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Патент USA US2115384

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April 26, 1938.
J. 1.. 005m.
2,115,384
PERMANENT MOLD MACHINE FOR MAKING TAPPE'I'S
Filed July 29, 1935
5 Sheets-Sheet l
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BY
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ATTORNEYS
April 26,1938.
‘
J. 1;. DOST/4L
'
2,115,384
PERMANENT MOLD MACHINE FOR MAKING TAPP‘ETS
Filed July 29, 1935
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INVENTOR.
J’ase7& 1. D0 5542'.
BY
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ATTORNEY-6.
"
April 26, 1938.
J. L; DOSTAL
2,115,384 _
PERMANENT MOLD MACHINE FOR MAKING TAPFETS '
Filed July 29, 1935
_ 3 Sheets-Sheet 5
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INVENTOR.
J’06c/v%-Z. ?osial.
‘
BY
-
A TTORNEY-S.
Patented Apr. 26, 1938
' 2,115,384
UNITED STATES
PATENT I OFFICE
2,115,384
PERMANENT MOLD MACHINE FOR MAKING I
TAPPETS
Joseph L. Dostal, Birmingham, Mich., assignor,
by mesne assignments, to Eaton Manufacturing
Company, Cleveland, Ohio, a corporation of ‘
Ohio
'
/
Application July 29, 1935, Serial No. 33,717
3 Claims. (Cl. 22-77)
This invention relates to permanent molding cooled section of a mold for forming the cam en
machines and more especially to the type of ma
chine comprising a conveyor which carries a plu
5
rality of pairs of cooperating mold sections, which
sections, when brought together, provide mold
cavities in which metal articles may be cast.
The principal object of the invention is to im
prove the art of producing cast iron articles hav
ing a hard and wear resistant surface over at
10 least certain portions of such articles.
A further object is to provide apparatus for
producing a one-piece hollow cast iron tappet so
accurately to size as to minimize the amount of
15
finishing operations required.
.
A further object of the invention is to so cast a
hollow, one-piece tappet, closed at both ends, that
one end, the cam engaging portion, will be chilled
to produce a hardness so as to afford the desired
wear resistance, Rockwell scale C, and the periph
20 ery will be chilled through to the core so as to‘
have a slightly lesser hardness, and that the
opposite end of the tappet will be correspondingly
softer and readily machinable so that it may be
readily bored and threaded to receive an adjust- ~
ing element.
Another object is to produce a tappet having a
hard cam engaging and peripheral surface and a
correspondingly softer end portion banded by
harder metal having higher tensile strength than
said soft machinable portion so as to prevent dis-'
tortion and expansion of the adjustment end of
the tappet as a nut for the adjusting screw is
tightened down against the tappet top.
A further object is to provide a cast tappet free
from burned sand, particularly in openings or
windows formed in the peripheral walls for the
parts thereof.
Other objects, features and advantages will be
come apparent from the following description and
appended claims.
7
I
For the purpose of illustrating the genus of the 10
invention, , typical
concrete
embodiments
are
shown in the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a top plan of a permanent molding
machine adapted for casting a barrel type tappet
in accordance with the principles of this inven 15
tion;
4
.
Fig. 2 is an enlarged, fragmentary section taken
in a vertical plane substantially 0n the line 2-2
of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary top plan, similar to Fig.
1, but on an enlarged scale, of a modi?ed form of 20
permanent molding machine constructed accord
ing to the principles of this invention;
Fig. 4 is a vertical section, on an enlarged scale,
taken substantially on the line 4-4 of Fig. 3;
Fig. 5 is a central vertical section taken through
one of the molds and on a radial plane through
the axis of either of the molding machines shown
in Figs. 1 and 3;
~
Fig. 6 is a substantially vertical, central section
through a barrel type tappet, such section being 30
taken approximately as indicated by the line
6—6 of this ?gure;
'
Fig.- 7 is a fragmentary, central vertical section
of a modi?ed form of mold adapted to be em
ployed in casting an open top type of barrel
tappet; and
It is also an object of the invention to provide
a novel method of forming tappet windows of the
type disclosed in my co-pending application Serial
Fig. 7.
