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Патент USA US2115603

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April 26, 1933- -
H. |_. WILCOX
2,115,603
GENTRIFUGAL SWITCH
Filed Oct. 10, 1934
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ATTORNEY.
April 26, 1938.
H. L. WILCOX
2,115,603
CENTRIFUGAL SWITCH
Filed Oct. 10, 1934
2 Sheets—Sheet 2
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ATTORNEY.
2,115,603
Patented Apr. 26, 1938
UNITED I STATES
_
PATENT OFFICE
2,115,603
CENTRIFUGAL SWITCH
Barry L. Wilcox, Cleveland, Ohio, assignor to
The Electric Controller 8; Manufacturing Com
pany, Cleveland, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio
Application October 10, 1934, Serial No. 747,761
13 Claim. (Cl. 200—80)
This invention relates to an improved switch
operable responsive to centrifugal force and to an
improved feature which is applicable to all speed
switches, whether centrifugal or pressure type,
in which contacts open or close in response to
changes in rate of rotation.
Speed switches of various kinds are now in use
and are frequently employed to control the cir
cuits supplying current to electric motors. It is
a common practice to stop electric motors, both
of the alternating and direct current type, by
applying reverse power to the, motor while it is
operating in the forward direction. This provides
a very effective means for quickly stopping the
i motor, but if the reverse power is not interrupted
at the instant of standstill, the motor may either
reverse or continue to revolve in the forward di
rection. Such precision is usually beyond the
ability of an operator and speed responsive
, switches either of the centrifugal type or the
pressure type have been used to effect the inter
ruption of reverse power automatically.
Centrifugal type speed switches, as usually con
structed, have a movable member which is mov
able radially in response to centrifugal force gen
erated when a revolving body of the switch is
turned. The movable member is biased by means
of a spring or otherwise to maintain it in the
normal position except when the biasing force is
a; overcome by centrifugal force. When the motor
with which the switch is associated decreases in
speed, the rotating part of the switch also de
creases in speed, and, as the motor approaches a
the interruption of power at the precise instant
of standstill under varying conditions of load,
temperature and voltage of the reverse power ap
plied to the motor.
'
Speed switches of the pressure type are usually
affected by temperature. A switch set for correct
operation when cold will not be correct when the
pressure fluid becomes warm. Speed switches
which have metallic butt contacts are affected ‘by
vibration and may give premature operation due 10
to momentary separation of contacts.
Speed switches in which the movable element
moves on mechanical bearings or pivots and actu
ated by springs are affected by friction which
introduces inaccuracies of operation.
15
I have found that this diiiiculty can be over
come by the use of a switch operable responsive
to centrifugal force in which mercury is the mov
able element and the contacting device. The
actuating force is the resultant between centrif N) 0
ugal force and the force of gravity and since both
are a function of density, the balance or point
of operation is independent of density, and hence
independent of temperature which affects density.
The mercury as a contacting device moves 25
radially outward on increasing rate of rotation
and completely submerges the electrodes elimi
nating the effects of vibration.
The mercury also provides a frictionless con
tacting device which eliminates inaccuracies in
operation caused by variable friction in the mov
able element.
The magnetic contactors, usually employed to
complete stop, centrifugal force acting upon the
movable part of the centrifugal switch becomes
control motors, have an electrical and mechanical
inertia requiring a definite period of time to in
so small that the biasing force acting on the mov
able member moves the movable member to the
normal position. This causes a circuit through
terrupt the power carried by their main contacts
the centrifugal switch to be interrupted and
causes the magnetic contactor in the line lead
ing to the motor to open thereby interrupting
the ?owof the reverse current to the motor.
Oil pump, or pressure type, speed switches have
_ a pump or pressure generating device which
causes pressure operated contacts to function in
response to changes in speed. These contacts in
turn control the interruption of reverse power
supplied to the motor for quick stopping.
While the use of any of the above described
speed switches is a great improvement over
manual control, and makes automatic quick stop
ping possible, their use is not entirely satisfactory.
The major objection is that it is almost im
possible to make an adjustment which will effect
after the circuit to their magnet coils has been
opened. This time interval is quite constant. For
this reason it has been found necessary to adjust
the speed switch contacts to open, on decreasing
speed, at this same period of time before the
motor comes to a stop, so that the contactors will
interrupt the reverse power to the motor at the
instant of standstill.
