Патент USA US2115384код для вставки
April 26, 1938. J. 1.. 005m. 2,115,384 PERMANENT MOLD MACHINE FOR MAKING TAPPE'I'S Filed July 29, 1935 5 Sheets-Sheet l 34 ?lial/?ll“lmlllllillllllllllll //IA '‘ EEKI‘KQIIIIIIIIIIA ‘ ‘ ~ 2,6 IN VEN TOR. E‘ - ‘Ta-5677a Z. ZosZaZ. BY ?wmaw. ATTORNEYS April 26,1938. ‘ J. 1;. DOST/4L ' 2,115,384 PERMANENT MOLD MACHINE FOR MAKING TAPP‘ETS Filed July 29, 1935 I >' 7 s Sheets-Sheet 2 O O. ,52 av 457' _ I INVENTOR. J’ase7& 1. D0 5542'. BY . ATTORNEY-6. " April 26, 1938. J. L; DOSTAL 2,115,384 _ PERMANENT MOLD MACHINE FOR MAKING TAPFETS ' Filed July 29, 1935 _ 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 a?! _ v INVENTOR. J’06c/v%-Z. ?osial. ‘ BY - A TTORNEY-S. Patented Apr. 26, 1938 ' 2,115,384 UNITED STATES PATENT I OFFICE 2,115,384 PERMANENT MOLD MACHINE FOR MAKING I TAPPETS Joseph L. Dostal, Birmingham, Mich., assignor, by mesne assignments, to Eaton Manufacturing Company, Cleveland, Ohio, a corporation of ‘ Ohio ' / Application July 29, 1935, Serial No. 33,717 3 Claims. (Cl. 22-77) This invention relates to permanent molding cooled section of a mold for forming the cam en machines and more especially to the type of ma chine comprising a conveyor which carries a plu 5 rality of pairs of cooperating mold sections, which sections, when brought together, provide mold cavities in which metal articles may be cast. The principal object of the invention is to im prove the art of producing cast iron articles hav ing a hard and wear resistant surface over at 10 least certain portions of such articles. A further object is to provide apparatus for producing a one-piece hollow cast iron tappet so accurately to size as to minimize the amount of 15 finishing operations required. . A further object of the invention is to so cast a hollow, one-piece tappet, closed at both ends, that one end, the cam engaging portion, will be chilled to produce a hardness so as to afford the desired wear resistance, Rockwell scale C, and the periph 20 ery will be chilled through to the core so as to‘ have a slightly lesser hardness, and that the opposite end of the tappet will be correspondingly softer and readily machinable so that it may be readily bored and threaded to receive an adjust- ~ ing element. Another object is to produce a tappet having a hard cam engaging and peripheral surface and a correspondingly softer end portion banded by harder metal having higher tensile strength than said soft machinable portion so as to prevent dis-' tortion and expansion of the adjustment end of the tappet as a nut for the adjusting screw is tightened down against the tappet top. A further object is to provide a cast tappet free from burned sand, particularly in openings or windows formed in the peripheral walls for the parts thereof. Other objects, features and advantages will be come apparent from the following description and appended claims. 7 I For the purpose of illustrating the genus of the 10 invention, , typical concrete embodiments are shown in the accompanying drawings, in which: Figure 1 is a top plan of a permanent molding machine adapted for casting a barrel type tappet in accordance with the principles of this inven 15 tion; 4 . Fig. 2 is an enlarged, fragmentary section taken in a vertical plane substantially 0n the line 2-2 of Fig. 1; Fig. 3 is a fragmentary top plan, similar to Fig. 1, but on an enlarged scale, of a modi?ed form of 20 permanent molding machine constructed accord ing to the principles of this invention; Fig. 4 is a vertical section, on an enlarged scale, taken substantially on the line 4-4 of Fig. 3; Fig. 5 is a central vertical section taken through one of the molds and on a radial plane through the axis of either of the molding machines shown in Figs. 1 and 3; ~ Fig. 6 is a substantially vertical, central section through a barrel type tappet, such section being 30 taken approximately as indicated by the line 6—6 of this ?gure; ' Fig.- 7 is a fragmentary, central vertical section of a modi?ed form of mold adapted to be em ployed in casting an open top type of barrel tappet; and It is also an object of the invention to provide a novel method of forming tappet windows of the type disclosed in my co-pending application Serial Fig. 7. In carrying out the present invention, there ,Still another object of the invention is to pro ‘Vide a novel type of mold adapted to employ a core 45 cover of sand or other refractory material for the purpose of producing relatively soft and machin able top portion of a tappet. Another object is to provide a. novel means and method of locating and centralizing a core for forming the interior cavity of_ a hollow, barrel type tappet. It is also an object of the invention to make provision for venting gases from the mold of the 55 . A further object of the invention is to provide a sectional type mold constructed and arranged so as to have a cooling’ medium circulated through purpose of lightening the tappet. No. 33,719, ?led July 29, 1935. 