In carrying out the present invention, there
,Still another object of the invention is to pro
‘Vide a novel type of mold adapted to employ a core
45 cover of sand or other refractory material for the
purpose of producing relatively soft and machin
able top portion of a tappet.
Another object is to provide a. novel means and
method of locating and centralizing a core for
forming the interior cavity of_ a hollow, barrel type
tappet.
It is also an object of the invention to make
provision for venting gases from the mold of the
55
.
A further object of the invention is to provide a
sectional type mold constructed and arranged so
as to have a cooling’ medium circulated through
purpose of lightening the tappet.
No. 33,719, ?led July 29, 1935.
50
gaging portion of a tappet.
above type.
A further object is to provide a separate and
35
Fig. 8 is a section taken on the line 8-—8 of
_ may be provided an endless carrier, preferably in
the form of a rotatable table l0, illustrated in
Figs. 1 and 2 as carrying a plurality of molds l2.‘
The table II! may be formed by securing to a hori
zontally arranged disc-like part l4, provided with 45
guide ?ange It at its periphery, a plurality‘of
partial sectors H, the latter together forming a
circular ring extended outwardly from part H.
A plurality of partial sectors 20, each provided 50
with an upstanding ?ange 2| slightly spaced from
a. center hub I 5 and a downwardly extending
the outer periphery thereof, are secured to each
of the partial sectors I‘! to form a further circu
lar ring extended outwardly from the ring formed
by the partial sector l1. Bolts l8 may be em
55
amass-1
ployed for securing the partial sectors l1 and 26
together and to the disclike part I 4. A ?ange 2|
is spaced from the periphery of the ring formed
by the partial sectors 26 a sufficient distance to
provide a ledge 22 of awidth equal to one-half
of the width in a radial direction of the molds l2.
The rotatable table I 6 is Journaled through the
hub l6 and a bushing 23 therein for rotation with
respect to a shaft 24. The lower end of shaft 24
10 is supported at the center of a circular support
plate 25 adapted to be mounted in stationary
condition to a suitable base or support, not shown.
The outer portion of the stationary support plate
26 is offset upwardly to provide an upstanding _
'15 shoulder portion 26 terminating in an annular
guide rib 21 adapted to be received in an annular
channel 26 provided in the guide ?ange |6 of the
rotatable disclike part l4. Inwardly, but adja
cent the upstanding shoulder 26, the stationary
20 or bed plate 25 is provided with a ledge 36 afford
ing a horizontal bearing surface for a bearing 3|
upon which a gear 32, ?xed to the ?ange l6 of
rotatable disclike part I4, is adapted to rotate.
' The gear 32 is provided with internally directed
teeth 33 cooperable with a pinion 34 integral with
or ?xed to a pinion shaft 35 for the purpose of
carriers 64.
Springs 16 extending between an
arm 18 provided on each of the brackets 1| and
an arm of bell crank levers 12 normally bias the
rollers 13 into engagement with the outer mar
ginal ‘surfaces of the cam contacts 14.
The swingable mold carriers 64, in practice,
swing about the pivot 65 outwardly through an
angle of approximately 30 degrees when not en
gaged by the roller 13 or other operating means
therefor. Rotation of the table l6 in a clockwise 10
direction as viewed in Fig. 1, causes the cam
contact 14 of each of the swingable mold carriers
64 to successively engage a cam 16 so as to swing
the mold carriers 64 inwardly toward the shaft 24
and to close the mold sections and permit the
rollers 13 of bell crank lever 12 and spring 16
yieldingly to maintain the mold sections in closed '
condition. They cam contacts 14 are provided
with a beveled inner surface 11 engageable with a
cam 16 beyond the series of rollers 13 so that a 20
downwardly ‘projecting lip on cam 18 will cause
opening of the molds as the cam 18 causes out
ward swinging of the mold carriers 64 as indi
cated in Fig. 1. The cams 16 and 18 are carried
by the support member 16.
25
Referring to Figs. 2, 5, and 6, the molds l2 are
rotating the gear 32 to effect rotation of table I6. illustrated-I as comprising sections 66 and 6| sep
A gear mounting sleeve 36 is ?xed to the shaft arable with reference to a vertical parting line 62.