In practice, any particular motor stopping
under the in?uence of reverse power may have
various rates of deceleration so that the period
intermediate the time when the motor reaches a
given speed and the time that it comes to rest, 50
will vary. If the speed switch is to initiate the
interruption of the reverse power at a de?nite
time before the motor reaches standstill, it must
open its contacts at a higher speed when the rate
of deceleration is high and at a lower speed when 55
.2.
anaeos
the rate of deceleration is low, thereby allowing
in, these being positioned at the radially outer
end of the tube. A small quantity of mercury
- the contactors a constant interval of time in
which to interrupt the reverse power.
I have
found that these dimculties can be overcome by
the use of a switch which is responsive not only
to centrifugal force, but also to changes in the
rate of rotation of the revolving members of the
switch.
,
I
It is an object of this invention to provide an
10 improved switch operable responsive to centrif~
ugal force.
Another object of the invention is to provide
an improved switch responsive to centrifugal
force and to changes in the rate of rotation of
15 the switch.
A further object of the invention is to provide
an improved switch operable responsive to cen
trifugal force and to changes in rotative speed,
and in which the responsiveness of the switch to
20 either centrifugal force or to changes in the rota
tive speed of the switch or to both may be ad
justably varied.
Other objects of the invention and features of
novelty will be apparent from the following de
25 scription taken in connection with the accom
pany drawings, in which
Fig. 1 is an elevational view of one embodiment
of the switch provided by this invention.
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary sectional view taken
30 substantially along the line 2—2 of Fig. 1.
'
Fig. 3 is a wiring diagram showing the circuit
connections employed in one application of the
centrifugal switch provided by this invention.
Fig. 4 is an elevational view of a modi?ed form
35 of the centrifugal switch provided by my inven
tion, and
Fig. 5 is an enlarged fragmentary view of a
portion of the switch shown in Fig. 4 with parts
broken away and shown in section.
40
Referring to the drawings I have shown in
indicated at 25 is sealed within the tube, the mer
cury comprising the movable element of the
switch, and, when the mercury 25 is thrown out
wardly as a result of centrifugal force acting
thereon, it submerges the contacts 23 and 24 to
complete a circuit therebetween. Suitable lead
wires 25 and 21 connect the contacts 23 and 24
with the disks I2 and I4 respectively. A counter 10
weight indicated at 29 is secured to the rlisk I4.
to counterbalance the weight of the switch
mechanism so that the switch will be dynamically
balanced when it is revolving.
A block of insulating material 30 is secured to
the frame portion 5 by suitable means, not shown,
and a pair of brushes 3| are secured thereto.
Each of the brushes 3i comprises a short piece
of resilient metal which is provided with a block
of suitable brush material, as for instance carbon,
indicated at 32, and which engages one of the
disks I3 or I4. The brushes 2| are secured to the
insulating block 30 by means of screws 22 which
also provide means for the attachment of the
circuit connections leading to and from the
switch.
In operation the shaft I is revolved and the
mercury 25 contained within the tube 22 is
thrown outwardly so that it submerges the con
tacts 23 and 24 to complete a circuit therebe
tween. The speed at which the shaft I must
revolve before the mercury 25 is thrown out
wardly will depend upon the angle at which the
tube 22 is disposed and this may be adjustably
varied by pivoting the clamp 20 on the axis of
the screw 2|. If the tube 22 is in a compara
outwardly will be relatively small. Similarly, if
the tube 22 is in a position more nearly ap
proaching the vertical the mercury 25 will not
move outwardly until the rotative speed of the
in bearings in the arms 3 and 4 of the frame in
dioated generally at 5. The frame 5 may be of
any desired construction and preferably has a
50 portion 6 adjoining the arms 3 and 4 and adapt
ed to be secured to a suitable support, not shown.
The shaft I has a bevel gear 8 secured thereon
and meshing with the gear 9 mounted on the end
of the shaft I [I which is supported in suitable
55 bearings in the frame 5. The shaft I0 is driven
either directly or indirectly from the motor to
be controlled by any suitable means, as by a belt
running on the pulley II which is mounted on,
the shaft I0. As will be understood when the
60 pulley II is revolved the gear 9 turns the gear
8 and causes the shaft I to rotate.
Mounted on the shaft I are a pair of metallic
disks I3 and I4 which are spaced apart by the
fiber bushing I5 and which are held in place by
65 means of the fiber or insulating bushings I5 and
I1. A bracket I8 is mounted on the disk I4 ad
jacent the periphery thereof and is held in place
by means of screw I9, the bracket I8 being rotat
able about the axis of the screw IS. A clamp,
70 indicated generally by the reference character
25, is secured in the bracket I8 so as to be pivot
able on the screw 2I carried by the bracket_l8.
