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Патент USA US2115459

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April 26, 1938.
2 Sheets-Shee’c 1
Filed Jan. 3, 1936
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April 26, 1938.
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Filed Jan. 5, 1956
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Chalmem' LUGz'lbePt.
Patented Apr. 26, 1938
Chalmers W. Gilbert, Swissvale, Pa., assignor to
The Union Switch & Signal Company, Swiss
vale, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania
Application January 3, 1936, Serial No. 57,357
9 Claims.
(Cl. 246-46)
My invention relates to railway trañîc control
ling apparatus, and particularly to railway sig
naling systems utilizi g signals each comprising
a mechanism and a lamp.
One feature of my invention consists in im
proved and novel means for approach controlling
the signal mechanisms and lamps, so that the
mechanism and lamp for each signal are both
1 normally deenergized and become energized when
a train is approaching the signal with which
such mechanism and lamp are associated. In
signal systems of the type herein involved, it is
customary to rely upon primary batteriesl lo
C31 cated along the trackway as the source of energy
for controlling and operating the signal mech
anisms and for lighting the signal lamps. By
my invention, a saving of the current output re
quired from these batteries, which must be re
newed from time to time, is accomplished. This
results in a material reduction in the cost of
I will describe several forms of apparatus em
bodying my invention, and will then point out the
novel features thereof in claims.
In the accompanying drawings, Fig. 1 is a di
agrammatic view illustrating one form of sig
naling system embodying my invention. Figs. 2
and 3 are diagrammatic views illustrating mod
ifications of portions of the system shown in Fig.
30 1, and each also embodying my invention.
Similar reference characters refer to similar
parts in each of the several views.
In order to simplify the drawings, certain con
3 Ul tacts are located at points not adjacent to the re
lays controlling the contacts. In each such in
stance, the reference character of the governing
relay is placed just above the contact, and the
contact is shown in a position corresponding to
4 O the normal condition of the relay. For example,
the back contact 24 in the upper left-hand por
tion of Fig. 1 is governed by the approach light
ing relay 2ER, and this contact is shown opened
inasmuch as the relay is normally energized.
Referring ñrst to Fig. 1, the rails 4 and 5 of
a stretch of railway track over which traiìc nor
mally moves in the direction indicated by the
arrow are divided by insulated joints 6 into
track sections IT, 2T and 3T. Each track sec
50 tion is provided with a trackcircuit including a
source of current, such as a battery 'I, and a
track relay designated by the reference character
R with a prefix the same as the reference char
acter for the associated track section.
Trañic' movements over this stretch of railway
track are governed by signals spaced along the
stretch. Only signals 2 and 3 are shown in the
drawings, but it is to be understood that there
may also be similar signals in the rear of sig
nal 2 and in advance of signal 3. These signals
may be of any suitable type, and as here shown 5
are searchlight signals, such for example, as
described and claimed in United States Letters
Patent No. 1,864,224, granted June 2l, 1932, to
W. B. Wells, for Light signal. For the purpose
of this application, it is deemed sufûcient to but 10
briefly describe these signals.
Signal 2, for example, includes a .rotor I2
mounted to oscillate, and controlled by a per
manent magnet (not shown) and by an operat
ing winding I3. Energization of operating wind 15
ing I3 by current of a given polarity causes ro
tor I2 to be'rotated in a corresponding direc
tion, moving the signal to the clear indication
position; energization of operating winding I3
by current of the reverse polarity causes- rotor
I2 tov be rotated in the opposite direction to move
the signal to the caution indication position;
while deenergization of operating winding I3 per
mits rotor. I2 to be returned by gravity to a center
position, which is the stop indication position.
Associated With rotor I 2 is a signal lamp 2E?.
As pointed out in detail in the aforementioned
patent, when rotor I2 is rotated to the clear
position, a green colored ñlter is moved in front
of lamp 2E, causing a green signal light to be 30
displayed whenlamp 2E is lighted. When rotor
I2 is rotated to the caution indication position,
a yellow colored ñlter is moved in front of lamp
2E, so that, with lamp 2EI lighted, a yellow sig
nal light is displayed. In like manner, the posi 35
tioning of rotor I2 in the center position moves
a red colored iilter in front of lamp 2E and a red
signal light is then displayed Whenever lamp 2E
is energized.
