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Патент USA US2115521

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April 26, 1938.
2,115,521
K. FRITZ ET AL
MAGNETRON
Filed April 7, 1957
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INVENTORS
KARL FRITZ AND
/? UDOL F v» RADINGER
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ATTORNEY
April 26, 1938.
K_ Fmfz ET AL
2,115,521
MAGNETRON
Filed April '7, 1937
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2 sheets-sheetl 2
1719921
INVEN TOR S
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KARL FRITZ/WD
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RUDOLF v. RAD/Neff?
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ATTORNEY
Patented Apr. 26, 1938
2,115,521
UNITED STATES PATENT oFFlcE
2,115,521
MAGNETRÜN
Karl Fritz and Rudolf von Radlager, Berlin, Ger
many, assignors to Telefunken Gesellschaft fin'
Drahtlose Telegraphie 1n. b. H., Berlin, Ger
many, a corporation ot Germany
Application April -7, 1937, Serial No. 135,372
In Germany April 30, 1936
9 Claims. (Cl. Z50-27.5)
The present invention relates to electron dis
form the anodes of the discharge system. Ordi
charge devices of the so-called magnetron type narily. the inner cylinder will be so opened that
and has for its principal object the provision of the separated surfaces-are at a ñnite distance
frequency determining means for such tubes com
from each other, forming preferably parts of a
prising a shielded concentrically symmetrical
oscillatory circuit. The electron discharge device
is inserted in the oscillatory circuit.. In a modi
cylindrical surface, the cathode being placed at 5
ilcation of the invention, means are disclosed by
which the natural wave of this oscillatory circuit
can be gradually varied.
It is known that tuned circuitsof poor radia
tion can be obtained by disposing a casing as part
the axis of the cylinder.
Preferably the separated faces are conñned by
parts of a. cylinder surface the axis of this cylin
der extending perpendicular to the axis of the
oscillatory circuit.
In view of the fact that the concentrically sym
metrica] oscillatory circuit is closed. more es
of the oscillatory circuit symmetrically around
the other current carrying parts, and connecting
pecially directly closed along the outer circum
ference as regards high-frequency, it is possible
this casing with the other parts so that the cur
rent iiowing in the oscillatory circuit is uniform
ly distributed over the entire casing. In these
provide means whereby the natural frequency of
the oscillatory circuit can be varied from the
in a simple manner to resort to measures and to
oscillatory circuits no outer electrical or mag
outside.
netic ileld can develop.
‘ . The novel features whichwe believe to be char
acteristic of our invention are set forth with par
Short wave tubes are also known in which the
lrenuency determining oscillatory circuit corn
prises two coaxial tubes, these tubes containing
ticularity in the appended claims, but the inven
tion itself vwill best be understood by reference to
the electrodes as parts. The electrodes, or the
parts acting as electrodes are situated in the cen
the following description taken in connection
with the accompanying drawings in which Figure
tu terV oi the two cylinders. The axial length of the
tube is approximately equal to one wave length.
In the usual known tubes moreover, there is n
1 is a schematic perspective of an oscillatory cir
cuit arrangement embodying the principle of our
invention, Figure 2 is a longitudinal section of a
tube and circuit schematically shown and em
bodying our invention, Figures 3 to 6 inclusive
way of varying the natural wave.
’
nc compared with conventional tubes, the tube
according to .the invention has the advantage
` that its axial length is considerably shorter. The
tube in the most unfavorable case, requires at
maximum a length of about M2 as measured in
f
and Figure 10 are sections of modifications sche
matically shown of the tube and circuit shown in
Figure 2 with tuning arrangements, Figures '1,
8a, and 8b show diagrammatically the cathode
the direction of the axis of the oscillatory circuit. and circuit arrangements in a tube embodying
‘fl‘he oscillatory circuit is to be considered essen ' our invention, Figures 9a and 9b are diagram
matic representations of means of coupling a tube
tia'liy as a quasi-stationary circuit. Its geometri
cal length will in general be considerably shorter and circuit made according to our invention to
than M2. ‘ Due to its novel construction, the tube an output device, Figure ll is a diagram illus
trating a method of voltage application to a tube
furthermore oñers the advantage that the natu
ral frequency of the oscillatory circuit can `be of the kind shown in Figure 10, and Figure l2 is
varied.