A glass tube 22 is held in the clamp 20. The tube
75 22 has a pair of contacts 23 and 24 secured there
80
35
of the shaft I, as the force of gravity which must
be overcome by the mercury in order to move 40
gal switch provided by my invention, and, as
therein illustrated, the switch comprises a rotat
25
tively horizontal position the mercury 25 will
move outwardly at relatively low rotative speeds
Fig. 1 one embodiment of the improved centrifu
ing shaft indicated generally at I, this shaft
45 preferably being disposed to rotate about a sub
stantially vertical axis. The shaft I is supported
20
shaft I is relatively high. Likewise, when the 45
shaft I is rotating at a speed at which the mer
cury is located at the outer end of the tube 22
and the rotative speed of the shaft I is decreased,
the speed at which the mercury will move radially
inwardly will depend upon the position of the 50
tube 22, this speed being relatively high when
the tube is in a position approaching the vertical
and being relatively low if the tube is in a posi
tion approaching the horizontal.
It will be seen, however, that with any given
adjustment of the tube 22 in the radial plane the
rotative speed of the shaft I at which the mer
cury will move from the radially inner portion
of the tube to the radially outer portion of the
tube, will be relatively higher than the rotative 00
speed at which the mercury moves from the ra
dially outer portion of the tube to the radially
inner portion of the tube, because, when the
mercury is at the radially outer end of the tube
the radius of rotation of the mercury, on which
the centrifugal force depends, is greater than
when the mercury is at the inner end of the tube.
Therefore with any particular adjustment of the
tube 22 a higher rotative speed of the shaft I is
required to cause the mercury to move from the 70
inner end of the tube to the outer end of the
tube than is required to cause the mercury to
move from the radially outer end of the tube to
the inner end.
2,115,808
- The speeds of the shaft I which are effective
, to cause movement of the mercury ll as a result
of centrifugal force may be adjustably varied
by adjusting the tube 22 on the axis II to vary
the angular inclination of the tube in the radial
plane. With the tube in the radial plane the
mercury will not be affected by the angular ac
celeration or deceleration of the shaft I. In
the switch provided by this invention the tube
It is turned out of true radial plane in order
that operation of the switch is responsive to
changes in the rate of rotation of the shaft I.
The podtion of the tube out of the radial plane
is clearly illustrated in Fig. 2 of the drawings
15 where it will be seen that the inner end of the
tube is located rotatively in advance of the outer
end of the tube. The position of the tube with
respect to the true radial plane can~be adjust
ably varied by rotating the bracket I8 about the
axis of the screw I9 and it can be held in the
adjusted position by tightening the screw l9.
In operation, when the shaft I is rotating at a
relatively high speed, with the mercury 25 lo
cated at the radially outer end of the tube 22,
if the speed of rotation of the shaft I is then
decreased, the angular speed of the shaft at
which the mercury 25 will move inwardly is de
termined by the resultant of the following forces;
the component of the centrifugal force acting
parallel to the longitudinal axis of the tube in
an outward direction, the component of gravity
acting parallel to the longitudinal axis of the
tube in an inward direction and the component
of the force of deceleration of the mercury acting
35 parallel to the longitudinal axis of the tube also
in an inward direction. The mercury 25 will
be urged outwardly by the continually decreasing
centrifugal force generated as a result of rota
tion of the mercury and it will be urged radially
40 inwardly by gravity tending to cause the mercury
to flow to the lower end of the tube which is the
radially inner end, and the force of gravity will
. be supplemented by the inertia of the mercury
which will tend to cause it to flow to the radially
' inner end of the tube which is rotatively in ad
vance of the radially outer end. The magnitude
of this latter force will depend upon the rate of
deceleration of the shaft I. If the shaft I is
decelerating rapidly the component of the force
of deceleration acting on the mercury in an in
ward direction will be relatively great, and this
will cause the mercury to move inwardly at a
somewhat higher rotative speed of the shaft I
than the speed at which it would move inwardly
. if it-were not subjected to this force. Likewise
if the shaft I is decelerating slowly the effect of
inertia on the mercury will be relatively small,
or almost negligible, and the mercury will not
move inwardly until a somewhat lower rotative
(35) speed of the shaft l is obtained.