Rotor I 2 actuates a set of circuit controlling 40
contacts in such a manner that the contact
I4-I 5 is closed only in the clear position and the
contact IG-Il is closed only in the caution posi- '
The reference characters G and Y are
placed adjacent the contacts, indicating that the
contacts are closed in the clear and caution posi
tions, respectively.
Each of the other signals, including signal 3,
functions in a manner similar to that described
for signal 2.
The source of energy for operating each signal
mechanism and the relays associated with the
control circuit for the same signal mechanism,
and also for lighting the signal lamp for the
next signal in advance, is a battery of proper 55
' 2
iore, that when approach lighting relay 2ER be
Y at the next signal in advance.
Y Voltage locatedY
cornes deenergized„so that its back contact 2Q
is closed, operating winding I3 of signal 2 will
In the drawings, these batteries are not shown,
the`two> terminals for each ’battery being desig
. hated byV the referenceV characters B and N withV a
' be energized by current
of one polarity or an- '
other depending upon the condition of pole
prefix the same asV the reierencecharacter of the
signal at vwhich the batteryv is located. For, ex
ample, the reference character 3B designates the
changing relay 3H?, provided, of course, that
positive Vterminal of the'battery located at signal
the rectiñer: 2Q to vthe line circuit that controtis Y
signal 2.
111; will also> be noted that both signal 2 and
3 for operating the mechanism fof» signal 2 Vand
3ER, and for lighting the lamp
sectionîT is unoccupied. ¿It will be noted that>
pole changing relay ZI-IP is connected through
Arelays 2HP and
' ior'signal 3, and the reference character V."-lN- y relay >ZI-IP- are energized through resistor 2AV
' designates. the'negative terminal of the same bat-_Y
when contact 23 of relay 2HE’ is open. Resistor
relay RHP and theV
ìAretards Vthe pick~V up oi
operation of signal 2 so Vthat both relay 2HE’ and
operating'winding I3 of signal 2 have a siow
« 15
pick-up ’ cl'iaracteristic.V This feature prevents
, _
a'momentary clear indication in the event that
ZTR Vbecomes energized before relay Til-IP V20
Vfor the Vassociated signal'.V Each relay HP‘is con
when a high speed light engine passes
the sectionrirnrnefjr,v
2T into section 3T.
1_20 diately'inY advance of thel associatedïsignal. ,
Each signaland its associated HP' Vrelay Y Íis
' "Í Each relayLHPfhas a'picläup circuit includingV controlled through` aV resistorV A in the same ' `
la resistor designatedby the _reference character Y manner as Vjust described for signal 2. Y ~
A with a prefix whichis the same asthe'rei‘erencejV VEach signal lamp VE is controlled Aby circuits
signal, and has a which are governed by contacts vof the approach
2.5 character forY the >associated
Ythe resistorlA of ï lighting relay and the'pole'changing relay ior
Vstick circuit which'
Associated'with each signal is a pole changer
relay designated by the reference character HP
Vthe same ask the reference
with a prefix which is
VEach relay'
Vcharacter of the associated> signal.
HP also controls, Yin part, the .lighting circuitsAV
its pickup circuit. ¿Each resistor A reduces the
" current in fthevpickupfcircuit ior'the VVassociated
the, signalwith which?such lamp is associated,
aswell as >by contacts of the
mechanisrnfor that ' i.