50 gaging portion of a tappet. above type. A further object is to provide a separate and 35 Fig. 8 is a section taken on the line 8-—8 of _ may be provided an endless carrier, preferably in the form of a rotatable table l0, illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2 as carrying a plurality of molds l2.‘ The table II! may be formed by securing to a hori zontally arranged disc-like part l4, provided with 45 guide ?ange It at its periphery, a plurality‘of partial sectors H, the latter together forming a circular ring extended outwardly from part H. A plurality of partial sectors 20, each provided 50 with an upstanding ?ange 2| slightly spaced from a. center hub I 5 and a downwardly extending the outer periphery thereof, are secured to each of the partial sectors I‘! to form a further circu lar ring extended outwardly from the ring formed by the partial sector l1. Bolts l8 may be em 55 amass-1 ployed for securing the partial sectors l1 and 26 together and to the disclike part I 4. A ?ange 2| is spaced from the periphery of the ring formed by the partial sectors 26 a sufficient distance to provide a ledge 22 of awidth equal to one-half of the width in a radial direction of the molds l2. The rotatable table I 6 is Journaled through the hub l6 and a bushing 23 therein for rotation with respect to a shaft 24. The lower end of shaft 24 10 is supported at the center of a circular support plate 25 adapted to be mounted in stationary condition to a suitable base or support, not shown. The outer portion of the stationary support plate 26 is offset upwardly to provide an upstanding _ '15 shoulder portion 26 terminating in an annular guide rib 21 adapted to be received in an annular channel 26 provided in the guide ?ange |6 of the rotatable disclike part l4. Inwardly, but adja cent the upstanding shoulder 26, the stationary 20 or bed plate 25 is provided with a ledge 36 afford ing a horizontal bearing surface for a bearing 3| upon which a gear 32, ?xed to the ?ange l6 of rotatable disclike part I4, is adapted to rotate. ' The gear 32 is provided with internally directed teeth 33 cooperable with a pinion 34 integral with or ?xed to a pinion shaft 35 for the purpose of carriers 64. Springs 16 extending between an arm 18 provided on each of the brackets 1| and an arm of bell crank levers 12 normally bias the rollers 13 into engagement with the outer mar ginal ‘surfaces of the cam contacts 14. The swingable mold carriers 64, in practice, swing about the pivot 65 outwardly through an angle of approximately 30 degrees when not en gaged by the roller 13 or other operating means therefor. Rotation of the table l6 in a clockwise 10 direction as viewed in Fig. 1, causes the cam contact 14 of each of the swingable mold carriers 64 to successively engage a cam 16 so as to swing the mold carriers 64 inwardly toward the shaft 24 and to close the mold sections and permit the rollers 13 of bell crank lever 12 and spring 16 yieldingly to maintain the mold sections in closed ' condition. They cam contacts 14 are provided with a beveled inner surface 11 engageable with a cam 16 beyond the series of rollers 13 so that a 20 downwardly ‘projecting lip on cam 18 will cause opening of the molds as the cam 18 causes out ward swinging of the mold carriers 64 as indi cated in Fig. 1. The cams 16 and 18 are carried by the support member 16. 25 Referring to Figs. 2, 5, and 6, the molds l2 are rotating the gear 32 to effect rotation of table I6. illustrated-I as comprising sections 66 and 6| sep A gear mounting sleeve 36 is ?xed to the shaft arable with reference to a vertical parting line 62. 