.
The short wave tube, and more particularly
the magnetron tube according to the invention,
and in conjunction with a concentrically sym
metrical oscillatory circuit of poor radiation, com
prising two coaxial cylinders within which the
discharge system is arranged, is characterized by
the fact that the oscillatory circuit is completely
shielded at its outer circumference except for
the lead-ins for the operating voltages, and the
outgoing connections for the high frequency, that
the two cylinders are connected with each other
at their ends as regards high frequency, that
the innermost cylinder is opened approximately
in the center, and that the separated surfaces
a schematic showing of a means for varying the
oscillating frequency of a tube and circuit made
according to our invention.
_
‘
The principal structure of the oscillatory cir-_
cuit employed will now be described in reference
to Figures 1 and 2.
Figure 1 shows an oscillatory circuit of poor
radiation and concentrically symmetrical with
respect to the axis R, such as is known in general.
The inductance of this circuit is formed by the
outer conductor La and parts of the inner con
ductor L1. The capacitance is represented by two
circular disks C1 and C2 arranged at the inner
ends of the legs of the inner conductor parts Li.
Figure 2 shows in principle a tube according 55
2
2,115,521
to the invention. Two cylinders L. and L1 are
electrically connected to each other and their
ends closed by members St ringlike in form.
The inner cylinder L1 which may be a solid
cylinder, is opened up approximately at the cen
ter of the tube. The cathode K is arranged lat
erally to the place of separation or in the center
between the separated surfaces A1 and Az. In
the case represented the separated surfaces form
parts of a cylindrical surface whose axis extends
perpendicular to the central axis of the oscilla
tory circuit comprising the inductances L. L1
and the capacitances existing between surfaces
A1, Az. Magnets M outside the casing provide
15 a magnetic field parallel to the cathode K.
In the tube shown in Figure 3, the oscillatory
circuit consists of a fixed part containing the
discharge system comprising cathode K. and
anodes A1, Az, and the central parts L'1 and
L’. of the coaxial cylinders, and of one or two
parts L" and L’" movable in the axial direc
tion, and which reach in a cap-like manner
over the open 'ends of the fixed central part and
have coaxial inwardly extending tubular exten
sions T, T’ cooperating with the inner tubular
member. The actual discharge space is closed
up in a gas tight manner from the outer space
by a tubular envelope G. the envelope being
coaxial with the tubular members L'». and L’i.
The ends of the envelope G are sealed to the
inner tubular member L’1. 'I'he mechanical con
nection between the inner part L'1 and the outer
part L’. for supportingthese parts in spaced
relationship is established by the envelope G
and the insulation support O arranged for in
stance in a ring about the inner part. By suit
able means the movable parts can be displaced
in the direction of the arrows P whereby the
operating wave length can be varied, or the cap
like members may be threaded to engage threads
on the outside of the outer tubular members.
Figure 4 shows a similar tube.
It comprises
only two telescoping tubular parts L’1 L'., and
L1” L." which can be turned relative each other.
'111e movable parts engage each other in a sleeve
like manner at the circumference of the outer
cylinder. 'I‘hese overlapping parts may be
threaded at W. The tube envelope G is a tu
bular member coaxial with the tubular members
L’1 and L1 and is closed at its ends, the ends
being sealed to the tubular members L'i.
In the tubes according to Figures 5 and 6 the
oscillatory circuit consists of a mechanically rigid
unit. About the separated parts L1 and Lz of
the inner cylinder but outside the discharge
system, metal parts M or dielectric D are pro
.vided by means of which the resultant capacity
between the separated faces can be varied, more
especially increased.