. relay AI-IP to such an extent thatthe relay HP is signal,Y For'example, lamp 2E is provided with v 30
`liìachrelay HP, upon picking . three circuits; One circuit passes from terminal
slow in picking up.
up, becornes energized >byits stick circuit which, ì 2B, through the irontpoint-of Contact it Vof relay
not including‘the resistor Aior
Y HP, and“
its relayV
its relay`fHP,
2H?, back contact ,IIY of relay 2ER, clear contact
andjlamprlEE to terminalV
Ill-I5 Yof Vsignal 2,
from terminal
onV account of
therefore causes its'relay Al-lPjto be slow in refY
' 2N;
contact Iii of relay! t,
through the front pointoí
noted that each relay Hläis controlled' i*" 2B,
,ItV will'b'e
ZHP., back contact I I'of relay 2ER,'cauticn con#
y leasing.
' j`
Y` j
TheV second circuit passes’V
over a line circuit Vthrough Ya full-wave Arectifier
andlamp 2E to terminal
' »designated by thereîerenc’eV character, Q with a IEN. The third circuitr passes from terminal 2B, 'j .
preñx which is `thef’sarnre as theI The
through therback’point'of contact Iii of relayA
` '.fthereiore, _are
Y therefore, that whenthe me
ï VVcontrol circuits.; DueY to Vthis
Vbe. lighted when approach _lighting relay' '2ER .
rection, >regardless'rof the polarity vof Y.thexline
is"r in its îclearor caution condition, lamp 2EY willn
becomes deenergized in response to the occupancy
o_f section >ITby 'a train, and that/,when the mech@V Y
~. these relays do not vopen'their"iront Y,contactsY when '
VslowY release feature which is helped Yby »snub
.through Vthe associated rectiñersg
Yloing , circuits
actor of the associated fsignal.
; ZHP, and lamp 2E tovterniinal 2N. 1t will Ice'seen,V Y `
always îenergized‘ inthe' saine 'di-`Y
chanisrn oi signal'r'r>
Y Y -
anism" of signal 2’ is Ain its stop> condition', Alamp
the line circuits Yarepole-changed. _This feature Y 2E will `'.be Vlighted when Vrelay '2i-IP becomes
" ' prevents'tumble-downY offthe signals in the rearY deenergizedin response' to the occupancy of sec
oi polarity ofïthe line circuits; tion 2Tiby a train;- Accordingly, when signaloì
1 y `during* changes
is Yan' ‘approachV
.leach signal
Yis infits 'clear or cautionposition,> lamp 2E will n.502" I
j 507rf lightingl relay designated .¿ byftheì- reference Ychar
be {lighted} onlywhen a 'train Aoccupies YsectionV
acter ER Vwitha prefix which is'the saine ,asV the l Yi IT, but when section 2T is occupied„lamp 2E- l
-' Y
referenceçcharacter tof the V"associated signal. Y
’ :Each ERrelay'isconnected inrseries 'with the, Hl? _
will be lighted regardless of whether section iT. ; „
signal next in rear.. , :
f over
" ¿ the
¿Each signal >mechanism is
line circuit that Ycontrols` the associatedn poles, '
changing relay
Qperatinglrwinding I3', of'
is'not occupied.
I with au parts of the apparatus 1n' >„the normal
condition, that is, with the operating Ywindings I3k e ¿_V
signals deenergized and with> the lamps
Er extinguished,
I shall >assume that a train 'travelL " coi`Y
signal 2, for exam 'le,iscontrolle’d' over afcircvzuitY ling inthe direction
indicated bythe arrow enters
Qwhich, whenrelay SHP isÃen'ergi'zed, passes from >section IT, so that track relay ’ITB
.terminal 3B, throughvthe Winding lof approach Ydreenergized. ‘When relay I'TR Y is
3ER., iront Ípoint vorfc’ontact`2I oí ;
« lighting relay
2H, front contact'
22 of track 5
willbecomev Y
deenergized, l I
lapproach lighting relay 2ER also will be Ydeen- K ~
its backcontacts II and fini/will
relay Y ZTR; iront' contact "23 . of relay 2H?, -bacläYV iergized, so that When’back contact 24 is closed,
>contact >24 oi approach lighting 'relay 2ER; oper;l
operatingswihding ',Ißjoiwsignal 2 will be ener@ 1
ating Winding I3 of signal 2,'wireQ2C, and
giz'ed by f current oiv normal polarity over `the '»
" relay BHPfwire
winding, I3 `of' signalaZ passes Vfr nr` terrnlinajl 3B,
previously ’traced Yline circuit, so that’the mecha
nism of signal 2 willçbe operated' to the 'proceed
position.A Signal mechanismV contact III-_i5 will
through the winding
Vthslœ'fore _become closed to complete the first vof ,
.3i-IP iis ¿deenergizedv the Ycircuit for
.'circuit's'for’lamp 2E.