35 and carries a bevel gear 31 adapted to be The main mold sections 66 and 8| are each pro driven by a pinion 43 ?xed to or integral with vided with a semi-cylindrical mold cavity 63 so 30 30 shaft 42. The gear casing 46 is provided for that the two cavities form a cylindrical bore ex supporting bearings 38 for the gear mounting tending vertically and longitudinally through sleeve 36 and shaft 35 and vbearing 4| for the I each of the separable molds l2. A separate mold pinion shaft 42. A coupling 44 connects the drive section 64 substantially in the form of a hollow shaft 45 to pinion shaft 42 so that the rotatable piston, closed at the upper end 85 and provided 35 table I6 may' be operated from any suitable with a cooling ?n 86 so that the separate section v source of power, not shown, connected to the forms the lower end of the tappet 65, is depicted in Fig. 5. A pin 81 extending from (the stationary drive shaft 45. I A disclike air shield 56 provided with a suitable main mold section 8| may project through an opening 86 to determine the elevation of the sep 40 40 central aperture 5| is supported from the up standing ?anges 2| of partial sectors 26. An up-_ arate section 84. A plurality of such openings 66 standing collar 52 is provided at the margins of may be provided cooperable with the pin 61 so the central aperture 5| and encloses the lower as to obtain slight variations in the lengths of end of a suction conduit 53 leading to an exhaust the tappets produced. The separate section 84, which forms the bottom of the tappet 65, is hol 45 fan, not shown. The space between the elements l4, l1, and 26 and the air shield 56 constitutes low to form an air passage for the circulation of a suction passage or chamber operating in con junction with the suction conduit 53 and the ex haust fan associated therewith for drawing cool 50 ing air through the molds l2 and parts adjacent thereto. Openings 55 extend downwardly through the partial sectors 26 to the interior of a trough like partial annulus 56 having openings 51 at the bottom thereof for each of a plurality of headers 55 66 secured thereto by means of bolts 6|. The headers 66 are each provided with a lug 62 co operable with ears 63 formed on swingable mold carriers 64, 'a pivot pin 65 connecting the ears of each of the swingable mold carriers to the lugs 62 60 of headers 66. The swingable mold carriers 64 are each provided with'a passage 66 therethrough terminating in a curved conduit 61 having the axis of pivot pin 65 as a center and projecting through an opening 68 of header 66 so as to main 65 tain communication at all times between the pas sages 66 of the swingable vmold carriers and the interiors of the headers 66. A support 16, sub stantially of U-section, as viewed in Fig. 2, is ?xed to the plate 25 and has bolted thereto a plurality -70 of brackets 1|, one bracket being individual to each of the swingable mold carriers 64. To the upper end of each of the brackets 1| is pivotally connected a bell crank lever 12 provided with a journaled roller 13 engageable with a cam con tact 14 provided on each of the swingable mold cooling air therethrough and, accordingly, its length is made several times its diameter in order effectively to cool the same than to attain the desired chill of the cam engaging end of the tap 60 pet 65. A permanent mold comprising two main sections separable along a vertical parting line and provided with impressions 83, enables the production of tappets very‘ close to the ?nished diameter desired so as to eliminate as much‘ grinding as possible on the outside surface of the tappet. The impression 83 in each of the mold sections 86 and 8| has projections 66 which form openings in the hollow tappet 65 of the desired size and shape and extend to the walls of such 60 hollow tappets so as to communicate with a dry sand core 93 which forms the hollow interior of the tappet, thereby locating the core in diametri cally correct position. A locating pin 64 may be provided in one of said projections for holding 65 the core in the correct vertical position, opening 66 being provided in the core in a predetermined position to secure the correct vertical elevation of the core desired. A permanent mold corrects several dimculties 70 normally encountered in producing tappets in the ordinary sand mold. It is extremely di?icult to produce castings by the sand method in order to obtain close tolerances and eliminate much of the grinding required for ?nishing the outside 75 2,115,384 surface of the tappets. It is also dit?cult in cast ing by the sand method to obtain clean castings free from burned-in sand, especially in the open ings or windows 92 cast in the periphery of the tappet for the purpose of lightening the same. This burned-in sand is very di?icult and expen sive to remove