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Патент USA US2115441

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April 26, 1938.
Filed Feb. 1, 1957
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
April 26, 1933. 1
2,115,441 '
Filed Feb. 1, 1937
'2 Sheets-Sheet 2
®\ 1.
Patented Apr. 26, 1938
James J. Black, Cincinnati, Ohio, assignor to The
Trailer Company of America, Cincinnati, Ohio,
a corporation of Delaware
Application February 1, 1937, Serial No. 123,333
2 Claims. (Cl. 153-22)
Figure 6 is a perspective view showing the third
This invention relates to the art of forming
sheet metal structures and is particularly directed - step in which the opened channel strip receives
to a new and improved process or method of ‘ two more bends between the angle forming dies
forming sheet metal posts, or beams, or other ‘completing the forming of the four corners of
6 tubular structures. These posts, or beams, or the
Figure 7 is an end view of the metal strip at the
tubular structures may be used for a wide variety
of purposes. As exemplary, they may form part
of the framework of truck and trailer bodies.
It has been the object of the present invention
10 to provide an improved method of forming tubu
lar structures in a more efficient manner than has
prevailed heretofore, particularly with respect to
the ?nal tube closing operation. It has been the
further object to provide an improved method of
fabricating tubular structures in whichmethod
the number of dies required to form the struc
ture has been reduced to a minimum.
These objects have been accomplished with
the result that the tubular structures are formed
more e?iciently and are more uniform in shape.
completion of this operation and prior to the
removal of the temporary center bend.
Figure 8 is a perspective view showing the clos
ing of the section by removing the center bend
by means‘ of a straightening die substituted for the 10
corner forming die for this purpose.
Figure 9 is an end view of the work after this
Figure 10 is a perspective view showing the
completion of the tube.
Figure 11 is an end view of the completed tube.
Figure 12 illustrates another sheet metal tubu
iar structure formed by the method of this in
Figure 13 is a perspective view showing the 20
There has been a material lessening of die costs
of the tubular structure of Figure 12
and the added ability to use the same dies for
forming up a multitude of tubular forms. An by the straightening of the center bend by means
unlimited variety of cross sectional configurations of dies in the same manner as previously dis
may be provided through the medium of a very closed.
Figures 14, 15, 16 and 1'7, illustrate various
2 simple set of dies.
other sheet metal sections which may be formed
Otherwise described, the present invention re
sides in the method of bending the sheet metal‘ by this method, the views showing the open and
closed positions of the structures as previously
into channels of various forms and angles 'with
out the use of mandrels leading up to a final die
30 operation which bends the channel or semi
formed tubular ‘structure into a completed tube
in a single pass by the use of dies or pressing
means approaching the semi-formed tubular
structure from opposite sides and active on one
35 side wall particularly through the open side of the
Referring to the. drawings, the blank strip of 30
sheet metal stock, indicated at I0, is of the proper
width to form,- after being worked, the rectan
gular tube form ll, shown ‘in Figures 8 and 9.
The various sections which may be fabricated by
the method of this invention may be of any length
channel. In other words the tubular structure
required. In the drawings, for convenience, only
is formed in sections at each side, of a bend and is
a partial length is shown.
thereafter completed by a. pressing action on the
bend causing an articulation Orhinging action
4 O bringing the sections together.
Other objects andfurther advantages will be
more fully apparent from the description of the
accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a perspective view of a length of
45 sheet metal stock to be formed into a rectangular
tube as an example of one form which may be
fabricated by the method of .this invention.
Figure 2 is a perspective view showing the ?rst
in forming the tube in which two right angle
bends are produced between the angle forming
dies to form a channel of the sheet metal strip.
Figure 3 is an end view of the completed chan
nel strip.
Figure 4 is a perspective view showing the sec
ond step in which the channel is opened by a
third temporary bend along the center of its back
by means of the same dies.
Figure 5 is an end view of the work, at the com
pletion of the operation of Figure 4.
The initial formation of the sections is accom
plished between the angle forming die I2 and
stationary die IS. The dies l2 and iii are mount 40
ed in any metal breaking press suitable for this
class of work. The die l2, cooperating with the
die l3, has a knife-like or relatively sharp edge
and the die l3, has a V-slot it; in its upper face.
In performing its bending function, the upper die
l2 descends upon the work which has been placed
on the upper face of the die I3 across the V-slot
I4. The sheet metal ‘iiérbent across the edge of
the die 12, the metal being supported at each
side upon the shoulders at the top of the V-slot. 50
The degree of the angle thus formed in the work
depends upon the distance the edge of the die I!
descendsinto the V-slot at the upper surface of
the die, which is determined by the operator of
the press.
The method of this invention is put to a varied
practice and is of particular‘ value in forming
sheet metal structural. beams and other forms
utilized in the fabrication of the framework of
truck and trailerbodies. The formation of the 60
rectangular tube, illustrated in Figures 2 to 9,
' illustrates the method of this invention.
die II; that is a little past the point at which
it would straighten the wall I. of the tubular
structure. This is done so that the wall will be
straight when it springs'back a slight amount
when released by the dies, which springing occurs 91
the second bend in the blank strip of metal to normally after the bending of plate material.
form it into a channel. The lines of bend are so ' ‘This brings the adjacent edges of the portions I‘,
Referring .to Figures 2 and 3 of the drawings
illustrating the ?rst step in the method of form
ing the tube, the upper die is shown completing
spaced from the edges to provide bent portions
i5, i5 of a width to form a side wall of the tube
when'the portions are bent into the opposed
relationship shown in succeeding operations.