Figure 5 shows a tube of the above mentioned
type. 'I'he arms of the inner cylinder have ar
ranged thereon two metal shields M having the
shape of a cone surface or spherical cup, such
that the openings having the largest diameter
are situated opposite each other approximately
above the discharge path. The metal shields
terminate into hollow cylinders H which can be
moved in axial direction on the arms of the
pose of varying the wave length, a cylinder D
is placed over the two arms of the inner cyl
inder, this cylinder D being composed of adja
cent cylinders having any desired diameter. In
order that, especially in case of equal diameters,
a variation in the capacity might be obtained,
the individual partial cylinders are made of ma
terials with different dielectric constants. In the
forms of applicants’ invention shown in Figures
6 and 'I the inner and outer tubular members
L.. and L1 and La are closed and joined at their
ends to form the envelope of the tube. The
members L., L1, and In are preferably tubular
members which are cylindrical in cross section.
the inner ends of the tubular members L1 and
La being formed to provide the anode segments
A1 and Az.
Figures 7 and 8 show examples for suitably
connecting the operating voltage sources.
In Figure '7, the plate potential Ua is applied 20
yto the outer cylinder at any desired point W’.
and the heating voltage is introduced at N”
of the outer casing or shield casing. Since with
proper` assembling, no high frequency currents
flow on the outer side of the casing of the oscil 25
latory circuit, no potential differences exist be
tween the individual points of the outer surface.
Therefore, the plate potential can be applied to
any desired place of the casing of the oscillatory
circuit.
30
For the part of the heating circuit situated
inside the oscillatory circuit the most accuratr`
symmetry is of course required, otherwise unde
sirable compensation currents would flow across
the heating lines.
Various propositions have already been madr`
for arranging the heating line and filament co
axially to the inner cylinder of an oscillatory
circuit of the mentioned type with relatively
poor radiation. Figure 8a shows a suggested 40
arrangement making use of an electromagnet
M’. 'I'he two anodes representing the parts of
the inner cylinder L1 are oppositely disposed lon
gitudinally. The filament and the heating cur
rent line are arranged in the axis of the inner 45
cylinder. In these arrangements it is very diili
cult to withhold high frequency currents from
the filaments.
High frequency compensation
currents pass across the ordinarily high ohmic
resistance of the filament K, which originate for
instance at the anode A1 and pass across the
natural capacity Cr', then'across the filament
K and across the second capacity C1 to the anode
Az. When passing through the filament K losses
occur in accordance with the ohmic resistance 55
of the filament, which increase the damping of
the oscillatory circuit.
If for any reason'despite this condition it is de
sired to bring out the heating current lead-ins in
the rotational axis of the oscillatory circuit, it is
necessary to select an arrangement according to
Figure 8b. According to the invention the ñla
ment K extends perpendicularly to the symmetry
axis. The two lead-ins are bent into an angle and
are arranged to pass in front of the front faces
of the anodes, and are then brought out in the
axis.
inner cylinders. The rods V represent the ad
70 justing rods for moving the movable parts and
To prevent any high frequency leaks towards
the outside, the heating lead-ins after leaving the
extend through and are guided along a slot in
discharge chamber are choked by means of chokes
X, or made to undergo proper damping. At the
ends of the inner cylinder L1 capacitances C are
the inner cylinder. The tubular glass envelope
G is sealed to the tubular members L1 and Lz
in the same manner as shown in Figures 3 and 4.
75
In the tube shown in Figure 6, for the pur
suitably placed between the heating lines and the
casing of the oscillatory circuit. In this case the 'Il
3
2,115,521 ,
high frequency losses are confined to the illaments
proper.
4
Figures 9a and 9b show two examples for con
necting radiators. The radiator S' is current
coupled. The course of the current _is indicated in
dash lines. The radiator S" is voltage coupled.