and undesirable in an internal combustion engine since the sand frequently loosens and causes scoring of the tappet or tap 10 pet guide as well as getting into the lubricating system of the motor so as to endanger bearings » or other moving parts of an internal combustion engine. ‘ > In making the tappet 95 by the permanent mold method, the latter condition is entirely elim . inated in the windows 92 of tappet 95, as such windows are formed by the integral projections 90 in the permanent mold sections 80 and 8|, and due to the rapid chilling effect of the metal mold 20 sections, the sandof the core 93 does not have a chance to burn in or on parts of the cast tappet. Another disadvantage of the tappet-cast by the sand method is that it is impossible to obtain a hard peripheral surface and a soft top which is 25 machinable so that it may be bored and threaded as indicated at 91 in Fig. 6 for the purpose of receiving an adjusting screw. With both the main mold sections 80 and 8i and the separate bottom section 84 of metal, both the cam engag ing surface of tappet 85 and the entire periphery of the cylindrical body portion of the tappet will be of chilled metal entirely through the wall pot tions of the tappet to theinterior of the tappet or to the core 93 as long as the'mold sections 35 80, 8|, and 84. are kept in a sufficiently cool condi tion. ' - A top of the tappet may be made softer and more machinable in order more readily to bore and to thread the screw holes 91 by providing 40 complementary recesses I00 in the upper part of the two main sections 80 and 0|, the recesses I00 being adapted to receive a cover core IOI of dry sand orlother refractory material, for forming the top or adjustment end of the tappet 95. Due 45 to the refractory nature of the material compos ing the cover core IOI , the upper end of tappet 95 is not chilled at this point, but is kept in a soft and readily machinable condition. The cover core MI is provided with a central aperture I02 50 which serves as a gate for ?lling the mold. The following analysis of iron aifords an exam ple of a material suitable for producing an all chilled tappet, or one that has a cam engaging surface and'outer periphery of the body chilled 55 but whose top or adjusting screw end may be left 3 of an inch for the purpose of providing passages for venting gases from the interior of the mold. The backs of the pouring blocks I03 and I04 are hollowed out as indicated at I01 and I08 and communicate with hollowed out portions I09 and H0 in the backs of the main mold sections 80 and 8| so that cooling air may be circulated about the mold I2 to maintain the desired temperature condition thereof and obtain the desired hard ness of the tappet produced. l0. The main mold section 8| is provided with a passage II2 registrable with a passage II4 through the wall of the separate section 84 so that cooling air may be drawn in from the bot tom of the pistonlike separate section 84, around 15 the cooling fin 86, through the passages H4 and H2 to the hollowed out space II 0 in the back of main mold section 8|, and thence through an opening II5 provided adjacent the bottom of the upstanding ?ange 2I of the partial sector 20 20 which serves as the stationary carrier for main mold section 8| of mold I2. The upstanding ‘ ?ange 2I of the stationary mold carrier 20 is pro vided with an air passage IIG registrable with the hollowed out portion I08 of pouring block I04 and another passage II‘I registrable with the up per portion or the hollowed out chamber IIO of mold section _8I so that cooling air may be drawn into the passages H8 and II‘! through the hol lowed out portions I08 and H0, and thence 30 through the passage II5 to the suction chamber 54 adapted to be exhausted by the suction fan associated with the, conduit 58. It is noted that air will take this course irrespective of whether the mold sections are in open or closed condition. 