35 and carries a bevel gear 31 adapted to be The main mold sections 66 and 8| are each pro
driven
by a pinion 43 ?xed to or integral with vided with a semi-cylindrical mold cavity 63 so 30
30
shaft 42. The gear casing 46 is provided for that the two cavities form a cylindrical bore ex
supporting bearings 38 for the gear mounting tending vertically and longitudinally through
sleeve 36 and shaft 35 and vbearing 4| for the I each of the separable molds l2. A separate mold
pinion shaft 42. A coupling 44 connects the drive section 64 substantially in the form of a hollow
shaft 45 to pinion shaft 42 so that the rotatable piston, closed at the upper end 85 and provided 35
table I6 may' be operated from any suitable with a cooling ?n 86 so that the separate section
v source of power, not shown, connected to the forms the lower end of the tappet 65, is depicted
in Fig. 5. A pin 81 extending from (the stationary
drive shaft 45.
I
A disclike air shield 56 provided with a suitable main mold section 8| may project through an
opening 86 to determine the elevation of the sep 40
40 central aperture 5| is supported from the up
standing ?anges 2| of partial sectors 26. An up-_ arate section 84. A plurality of such openings 66
standing collar 52 is provided at the margins of may be provided cooperable with the pin 61 so
the central aperture 5| and encloses the lower as to obtain slight variations in the lengths of
end of a suction conduit 53 leading to an exhaust the tappets produced. The separate section 84,
which forms the bottom of the tappet 65, is hol
45 fan, not shown. The space between the elements
l4, l1, and 26 and the air shield 56 constitutes low to form an air passage for the circulation of
a suction passage or chamber operating in con
junction with the suction conduit 53 and the ex
haust fan associated therewith for drawing cool
50 ing air through the molds l2 and parts adjacent
thereto. Openings 55 extend downwardly through
the partial sectors 26 to the interior of a trough
like partial annulus 56 having openings 51 at the
bottom thereof for each of a plurality of headers
55 66 secured thereto by means of bolts 6|. The
headers 66 are each provided with a lug 62 co
operable with ears 63 formed on swingable mold
carriers 64, 'a pivot pin 65 connecting the ears of
each of the swingable mold carriers to the lugs 62
60 of headers 66. The swingable mold carriers 64
are each provided with'a passage 66 therethrough
terminating in a curved conduit 61 having the
axis of pivot pin 65 as a center and projecting
through an opening 68 of header 66 so as to main
65 tain communication at all times between the pas
sages 66 of the swingable vmold carriers and the
interiors of the headers 66. A support 16, sub
stantially of U-section, as viewed in Fig. 2, is ?xed
to the plate 25 and has bolted thereto a plurality
-70 of brackets 1|, one bracket being individual to
each of the swingable mold carriers 64. To the
upper end of each of the brackets 1| is pivotally
connected a bell crank lever 12 provided with a
journaled roller 13 engageable with a cam con
tact 14 provided on each of the swingable mold
cooling air therethrough and, accordingly, its
length is made several times its diameter in order
effectively to cool the same than to attain the
desired chill of the cam engaging end of the tap 60
pet 65. A permanent mold comprising two main
sections separable along a vertical parting line
and provided with impressions 83, enables the
production of tappets very‘ close to the ?nished
diameter desired so as to eliminate as much‘
grinding as possible on the outside surface of the
tappet. The impression 83 in each of the mold
sections 86 and 8| has projections 66 which form
openings in the hollow tappet 65 of the desired
size and shape and extend to the walls of such 60
hollow tappets so as to communicate with a dry
sand core 93 which forms the hollow interior of
the tappet, thereby locating the core in diametri
cally correct position. A locating pin 64 may be
provided in one of said projections for holding 65
the core in the correct vertical position, opening
66 being provided in the core in a predetermined
position to secure the correct vertical elevation
of the core desired.