Because of this method of operation the time
interval intermediate the time at which the
switch operates, and the time at which the motor
stops turning, will be maintained substantially
uniform irrespective of the rate of deceleration
of the motor. If the motor decelerates rapidly,
this switch opens at a relatively high rotative
speed, while if the motor decelerates slowly the
3 ,
provided can be accurately adjusted so as to
open the circuit to the contactors at the proper
time interval before the motor stops turning to
insure that the magnetic contactor will open
the circuit to the motor at approximately the in
stant the motor-comes to a complete stop, and
because of ‘the construction of the switch pro
vided by this invention it will always accom
plish this result, regardless of changes in operat
ing conditions which may produce changes in
the rate of deceleration of the motor.
In Fig. 3 I have shown one set of circuit con
nections which may be employed with the switch
provided by this invention. As therein illustrated
the current is supplied by the wires 40 and ‘I, the 15
circuit to the motor being controlled by a mag
netic contactor having a winding 42 and con
tacts 42a. The line 40 is connected to the arma
ture 43 through forward and reverse contacts
F and R, while the line 4| is connected to the 20
series field H through an acceleration unit indi
cated generally at 45, which may be of any well
known construction and need not be described
in detail. The series ?eld 44 is connected to the
armature 43 through forward and reverse con 25
tacts indicated at F and R. The forward and
reverse contacts F and R are controlled by the
windings F’ and R’, which are controlled by the
manually operable switch lever 40, which may be
moved to a position to complete a circuit through 30
either winding to close either set of contacts and
thereby determine the direction of the flow of
current to the armature. A manually operable
switch indicated at I‘! is placed in the circuit
between the winding 42 and the wire 40, and 35
when this switch is closed a circuit is established
through the winding 42 to the wire ‘I, and when
this winding is energized the contacts "a are
closed, thereby completing a circuit through
either the winding F' or R', depending upon the 40
position of the switch lever 46. When the wind
ing F' is energized the contacts F controlled
thereby are closed, completing a circuit to the
motor and causing the motor to rotate the cen
trifugal switch 50 in the direction of the arrow
shown in Figure 2. As soon as the speed of the
motor passes a predetermined point the mercury
in the tube of the centrifugal switch is thrown
outwardly to complete a circuit through this
switch. The centrifugal switch maintains the 50
circuit through the winding 42 after the manu
ally operated switch 41 is released.
When it is desired to stop the motor the switch
lever 46 is moved to the opposite position to 'de
energize the winding 'F' to open the contacts F,
and to energize the winding R’ to close the con
tacts R. This effects a reversal of the flow of
current to the armature and causes a rapid de
celeration of the armature l3 and also of the
centrifugal switch which is driven from the ar
mature. When the speed of the motor decreases
to a certain value, depending on the adjustment
of the centrifugally operated switch and on the
rate of deceleration of the motor, the contacts of
the centrifugal switch are opened, thereby in
terrupting the circuit through the winding 42,
openingthe contacts 4211' and interrupting the
circuit through the winding R’. This causes the
winding R’ to be de-energized and allows the
switch does not open until somewhat lower ro
contacts R controlled thereby to be opened.
70 tative speed is obtained. The mechanical and
The time interval intermediate the opening of
electrical inertia of the magnetic contactors con
trolling the ?ow of current to the motor and the circuit through the winding 42 and the open
ing of the contacts R will be substantially con—
hence controlling the application of reverse cur
rent to the motor is substantially constant at all stant_ and will depend upon the mechanical and
electrical inertia of the contactor controlled by
75 times, and the centrifugal switch which I have.
2,115,608
the centrifugal switch and of the reverse con
a circuit therebetween when the mercury moves
tactors. The centrifugal switch can be adjusted
_to open at a substantially ?xed periodbefore the
to the radially outer end of the tube 19.
One of the contacts from each of the tubes ll
is connected to the bracket and therethrough to
the metallic disk 59, while the other contact on
one of the tubes ‘I0 is connected to the disk 59
motor stops, this'period being equal in length
; to that required by the contactors to operate
so as to interrupt the flow of reverse current to
the motor at the instant the motor stops turning;
This will prevent reversal ‘of the motor due to
the continued application of reverse current to
the motor after it has stopped rotating and it
also prevents “coasting’? of the motor due to the
interruption of the reverse current before the
motor has stopped revolving. As the switch is
responsive to changes in rotative speed of the
15 motor as well as to centrifugal force the switch
and the other contact on the other tubes 19 is '
connected to the disk 50. Brushes ‘ll, 18, and 19,
which may be similar in construction to the
brushes employed in the form of device shown in 10
Fig. 1, engage the disks 58, 59, and 50, respec
tively, to provide means for establishing circuit
connections through the switch elements.