The connection with the outer surface of the inner
cylinder Li is established in a capacitive manner
for instance by means of two capacitive sur
faces F.
Figure 10 shows a construction slightly deviat
ing from the idea of the invention. The parts of
the inner cylinder Li instead of being directly
connected with the outer cylinder are capacitively
connected with the movable parts L", L'" of the
outer cylinder. The distances between the ends
ofthe inner parts L; oscillating so to say, as di
poles having the length M2, and those of the mov
able outer parts L" and L’" are variable. In
1. An electron discharge device for use at high
frequencies and including a pair of concentric
tubular members electrically connected at their
ends, the inner tubular member being mechani
cally separated at the middle and formed to pro
vide a pair of oppositely disposed anode segments,
a cathode positioned between said anode segments
and means for providing a magnetic ñeld parallel
to said cathodeand anode segments.
2. An electron discharge device for use at high
frequencies including a pair of concentric tubular
members of~predetermined length electrically con
nected at their end's, the inner tubular member
vbeing mechanically separated at the middle and
formed to provide a pair of oppositely disposed
anode segments transverse to the longitudinal
the movable parts may be provided with attach
axis of said tubular members, a straight ther
mionic cathode positioned between and co-axial
of said anode segments and means for providing 20
a magnetic field parallel to said cathode and
ments Z.
anode segments.
20 order to obtain a definite course of the ileld lines,
The application of the voltage to these _dipoles
involves /iíi general somewhat greater diiiiculties.
25 A relatively simple solution resides in connecting
the plate potential source to the voltage nodes of
the inner parts L1 and choosing the length of the
line up to the outer shield casing L.. approximately
7i/4+11..A/2, whereby 11:0, l,`2, 3 etc. as shown
30
What we claim as new is:
in Figure 11.
v
‘
'
The idea of the present invention is in no way
limited to the examples of construction as de
l
3. An electron discharge device for use at high
frequencies and including a pair of concentric
tubular members electrically connected at their 25
ends by solid iiat ring-like members to enclose
the space between the tubular members, the inner
tubular member being mechanically separated at
the middle and formed to provide a pair of op
positely disposed anode segments, a cathode po
30
sitioned between said anode segments and means
35 cathode and the anodes.
for providing a magnetic iield parallel to said
cathode and anode segments.
4. An electron discharge device for use at high
frequencies and including a pair of concentric 35
40 operated without magnetic ñeld.
cluding a cup-shaped member, the inner tubular
member being mechanically separated atA the
middle and formedvto provide a pair of oppositely
scribed and shown in` the drawings. If required,
auxiliary electrodes may be inserted between the
'I‘he forms of the oscil
latory circuits, and more especially the measures
and means for varying the natural frequency are
in their application not limited to magnetron
tubes, but may also be used in tubes which are
'
If the tube is to be used in conjunction with a.
radiator, it will often be desirable to enclose the
latter within an envelope. 1f in view of reasons
in the construction, this solution is not possible,
45 the radiator can be used apart from the tube. and
the energy can be supplied across a special line,
or capacitively or inductively through the glass
wall.
It is advisable to use non-magnetic material
50 for the outer cylinder, since at operation of the
tube in a magnetron circuit, the field lines of the
magnetic field must permeate the outer cylinder,
‘ in order to be permitted to act upon the discharge
path situated in the interior.
,
`
The possibility of varying the operating wave
length (natural frequency of the oscillatory cir
cuits) is not confined tothe examplesV herein
shown. 'I‘he movable parts M or D may also be
shaped differently within the oscillatory circuit,
60 and may be operated by a lever drive, and may
be brought outside through sprlngy sealing-in
parts such as glass springs Q as shown in Fig
tubular members and means for electrically con
necting the tubular members at their ends and in- ‘
disposed anode segments, a cathode positioned be
tween said anode segments and means for pro
viding a magnetic ñeld parallel to said cathode .
and anode segments, said cup-shaped member be
ing movable longitudinally of said tubular mem
bers to vary the natural frequency of oscillation
of the electron discharge device.