A permanent mold corrects several dimculties 70
normally encountered in producing tappets in
the ordinary sand mold. It is extremely di?icult
to produce castings by the sand method in order
to obtain close tolerances and eliminate much of
the grinding required for ?nishing the outside 75
2,115,384
surface of the tappets. It is also dit?cult in cast
ing by the sand method to obtain clean castings
free from burned-in sand, especially in the open
ings or windows 92 cast in the periphery of the
tappet for the purpose of lightening the same.
This burned-in sand is very di?icult and expen
sive to remove and undesirable in an internal
combustion engine since the sand frequently
loosens and causes scoring of the tappet or tap
10 pet guide as well as getting into the lubricating
system of the motor so as to endanger bearings »
or other moving parts of an internal combustion
engine.
‘
>
In making the tappet 95 by the permanent
mold method, the latter condition is entirely elim
. inated in the windows 92 of tappet 95, as such
windows are formed by the integral projections
90 in the permanent mold sections 80 and 8|, and
due to the rapid chilling effect of the metal mold
20 sections, the sandof the core 93 does not have a
chance to burn in or on parts of the cast tappet.
Another disadvantage of the tappet-cast by the
sand method is that it is impossible to obtain a
hard peripheral surface and a soft top which is
25 machinable so that it may be bored and threaded
as indicated at 91 in Fig. 6 for the purpose of
receiving an adjusting screw. With both the
main mold sections 80 and 8i and the separate
bottom section 84 of metal, both the cam engag
ing surface of tappet 85 and the entire periphery
of the cylindrical body portion of the tappet will
be of chilled metal entirely through the wall pot
tions of the tappet to theinterior of the tappet
or to the core 93 as long as the'mold sections
35 80, 8|, and 84. are kept in a sufficiently cool condi
tion.
'
-
A top of the tappet may be made softer and
more machinable in order more readily to bore
and to thread the screw holes 91 by providing
40 complementary recesses I00 in the upper part of
the two main sections 80 and 0|, the recesses I00
being adapted to receive a cover core IOI of dry
sand orlother refractory material, for forming
the top or adjustment end of the tappet 95. Due
45 to the refractory nature of the material compos
ing the cover core IOI , the upper end of tappet 95
is not chilled at this point, but is kept in a soft
and readily machinable condition. The cover
core MI is provided with a central aperture I02
50 which serves as a gate for ?lling the mold.
The following analysis of iron aifords an exam
ple of a material suitable for producing an all
chilled tappet, or one that has a cam engaging
surface and'outer periphery of the body chilled
55 but whose top or adjusting screw end may be left
3
of an inch for the purpose of providing passages
for venting gases from the interior of the mold.
The backs of the pouring blocks I03 and I04 are
hollowed out as indicated at I01 and I08 and
communicate with hollowed out portions I09 and
H0 in the backs of the main mold sections 80
and 8| so that cooling air may be circulated about
the mold I2 to maintain the desired temperature
condition thereof and obtain the desired hard
ness of the tappet produced.
l0.
The main mold section 8| is provided with a
passage II2 registrable with a passage II4
through the wall of the separate section 84 so
that cooling air may be drawn in from the bot
tom of the pistonlike separate section 84, around 15
the cooling fin 86, through the passages H4 and
H2 to the hollowed out space II 0 in the back of
main mold section 8|, and thence through an
opening II5 provided adjacent the bottom of the
upstanding ?ange 2I of the partial sector 20 20
which serves as the stationary carrier for main
mold section 8| of mold I2. The upstanding ‘
?ange 2I of the stationary mold carrier 20 is pro
vided with an air passage IIG registrable with
the hollowed out portion I08 of pouring block I04
and another passage II‘I registrable with the up
per portion or the hollowed out chamber IIO of
mold section _8I so that cooling air may be drawn
into the passages H8 and II‘! through the hol
lowed out portions I08 and H0, and thence 30
through the passage II5 to the suction chamber
54 adapted to be exhausted by the suction fan
associated with the, conduit 58. It is noted that
air will take this course irrespective of whether
the mold sections are in open or closed condition. 35
The swingable mold carrier 64 is provided with an
upstanding flange I2I corresponding to the ?ange
2I of the stationary mold carrier 20 and is pro
vided with passages I22 and I23 therethrough.
through which passages air may be drawn into
the hollowed out portions I01 and I09 of main
mold section 80 and thence through the passage
88 and curved conduit 61 of the swingable mold
section 64 to the interior of header 60, thence
through the interior of the supporting element 50
to the suction chamber 54. It is also noted that
air is drawn through this core at all timeswheth
er the swingable mold carrier 84 is in open or
closed position.