nal 2, therefore,¿will indicate >proceed toft'heï:` `
winding -I 3,Íback; contact §24
Y‘ 'contacteur reiayzrre, from' Contact >2z ,çnf---ieiayV Vapplica@.hilos«Torelli-LY
2TH., ’wirej2H; andV b_aclrirr point jof îcontact:2515err` vrwhen,„the_ tramk enters » ',Seßltìon , 2T, *S09 that ,
Lmay» enritoterminal 3151;, 1t winne sesn,_tnere¿¿
track rela’y2'I‘R becomes deenergized, the open
ing of front contact 22 of relay 2TH, will cut
off energy from the mechanism of signal 2 and
from relay ZI-IP.y Signal 2, therefore, will as
sume its stop condition, and lamp 2E will be
lighted over the previously traced lamp circuit
which includes the back point of Contact It) of
relay 2I-IP.
When the train vacates section IT, so that its
track relay again becomes energized, approach
lighting' relay 2ER will also become energized.
The circuit for operating winding I3 of signal
2 is already open at contact 22 of relay ZTR, but
will now be opened also at contact 24 of relay
2ER. Operating winding I3 of signal 2, there
fore, will remain deenergized until the first train
leaves section 2T and until another train enters
section IT.
When the first train enters section 3T, so that
20 track relay STR becomes deenergized, the open
ing of its front contact 3i! will cause relay SHP
to become deenergized. The deenergization of
relay SHP will reverse the polarity of the cur
rent supplied to the line circuit for signal 2, so
that in the event of a following train occupying
section I'I‘, signal 2 will display the caution in
dication when the i'lrst train vacates section 2T.
The picking up of track relay 2TR again closes
the circuit for relay 2HP, so that this relay be
30 comes energized. When relay ZHP is energized,
the third circuit traced for lamp 2E will be open
due to the opening of the back point of contact i'?
of relay 2HP. The second circuit traced for
lamp 2E will then be closed on account of con
35 tact II) of relay ZHP being closed at its front
When the ñrst train leaves section 3T, so that
relay 3TH again becomes energized, relay SHP
will be energized, so that the line circuit for sig
40 nal 2 will be energized in the normal direction.
A following train entering section IT will now
find signal 2 displaying the clear indication.
Referring next to Fig. 2, it will be noted that
resistor 2A is connected between relay ZHP and
rectifier 2Q instead of in the signal line circuit,
and that signal 2 is governed by a iront contact
3! of relay 2H?. It will be readily apparent that
resistor 2A causes relay ZHP to have a slow pick
up characteristic, and that signal 2 will neces
50 sarily be slow to respond to the energization of
its line circuit, since operating winding I 3 can not
be energized until after relay 2HE’ has closed its
front contacts. Otherwise, signal 2 and its as
sociated apparatus functions in a manner simi
55 lar to that described for the apparatus shown in
Fig. l.
It will be understood that each of the signals
and associated pole changing relays of a signal
ing system embodying my invention may be con
a substantially constant value since, when op
erating winding I3 is deenergized, on account of
relay 2ER being energized, so that the voltage
across the line control circuit at rectifier 2Q is
relatively high, resistor 2F is eiîective for re
ducing the current received by relay 2li-IP where
as, when signal 2 and relay ZHP are both ener
gized so that the voltage across the line circuit
is relatively low, resistor 2F is rendered ineiïec 10
It is to be understood that each of the signals
and associated relays HP of a signaling system
embodying my invention may be controlled in
the modified manner shown in Fig. »3. lThis 15
modification is particularly adapted for use un
der conditions where the voltage of the line cir
cuit may vary over such a wide range as to in
terfere with the slow acting characteristics of
the pole changing relays. Furthermore, the re 20
sistors F result in a saving of energy since they
prevent excessive overenergization of the relays
While I have herein shown and described my
invention as applied to stretches of railway 25
track over which trains normally move in only
one direction, it is understood that my invention
may also be applied to stretches of railway track
over which trains move in both directions.
