetted ?ber, by, rough shaking, tumbling, beating and loaded with the oil, but the immediate squeezirxi'h l the ?bers as they move into the trumpet.\\, Those end of the tube are more or less soaked and ove _ 10' picking, whereas, the drier the stock the better it cleans, therefore, humidity or lubrication is not is followed also by vthat of the coiler-head rolls considered essential and is avoided more or less. tends to distribute such'oil, thus immediately e?ect of the trumpet and calender rolls 3. which ' 15 Up to the ?rst sliver the ?bers are more or less , starting its ‘outward permeation into the sur in a criss-eross formation, but from the sliver on the manufacturing is a problem of parallel ism of individual ?bers, while thereafter, the - processes of drawing the fibers parallel causes 20 friction to set up, as the drawing ‘proceeds until spun into the ?nest of yarns. Friction creates static electricity, the stock becomes dry, the ?bers ?are out and become unruly and manufacturing 26 rounding ?bers. 15. The progress or rate of perme ation thereafter depends to some extent on the nature of the treating liquid, but with the per centage needed for normal working requirements with any liquid, there is no danger that the sur 20 faces of the textile machine or of the sliver cans or other holders will become wetted or‘ appreci ‘ably soiled with the liquid. Final distribution of -' becomes di?icult unless lubrication is provided. It is another object of my invention to apply a suitable ?xed lubricant in the central portion of the original or card sliver or subsequent slivers capable of conditioning the ?bers to meet all the drawing, or evening, processes which normally 25‘ follow the card, as will be understood and which uniformly distribute the liquid to all the ?bers. With non-vaporizing liquid the process is_ not or requirements of humidity. dinarily complete until the subsequent worldn'gs » '30 the liquid is accomplished by the doubling and By a ?xed lubricant is meant a nonoxidizable, have distributed the liquid; ‘with 'vaporizi‘ng liq 30 non-conducting oil -or liquid unaffected by at uids such as water, ether, alcohol the mere lapse mospheric variations of climate, capable of of time may, su?ice to complete it. ‘ ' spreading by permeation,.throughout the mass. The invention further consists in and‘ compre-' of cotton‘, by contact in drawing the ?bers par ' hends the principle of internally applying treat- . ' allel to each other through successive steps until ' ing liquids, in the manner described or otherwise, 35 7 spun into yarn. ‘The object of placing the liq when such liquids are dyeing or coloring media, uid in the center of the ?rst sliver is necessary because the internal application of a dye to a to insure permeation to start equally‘ in all di j sliver, as ,I have discovered, ‘is an excellent way .. rections and to enclose the liquid constantly or of coloring a. yarn during its manufacture and 40 alternately but centrally to e?ect the best dis- ‘ affords a notable saving ofllabor, dye and apl 40' tribution in subsequent drawing processes. I paratus as compared to existing practice. When have found that by this method static electricity the treating liquid is a dye, it is best if it is oily is‘practically eliminated and proper lubrication or s1ow—drying, because it is thus best distributed > is provided, thus the expense of arti?cial humidi- . to the rest of the ?bers, for the production of a . 45 ?cation-is not'- essential. uniform color. When applied at the card, the 45 While the effect above described can be brought ultimate shade or color is achieved when com . about in various kinds of textile machines, it is illustrated for the purpose of this disclosure as produced by treatment of cotton in an ordinary 50 cotton card. bers. In the accompanying drawing, Fig. ,1 is a gen ‘ eral elevation, partly sectioned. Fig. 2 a larger section of the trumpet and ap licator, 55 . and plete distribution of the liquid, has occurred as the result of the evening processes carried out as usual in the drawing frames, 61' in the‘ slub ' ' ~ ’ Fig. 3 a section on line III-Ill of Fig. 2. The card ?eece delivered by the doffer combl is gathered‘ into a trumpet 2‘and- drawn there _ through bythe calender-rolls 3 from whence it is taken upwards by the coiler head 4, as a card silver 5, and coiled into the sliver can 6, all in the ‘usual manner. The applicator in this case is a slender tube'l the delivery end of which is bent .or directed inwards ‘parallel to the path of the fiber and towards or into the mouth or en trance of the trumpet 2' and about on its cen-‘ tral axis or so as to have contact