,
While cooling of the mold could be effected by
circulating air or other cooling medium in the
reverse direction from that described, in the,
case of air it is preferred to circulate it in the
described direction since this does not cause
excessive amounts of heat, to be given off from 65
the molding machine and thus, does not make
soft for machining purposes, and may consist of:
Carbon 2.75 to 3.50 per cent, silicon 1.70 to 2.60 working conditions disagreeable or even unbear
per cent, phosphorus 0.20 to 0.30 per cent, man
ganese 0.40 to 1.10 per cent, sulphur 0.115 per able for attendants of the machine.
Reference may now be had to Figs. 3 and 4,
cent, and the balance iron.
A pair of pouring blocks I03 and I04 separable ' which disclose a slightly different form of mold 60
along the parting line 82 constitute a two-piece ing machine provided with a rotatable con
veyor I0’ adapted to carry a series of molds I2’
pouring basin at the top of the mold and are pro
vided with cooperable recesses forming a gate I05 in much the same manner as described relative
to the previous embodiment. The conveyor I0’
65 registrable with the opening I02 of cover core
IOI so that the two-piece. pouring basis may serve supports stationary mold carriers 2I' and swing
as a sprue and gate for pouring the casting. The able mold carriers 64' 'of essentially the same
mold surfaces of the main mold sections 80 and construction as previously described. The head
8I preferably treated with a’ refractory facing ers 60' of the present embodiment, however, each
70 and sooted in the manner disclosed in Maloche carry an adjustable support for the pivot 85' of I70
Patents 1,453,593 and 1,492,694. The top of the. the swingable mold carrier 84' which is adapted
cover core IN is arranged substantially flush to be secured in adjusted position by means of
with the top surfaces of the main mold sections the bolts I25. The pivot support I24 is also pro
80 and 8|, except for radially disposed vent vided with a guide member I26 having a forked
grooves I05 cut to _a depth of approximately 0.015 upper end I21 adapted to guide and brace, as
76
4,
2,115,884
well as limit the outward swinging movement of,
' the movable mold carriers 34'.
In the embodiments shown in Figs. 3 and 4
the rollers ‘I3’ are adapted to engage the outer
periphery of ‘cam contacts ‘I4’ for the purpose
‘ of maintaining the mold I2’ in closed condition,
as before. The rollers ‘I3’ are mounted in slide
members "I2’ arranged for reciprocation in re
cesses I30 provided in holders I3I and springs
‘II’ are interposed within suitable bores within
the slide members 12' so that the swingable
members 34’ are maintained in closed condition
under spring pressure. The spring pressure for
maintaining the swingable mold carriers 63',
however, does not exert a lateral thrust upon
the shaft 24’. A support member I32 includes a
bearing I33 within which the shaft 24' is jour
naled, a pair of radially extending arms I34 and
a bridge member I35 upon which the support
described constructions, and many apparently
widely di?erent embodiments of this invention
could be had without departing from the spirit
thereof, it is intended that all matter contained
in the/above description or shown in the accom
panying drawings shall be interpreted as illus
trative, and not in a limiting sense,
What is claimed is:
l. A casting machine comprising, in combina
tion, a movable carrier, a mold including two l0
main sections parted vertically, each section hav
ing a mold impression cooperable with the im
pression of the other section for forming a mold
cavity and a separate section forming the bot
tom wall of such mold cavity, a dry sand core 15
within the mold cavity, a cover core, said main
mold sections each being provided with a recess
for receiving a portion of said cover core, and
means for circulating a cooling medium through
said carrier and through each of the mold sec
blocks I3I are mounted by means of bolts I30.
tions, said cover core being constructed‘ of re
The bolts I25 and I36 both pass through en'
fractory material to shape one end of the casting
larged openings or slots in the header member ‘formed
but to prevent chilling of the castingat
30' and bridge member I35 so, that the pivot of. this point so as to maintain such end of the cast
the-swingable mold carrier 64’ may be adjusted
soft and machinable condition.