From the foregoing description of several forms 30
of apparatus embodying my inventiomit is ap
parent that I have provided a simple and reliable
means for effecting a saving of energy in a rail
way signaling system. 'I'he signal mechanisms
and associated lamps are normally deenergized, 35
and are arranged to become energized only when
a train is in the vicinity of such signals. Since,
under normal conditions, the usual stretch of
railway track is unoccupied for the greater por
tion of time, my invention will result in an appre 40
ciable saving in maintenance costs, particularly
when the energy is supplied by primary batteries.
Although I have herein ‘shown and described
only a few forms of apparatus embodying my in
vention, it is understood that various changes
and modifications may be made therein within 45
the scope of the appended claims without de
parting from the spirit and scope of my inven
Having thus described my invention, what I
the associated approach lighting relay 2ER is
deenergized. For example, when relay 2ER be
cornes deenergized so that its back contacts 24
and 32 become closed, operating winding I 3 be
comes energized, and relay ZHP is energized
through the branch path including the back
point of contact 32. The value of resistor 2F is
so chosen as to compensate for the dropin lvolt
75 age due to the energization of operating winding
claim is:
1. In combination, a stretch of railway track,
a signal for said stretch, a relay governed in ac
cordance with trafñc conditions in advance of
said signal, a second relay governed in accord
ance with traflic conditions in the rear of said 55
signal, a lamp for said signal, circuits for light
ing said lamp controlled by said two relays, and
a mechanism for said signal controlled by said
trolled in a manner similar tothat shown in l second
Fig. 2.
Referring now to Fig. 3, the reference charac
ter 2F designates a resistor connected between
the line control circuit for signal 2 and the asso
65 ciated rectiñer 2Q. A branch path is provided
around resistor 2F, which path is closed when
I3. That is, relay 2HP ís energized by current of
2. In combination, a stretch of railway track,
a signal having a normally inoperative mech
anism associated therewith for said stretch, con
tacts governed by said mechanism, a relay gov
erned in accordance with traffic conditions in 65
advance of said signal, a second relay governed
in accordance with traffic conditions in the rear
of said signal, a lamp for said signal, circuits for
said lamp governed by said two relays and by
said contacts, and means controlled by trañ‘lc
conditions adjacent said signal and conditioned 70
by a train approaching said signal for operat
ing said signal mechanism.
3. In combination, a stretch of railway track,
a signal for said stretch, a line circuit for re
j' >alliages;
the rear of said ñrst signal, meansYV for ¿con?V '
versibly'governi‘ng said signal in accordanceV with VYin
necting said ñrst signal with said line circuit
i [traffic conditions in advance> ofthe signal when when a train is approaching the first signal, 'and
Í' said signal Áis Vconnectedfvvith said ’line circuit, means including a resistor and controlled by _Y
'al neutral' relay rforgreversibl'y' governingv the trañic conditions in the rear ofY said ñrst' signal
i signal next inthe rear, a rectifier for connecting.