only with that ' . The treating liquid whether a dye or not, can be applied at other stages of manufacture than the card and at successive stages if desired and if more liquid is required than can be delivered in one point. Obviously it can be applied'in any textile-working machine where ?bers converge in a-?eece, lap, sliver ‘or rovi’ng form into a con densing or gathering instrument and emerge therefrom as a compound delivery or in a com pound ,state; In all such cases whether it be comber, draw or roving frame an applicator tubev . similar to that shown herein can-be availed of - -' for locally'wetting those ?bers which make the . center of thecompound delivery and this will in general be found to be the most practical form of 65 application. ' part of the gathering'?eece whichforms the ‘ ‘ ' ‘ When many machines are at work it is'desir- ' ‘ center of the sliver. Preferably the open end able that each .of them be equipped with its own of the tube is well within the trumpet as indi _‘drip regulator device suchas the needle valve in 70 cated. so that the ?bers wipe it with some pres the present case or its equivalent'and also with sure. It is supplied with the liquid through ,a."‘ the sight tube or its equivalent, totlie, end that 70 glass sight tube 8 from a constant level recep- Y ' exactv regulation of supply may thus be made 'at . 'v tacle or ?oat chamber 9, the latter being con - each machine affording maximum economy and nected to a larger supply source‘. By means of the. needle valve III, which constitutes a drip uniformity ‘I claim- of."'. product. I _ I , 3 2,115,218. v 41. The method of treating textile ?bers which comprises delivering liquid constantly to an ap plicator, conducting a ?eece or band of the ?bers over such applicator in wiping contact therewith and folding such band so that the wetted portion is in the interior. comprises delivering a liquid to an applicator and conducting said mass of ?bers past said appli cator in wiping contact therewith and folding said mass of ?bers so that the applied ?uid is on the interior of the mass. ‘ ' 7. The method of applying a treating ?uid to , 2. The method of applying a treating ?uid to textile ?bers whichcomprises moving the ?bers ‘ ‘through a condensing instrument, depressing the 10 central portion of the ?bers by means of a ?xed applicator through which the ?uid ?ows and whereby the ?uid is wiped from the applicator by ‘ the moving ?bers and deposited in the‘central portion of the ?bers. 3. The method of applying a coloring ?uid to textile ?bers which comprises delivering the ?uid ' to an applicator, conducting a ?eece or band of the ?bers past such applicator in wiping contact therewith and folding such ?eece or band so that 20 the colored portion is on the interior. 4. In apparatus for treating textile ?bers, the combination of a ?ber conducting trumpet, means for passing the ?bers through the trumpet, an applicator tube extending into the ?bers and wiped thereby and having its outlet inside the 5 a web of textile ?bers as it emerges from a card ing machine which comprises forming the web into a sliver and causing the treating ?uid to drip onto the mass from above the mass as it is being condensed and before it reaches sliver stage. 8. In a machine for treating textile ?bers hav ing means for advancing the ?bers in mass forma tion, the combination with a tubular applicator having its discharge outlet located so as to be embedded within and substantially surrounded by 10v 15 the advancing mass of ?bers, a liquid supply source adapted to deliver liquid through said outlet in- solid as distinguished from atomized form and means for regulatingsuch delivery rela 20 tive to the speed of the advancing ?bers to con ?ne the immediate moistening action to the in terior of the mass. 4 - ' , 9., In a machine for processing textile ?bers having means for advancing the ?bers in mass 25 trumpet entrance, andcmeans for supplying liquid formation as distinguished from sliver or strand to said tube. form, the combination with ‘an applicator having 5. In apparatus for treating textile ?bers, the' its discharge outlet located substantially in the combinationof a ?ber condensing instrument, an path of and wiped by the advancing mass of applicator tube having an open delivery end ex ‘?bers, a liquid supply source adapted to deliver 30 tending into the ?bers and wiped thereby, said liquid through said applicator, and means for reg delivery end being disposed within the condensing ulating such delivery relative to the speed of the . instrument. - _ Y ' §.- That method of treatingtextile ?bers which i advancing ?bers. ’ IIUGHES; L. §IEVEB;.