and thus permit proper alignment of the mold ing2. inA acasting
machine comprising, in combina
sections when the molds are in closed condition
tion,
a
movable
carrier, a mold including two
and also permit adjustment of the mounting
sections parted vertically, each section [hav
blocks I3I so that the tension of springs ‘I5’ may main
be adjusted to. vary the spring pressure exerted ing a mold impression cooperable with the im
pression of the other section for forming a mold 30
for maintaining the molds in closed condition. . cavity
and a separate section forming the bottom'
A roller carrier I3‘I is bolted to the outer ends of
the arms I34 and pivotally supports a plurality wall of such mold cavity, said main mold sec
tions each being provided with a recess adjacent
of rollers I38 arranged in a circular series with
the upper end thereof, a core composed of re
the axis of‘shaft 24’ as a center. The rollers fractory material arranged within the mold
I33 bearaupon the backs of the flanges 2|’ of the
cavity, a cover core of refractory material ar-_
stationary mold carriers 20’ so as to relieve the
ranged
within the recesses of said main section
shaft 24’ of lateral pressure exerted by the and adapted
to shape one end of the casting
springs 15’ in maintaining the molds ' I2’ in closed
formed but to prevent chilling of such end of
condition. Cams ‘I6’ and ‘I8’ serve to open and
to close the molds I2’ as before. The construc
tion of the molds I2’ and the construction and
arrangement of the cooling system for the molds
and associated parts is essentially the same as
that described relative to the embodiment shown
45 in Figs. 1, 2, and 5.
- Reference may now be had to Figs. 7 and 8,
which disclose a modi?ed form of mold adapted
to cast an open top type of tappet 95’. In this
mold construction, the main mold sections 80’,
50 and BI’ are not recessed adjacent the top thereof
and no cover core corresponding to the core IOI
of Fig. 5 is employed. Pouring blocks I03 and
I04 providing a central gate I05 are employed
as in the previously described embodiment. The
55 core 93’, in the present instance, extends up
wardly to a point closely adjacent the bottom
surface of the pouring blocks I03 and I04 and is
enlarged’ and axially grooved in its periphery
adjacent the upper end thereof sothat plurality,
, of ‘pouring sprues I40, four of such sprues being
indicated in Figs. 7 and 8, are formed during
the casting of the tappet 95’. Windows are
formed in the side walls of the tappet 05’ in
much the same manner as depicted in Figs. 5
65 and 6. A separate section 84’ is provided for
forming the cam engaging ‘portion of the tappet
35’. The main sections 30’ and Ill’ and the
separate section 84’ are cooled to the desired
temperatures as before so as to chill the cam
70 engaging and peripheral portion of the tappet
to obtain the desired hardness and wearing
'qualities of the tappet formed.
. _ As many‘ changes could be made in the above
the casting so as to maintain the same in a 40
soft and machinable condition, and means for
circulating a cooling medium through said car
rier and through each of said mold sections, said
cover core being provided with a central opening
therethrough so as to form a gate for ?lling the
mold cavity.
'
-
3. A casting machine comprising, in combination, a movable carrier, a mold including two
main sections parted vertically, each section hav—
ing a mold impression cooperable with the im
pression of the other section for forming a mold
cavity and a separate section forming the bottom
wall of such mold cavity, said main mold sec
tions each being provided with a recess adjacent "
the upper end thereof, a core composed of re
fractory material arranged within the mold
cavity, a cover core of refractory-material ar
ranged within the recesses of said main section
and adapted to shape one end of the casting
formed but to prevent chilling of such end of
the casting so as to maintain the same in a
soft and machinable condition, and means for
circulating a cooling medium through said car
rier and through each of said mold sections, said
cover core being provided with a central opening 65
therethrough so as to form a gate for ?lling the
mold cavity, the upper surface of said cover core
being arranged ?ush with the upper surface of
said main mold section and said main mold sec
tions each being provided with a groove in the
upper surface thereof for venting gases from the
mold cavity.
'
~
JOSEPH L. DOSTAL.
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