35 The swingable mold carrier 64 is provided with an upstanding flange I2I corresponding to the ?ange 2I of the stationary mold carrier 20 and is pro vided with passages I22 and I23 therethrough. through which passages air may be drawn into the hollowed out portions I01 and I09 of main mold section 80 and thence through the passage 88 and curved conduit 61 of the swingable mold section 64 to the interior of header 60, thence through the interior of the supporting element 50 to the suction chamber 54. It is also noted that air is drawn through this core at all timeswheth er the swingable mold carrier 84 is in open or closed position. , While cooling of the mold could be effected by circulating air or other cooling medium in the reverse direction from that described, in the, case of air it is preferred to circulate it in the described direction since this does not cause excessive amounts of heat, to be given off from 65 the molding machine and thus, does not make soft for machining purposes, and may consist of: Carbon 2.75 to 3.50 per cent, silicon 1.70 to 2.60 working conditions disagreeable or even unbear per cent, phosphorus 0.20 to 0.30 per cent, man ganese 0.40 to 1.10 per cent, sulphur 0.115 per able for attendants of the machine. Reference may now be had to Figs. 3 and 4, cent, and the balance iron. A pair of pouring blocks I03 and I04 separable ' which disclose a slightly different form of mold 60 along the parting line 82 constitute a two-piece ing machine provided with a rotatable con veyor I0’ adapted to carry a series of molds I2’ pouring basin at the top of the mold and are pro vided with cooperable recesses forming a gate I05 in much the same manner as described relative to the previous embodiment. The conveyor I0’ 65 registrable with the opening I02 of cover core IOI so that the two-piece. pouring basis may serve supports stationary mold carriers 2I' and swing as a sprue and gate for pouring the casting. The able mold carriers 64' 'of essentially the same mold surfaces of the main mold sections 80 and construction as previously described. The head 8I preferably treated with a’ refractory facing ers 60' of the present embodiment, however, each 70 and sooted in the manner disclosed in Maloche carry an adjustable support for the pivot 85' of I70 Patents 1,453,593 and 1,492,694. The top of the. the swingable mold carrier 84' which is adapted cover core IN is arranged substantially flush to be secured in adjusted position by means of with the top surfaces of the main mold sections the bolts I25. The pivot support I24 is also pro 80 and 8|, except for radially disposed vent vided with a guide member I26 having a forked grooves I05 cut to _a depth of approximately 0.015 upper end I21 adapted to guide and brace, as 76 4, 2,115,884 well as limit the outward swinging movement of, ' the movable mold carriers 34'. In the embodiments shown in Figs. 3 and 4 the rollers ‘I3’ are adapted to engage the outer periphery of ‘cam contacts ‘I4’ for the purpose ‘ of maintaining the mold I2’ in closed condition, as before. The rollers ‘I3’ are mounted in slide members "I2’ arranged for reciprocation in re cesses I30 provided in holders I3I and springs ‘II’ are interposed within suitable bores within the slide members 12' so that the swingable members 34’ are maintained in closed condition under spring pressure. The spring pressure for maintaining the swingable mold carriers 63', however, does not exert a lateral thrust upon the shaft 24’. A support member I32 includes a bearing I33 within which the shaft 24' is jour naled, a pair of radially extending arms I34 and a bridge member I35 upon which the support described constructions, and many apparently widely di?erent embodiments of this invention could be had without departing from the spirit thereof, it is intended that all matter contained in the/above description or shown in the accom panying drawings shall be interpreted as illus trative, and not in a limiting sense, What is claimed is: l. A casting machine comprising, in combina tion, a movable carrier, a mold including two l0 main sections parted vertically, each section hav ing a mold impression cooperable with the im pression of the other section for forming a mold cavity and a separate section forming the bot tom wall of such mold cavity, a dry sand core 15 within the mold cavity, a cover core, said main mold sections each being provided with a recess for receiving a portion of said cover core, and means for circulating a cooling medium through said carrier and through each of the mold sec blocks I3I are mounted by means of bolts I30. tions, said cover core being constructed‘ of re The bolts I25 and I36 both pass through en' fractory material to shape one end of the casting larged openings or slots in the header member ‘formed but to prevent chilling of the castingat 30' and bridge member I35 so, that the pivot of. this point so as to maintain such end of the cast the-swingable mold carrier 64’ may be adjusted soft and machinable