5. An electron discharge device for use at high
frequencies and including a pair of concentric ‘
tubular members, means for electrically connect
ing the tubular members at their ends and in
cluding a cup-shaped member having a coaxial
tubular extension cooperating with the inner tu
bular member, the Vinner tubular member being
mechanically separated at the middle and formed
to provide a pair of oppositely disposed anode
segments, a cathode positioned between said
anode segments and means for providing a mag
netic ileld parallel to said cathode and anode
segments, said cup-shaped member being _mov
able longitudinally of said .tubular members to
vary the natural frequency of oscillation of the ‘
While we have indicated the preferred embodi
electron discharge device.
6. An electron discharge device for use at high
frequencies and including a pair of concentric
ments of our invention of which we are now aware
tubular members and means for electrically con
ure 12.
.
and have also indicated only one specific appli
cation forwhich our invention may be employed,
it will be apparent that our invention is by no
70 means limited to the exact forms illustrated or
the use indicated, but that many variations may
be made in the particular structure used and the
purpose for which it is employed without depart
ing from the scope of our invention as set forth
in the appended claims.
necting the tubular members at their ends and
' '
including a cup-shaped member having a coaxial
tubular extension cooperating with the inner
tubular member, the inner tubular member be
ing mechanically separated at the middle and
formed to provide a pair of oppositely’disposed
anode- segments, a cathode positioned between
said anode segments and means for providing a
magnetic field parallel to said cathode and anode 75
4
2,115,621
segments, said cup-shaped member being mov
able longitudinally of said tubular members to
vary the natural frequency of oscillation of the
electron discharge device, and an envelope around
a portion of the inner tubular member for en
closing the anode segments and cathode.
7. An electron discharge device for use at high
frequencies including a pair of tubular concen
tric members and means tor electrically connect
ing the tubular members at their ends compris
ing a pair o! cup-shaped members, the inner tu
bular member being mechanically separated at
_ the middle and formed to provide a pair oi oppo
sitely disposed anode segments, a cathode posi
l5 tioned between said anode segments, and means
for providing a magnetic ñeld parallel to said
cathode and anode segments, said cup-shaped
members being movable longitudinally of said
tubular members to vary the natural frequency
of oscillation of the electron discharge device.
8. An electron discharge device for use at high
frequencies, including a pair of concentric tubu
lar members electrically connected at their ends,
the inner tubular member being mechanically
separated at the middle and formed to provide
a pair 9i oppositely disposed anode segments
transverse of the longitudinal axis of said tubu
lar members, a cathode positioned between said
tubular cathode and means tor providing a mag
netic iield parallel to said cathode and anode
segments. cup-shaped members having their open
ends opposed and slidably mounted on said inner
tubular member adjacent said anode segments
and means for moving said cup-shaped members
_toward and from each other to vary the capacity
between the separated ends of the inner tubu- «
lar member.
9. An electron discharge device for use at high
frequencies and including a pair'oi’ concentric
tubular members electrically connected at their
ends by solid ilat ring-like members to enclose
the space between the tubular members, the in
ner tubular member being mechanically separat
ed at the middle and formed to provide a pair
of nppositely disposed anode segments transverse
to the longitudinal axis of said tubular member,
a cathode positioned between said anode segments
and means for providing a magnetic ?eld parallel
to said cathode and anode segments. cup-shaped
members having their open ends opposed and pro
vided with tubular extensions for slidably sup
porting the cup-shaped members on the inner tu
bular member adjacent the anode segments, and
means for moving said cup-shaped members to
ward and from each other to vary the capacity
between the anode segments. and an envelope en
closing said cathode and anode segments.
RUDOLF VON RADINGER.
I0
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