Ysaid' neutral' relay Wirth saidfline circuit, andan
/approach'relay 'for connecting said-nrst signal
if Y
for maintaining the‘current supplied to said ¿relay f
?at a substantially constant ‘value regardless ofï
whether said first signal is connected to or dis-n' y'
1 with said Vline circuit when afltrain'isY approach-_V connectedfrom said line circuit.V ,-~
~7. In combination, a stretch of railway track, i0
4'. In‘ combination, a stretch offrailvvay track, a signal comprising >a mechanism and a lamp ‘for
lineV circuit governed Y
_ governingrtrafñc movements into said stretch, afi e
.a signal for said-stretcl'l,A a
" inaccordance with traffic conditionsin advance relay, a resistor, aY circuit includingY saidrresistor
ing saidliirst signal.Y
' >1c i
and controlledrby trañic conditions adjacentosaid
signal for energizing said mechanism in multiple 115 n
Y ' ofy the ' signal for controlling said signal when
Vsaidfsignal is- connected. to said line'` circuit, a’
normally »energized slow‘pickup Yrelay îconnected
. with said relay With
current forfsaid circuit
of ' Y "
l " relay arranged to »be deenergized’ when a train>> i Y mechanism Vand relay are slow infpicking up,>> a . ì
’ l
to said line circuit, a normally energized approach
is1approaching Vsaidsignal, and means including
front Contact of said `relay connected in multiplef f
*afron’t contact; offsaidslow pickup relay anda
approach relay forg-con-y
S2011 Vloaclf: ico-'ntact `Vof said
line circuit.
"Y ‘ ,nectingf said signal Vto
V5. lnïcombination, a Vstretch of railway track,Y
a'signal'íor said-stretch„a Yline circuit governed
with said'resistor for increasing thercurrent sup-VV
_pliedïtovrsaid relay
and circuits controlled byY said'relay and by` said Y
Vmechanism for lighting' said Vlamp.`
V8. lIn combination, arstr'etch of railvvay> track;
f~ l ¿ 25Jr
_ Vin"acrzcordance ,withftraflîlc Vconditions inadvance
of ,said signal forrcontrolling said signal'when
a signalcomprising
a lamp
into saidrv
ai ~ ~`
said signal is connected ton saidgline'circuit, a re#
»lay :for _governing the signal Vnext inlthe ;rear,
to make said relay Vslo'vv-rto re-V «l 1
lease Whenëthe circuit is subsequently opened,
to the V,proceed orv caution _
~ mechanism Yoperable
"means'including a current'limiting resistor for'4 ` condition by current _of normal‘or reverseîpolarlty;VY
'so' Y’
connecting saidY relay withfsaid line circuit, a respectively,
aA relay, a rectifier, a circuitV con-"ff
30 V4second.l relay for connecting saidrñrstcsìgnal with trolled by trahie conditions'adjacent said signal
said'vline circuit when a'train isapproaching the :for energizlngsaid relay throughY said rectifier
Viìrst signal, andmeans including a Vcontact ofA ' byrrcurrent> ci?V a given polarity and for energizingY
Y said second relayforrenderingsaidresistor in- ‘
lsaid mechanism in multiple WirthV saidr rectifier
V'e’i’lîective-,Wlcer'i said first signal iis connected to and relay hyÍcurrent of »normal and »reverse polar.;V 3.5:/
f Y35. said‘line circuit thereby. maintaining Ythe current
ities,> and means controlled by saidY relay and by
Vi‘lovvvY through said ñrstmentionedrelay at aVY sub-1l said mechanismiorrlighting‘ said lamp.
¿1: `stantiallyj constantV Vvalue `even `though rthefyolt-ï " « »9.¿ Inrcombination, a stretch of railway
Y, age across said line ¿circuitfldecre'ases dueto >the i >a ì signal fcrgsaid stretch, a relay,n a line circuit
ñrstfsignal. 1
controlled 'by` traflic Vconditions»,adjacent ?saidY
l '
:40, '
6. In combination,¿a stretch of railwayjtrack, Í >signal for venergizing said relay', fand-jrneaznsVV in
gio _ aÄ Ysignal>
for-said,stretchQaline circuit: governed '
Vcludin‘g a front contact or“Y said relayV `for ener-y Y
" _in accordance‘with'trafñc conditions> inA advance
ï of;V said v signal
gizing said signal from said line circuitin multi#`
for jcontrolling said Vsignal when ' ple with said relay to directtrañic movements in
,said Signal
is ïconnected to said line circuit,a_
_’ relay connected with said line circuit for govern- "
ing the supply ofr current _toa second signal next
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