The value of the present simplified method of
forming sheet metal sections lies in the facility
with which a wide variety of hollow angular sec
tions may be formed on a standard die press
. utilizing but one set of bending dies for'the vari
ous forms. This method, besides permitting the
shaping ofclosed tubular sections by a series of
simple bending operations, also expedites the
forming of any combination of angular bends to
comprise a particular shape as desired.
' The ?exibility of this method as to the variety
of shapes which may be executed is due to the
method through which the various angles are
formed by direct bending between dies and elim
ination of the use of mandrels for de?ning the
desired shape. Since the sectionsuare required
to be of considerable length, the use of mandrels
would be di?icult and expensive.
The principle of directly forming the angles
of the hollow sections between bending dies with
I5, against the sides of the’ moving die and when
thedie is withdrawn, these edges tend to spring
together to the point where they substantially 0
touch. There remains, however, a relatively narrow slit 20 which is removed as set forth here
The resulting beam is now substantially rectangular in cross section and is complete with
the exception of the elimination of the slit 20
remaining centrally of the upper side wall which
is to be removed in the next operation. It will
be noted at this point that the corners i1, i1
previously formed were so located to provide a 20
wall l8 somewhat wider than the opposite par
allel wall as formed by the two portions l5, l5,v
so that the adjacent edges of the two portions do '
not abut, there being a sufficient amount of
clearance therebetween to permit the insertion
and removal'of the straightening die IS.
The ?nal step in the method of forming the
hollow rectangular section is shown in Figures
10 and 11. In this operation the work is disposed
between dies 2| and 22 to close the slit 20. ‘The 30
out the use of a mandrel to sustain the walls of
seam’ 23 thus formed at this abutment is in some
instances welded shut in order to strengthen the
the hollow section against collapse is predi
?nished beam.
cated upon the practice hereinafter disclosed.
After the preliminaryoperatlon of forming the
blank into the channel form of Figures 2 and 3,
it is obvious that it would be impossible to pro
' ceed to form the next two angles to complete
the rectangle in the same manner, as the angle
40 forming die l2 must work on the inside of the
hollow tube through an open side thereof. In
order to provide the required open side for the
die to enter the section, the channel is now
turned upside down'and bent centrally as at l6,
‘so as to form a shape somewhat like an M, as
shown in Figures 4 and ,5 of the drawings, this
operation being in this instance, the second step
in the method.
This third break Ii is temporary and is sub
50 ject to removal after the next operation and is
the basis of the present invention. It will be
noted that the channel is thus opened outwardly,
providing suflicientlclearance for the entry of
the upper die ‘I! to form the next two necessary
55 angles or corners in the section as shown in Fig
ures 6 and 7. The treatment of the work at this
point consists in forming'a right angle bend I‘I
medially of each of the legs of the middle por
tion of v the M.
The resulting shape ‘may be
60 described as an angularly disposed pair of U
shapes Joined at the temporary break. .This
operation comprises the third step in the forma
tion of the rectangular section by this method.
Figures 8 and 9 illustrate the fourth operation
in the forming of the section. This operation
consists, in removing the temporary bend or
break previously formed and producing a straight
side wall 18 which articulation or hinge action
results in bringing the U-shapes to an opposed
70 relationship, thus creating the rectangular shape
of the section as shown.
As‘ shown in Figure 8, the die I! is relatively
thin, providing however a straight lower edge
Ila for engaging the temporary bend. This die
75 passes slightly below the surface of the lower
Several other forms of hollow sections formed
by this method are illustrated in Figures 12 to 17 35
of the drawings. These various cross sections
are shown to illustrate the. variety of con?gura
tion which may be formed by the present method.‘
It will be readily understood from these views
that the method is applicable to a large variety 40
of shapes and sizes of beams and posts.~ The
forms illustrated have‘ been fabricated by the
same method as disclosed in connection with the
rectangular tube with the exception of havingv
different combinations and a greater number of 45
right angle bends. Since the method of forming
these con?gurations is identical to that employed
in the forming of the rectangular tube, no show
ing is made of these steps in the drawings. The
final steps show the removal of the temporary’,
bend for completing the semiécompleted forms.
Having described my invention, I claim:
1. The method of forming a tubular structure
comprising the steps of ; bending a strip of sheet
metal to form a channel,- temporarily bending 55
the back wall of the channel by pressure applied
at the back side thereof, forming additional
bends in the back wall by, pressure applied
through the open side of the channel for com
pleting the side walls and, thereafter straighten 60
ing the temporarily formed bend by applying
pressure to it through the open side of the chan
nel for substantially closing the tubular structure.
2. The method of forming a tubular structure
from an open channel strip of sheet metal con 65
sisting of; temporarily bending the channelstrip .
by pressure applied ‘longitudinally of the ‘back
thereof for temporarily opening the channel,
making the ?nished bends along the channel by
dies, one of which engages the inner side of the 70
channel, and thereafter straightening the tem
porary. bend by pressure ‘applied through the
open side ofthe channel for substantially closing 7
the same.
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