condition. and thus permit proper alignment of the mold ing2. inA acasting machine comprising, in combina sections when the molds are in closed condition tion, a movable carrier, a mold including two and also permit adjustment of the mounting sections parted vertically, each section [hav blocks I3I so that the tension of springs ‘I5’ may main be adjusted to. vary the spring pressure exerted ing a mold impression cooperable with the im pression of the other section for forming a mold 30 for maintaining the molds in closed condition. . cavity and a separate section forming the bottom' A roller carrier I3‘I is bolted to the outer ends of the arms I34 and pivotally supports a plurality wall of such mold cavity, said main mold sec tions each being provided with a recess adjacent of rollers I38 arranged in a circular series with the upper end thereof, a core composed of re the axis of‘shaft 24’ as a center. The rollers fractory material arranged within the mold I33 bearaupon the backs of the flanges 2|’ of the cavity, a cover core of refractory material ar-_ stationary mold carriers 20’ so as to relieve the ranged within the recesses of said main section shaft 24’ of lateral pressure exerted by the and adapted to shape one end of the casting springs 15’ in maintaining the molds ' I2’ in closed formed but to prevent chilling of such end of condition. Cams ‘I6’ and ‘I8’ serve to open and to close the molds I2’ as before. The construc tion of the molds I2’ and the construction and arrangement of the cooling system for the molds and associated parts is essentially the same as that described relative to the embodiment shown 45 in Figs. 1, 2, and 5. - Reference may now be had to Figs. 7 and 8, which disclose a modi?ed form of mold adapted to cast an open top type of tappet 95’. In this mold construction, the main mold sections 80’, 50 and BI’ are not recessed adjacent the top thereof and no cover core corresponding to the core IOI of Fig. 5 is employed. Pouring blocks I03 and I04 providing a central gate I05 are employed as in the previously described embodiment. The 55 core 93’, in the present instance, extends up wardly to a point closely adjacent the bottom surface of the pouring blocks I03 and I04 and is enlarged’ and axially grooved in its periphery adjacent the upper end thereof sothat plurality, , of ‘pouring sprues I40, four of such sprues being indicated in Figs. 7 and 8, are formed during the casting of the tappet 95’. Windows are formed in the side walls of the tappet 05’ in much the same manner as depicted in Figs. 5 65 and 6. A separate section 84’ is provided for forming the cam engaging ‘portion of the tappet 35’. The main sections 30’ and Ill’ and the separate section 84’ are cooled to the desired temperatures as before so as to chill the cam 70 engaging and peripheral portion of the tappet to obtain the desired hardness and wearing 'qualities of the tappet formed. . _ As many‘ changes could be made in the above the casting so as to maintain the same in a 40 soft and machinable condition, and means for circulating a cooling medium through said car rier and through each of said mold sections, said cover core being provided with a central opening therethrough so as to form a gate for ?lling the mold cavity. ' - 3. A casting machine comprising, in combination, a movable carrier, a mold including two main sections parted vertically, each section hav— ing a mold impression cooperable with the im pression of the other section for forming a mold cavity and a separate section forming the bottom wall of such mold cavity, said main mold sec tions each being provided with a recess adjacent " the upper end thereof, a core composed of re fractory material arranged within the mold cavity, a cover core of refractory-material ar ranged within the recesses of said main section and adapted to shape one end of the casting formed but to prevent chilling of such end of the casting so as to maintain the same in a soft and machinable condition, and means for circulating a cooling medium through said car rier and through each of said mold sections, said cover core being provided with a central opening 65 therethrough so as to form a gate for ?lling the mold cavity, the upper surface of said cover core being arranged ?ush with the upper surface of said main mold section and said main mold sec tions each being provided with a groove in the upper surface thereof for venting gases from the mold cavity. ' ~ JOSEPH L. DOSTAL.