The form of switch shown in Fig. 4 is the pre
ferred embodimentof the invention as this type 15
automatically adjusts itself to any changes in - of switch is much easier to adjust than that‘
operating conditions which affect the rate of shown in Fig. 1. In the switch shown in Fig. 1
deceleration of the motor.
after the tube is adjusted either about the axis
In Fig. 4 I have shown another embodiment
l9 or 2| adjustment of the tube about the other
of the switch provided by my invention. This axis affects the ?rst adjustment, with the result
switch is generally similar in construction to that that accurate adjustment of the tube is very dif
shown in Fig. 1 and comprises a frame indicated ?cult, and this problem is overcome in the form
generally at 5| in which is rotatively supported of switch shown in Fig. 4. In the type of switch
a- shaft 52, the frame 5| being mounted so that shown in Fig. 1 the position of the tube 22 pref
25 the axis of the shaft 52 is substantially vertical.
erably is ?rst adjusted about the axis 2|, the 25
A gear 53 is secured on the shaft 52 and is driven tube being previously moved about the axis l9 so
by the gear 54 which is mounted on the shaft 55, as to be in a substantially radial position. The
which is supported on suitable bearings in the adjustment of the tube about the axis 2| is then
frame 5| and which may be driven either directly made and this regulates the operation of the
30 or indirectly from the motor to be controlled by switch in response to centrifugal force. Next,
301
any suitable means as by a belt running over the
the position of the tube is adjusted about the
pulley 55. A ?ber or insulating sleeve 51 is ?tted axis l9 to regulate its response to changes in the
on the shaft 52 and three metallic disks 58, 59, rate of rotation of the shaft |, the radially inner
and 50 are mounted on the sleeve 51 and are held
in place by ?bre or insulating bushings 6|, 52,
end of the tube being turned rotatively so as to
be in advance of the radially outer end of the 35
tube. However, when the adjustment of the tube
about the axis I9 is made the radially outer end
of the tube is moved inwardly radially thereby
and 53.
The disk 59 is somewhat thicker than the disks
58 and 60 and is provided with a pair of threaded
apertures 64 extending radially of the disk 59 reducing the magnitude of the centrifugal force
at an angle of approximately 45° to the axis of operating on the mercury and altering the pre 40
the shaft 52. In each of the threaded apertures vious adjustment made by adjusting the tube
64 is mounted a threaded bolt or stud 65 having ‘ about the axis 2|, accordingly a slight readjust
a bracket indicated generally by the reference ment of the tube about the axis 2| might be
character 55 secured on the end thereof, while necessary to compensate for the change in the
45 a lock nut 51 is mounted on the stud 65 so that
effective centrifugal force due to rotating the tube 45
it can be tightened against the face of the disk 22 out of the radial plane.
59 to hold the bracket 66 in adjusted positions.
In the type of switch shown on Figs. 4 and 5,
The bracket 66 is preferably formed of sheet the adjustment can best be accomplished by the
metal and has an arm 65' and'an angular por
. tion 58 through which the head of the stud 55
' extends.
The arm 65' is provided with a pair of
arcuate slots 69. The contact elements employed
following method. The bracket 85 is adjusted so
as to position the tube 10 in a substantially radial 50
plane of the shaft 52, and the tube ‘III is then
adjusted about the axis 13 and it is held in the
adjusted position by tightening the bolts 12. This
in this switch are generally similar to those em
ployed in the switch shown in Fig. 1 and each ' regulates the response of the mercury 15 to cen
comprises a sealed tube ‘Hi supported by a bracket trifugal force and controls the operation of the 55
switch in response to slowly changing speeds.
55 and held by a pair of blocks ‘H having re
cessed portions adapted to receive the tube ‘10.
The blocks ‘H are also provided with apertures
through which extend bolts 12 which also extend
so through the arcuate slots 69 in the bracket arm
55'. As will be understood, when the bolts 12 are
tightened the blocks ‘H are pressed ?rmly into
engagement with the tube 10 to hold the tube in
position. The plane of the tube relative to the
horizontal can be adjusted by loosening the bolts
‘I2 and moving the bolts in the arcuate slots 59.
This effects movement of the tube 10 about the
axis 13, which lies in a plane extending substan-'
tially perpendicular to the plane of the axis of the
70 bolt 55, and allows the radially inner and outer
ends of the tube ‘III to be adjusted vertically rela
tive to each other. A quantity of mercury in
dicated at 15 is sealed within the tube 10 while
the contacts 15 and 11 extend into the tube 10
75. so as to be engaged by the mercury to complete
Next the position of the tube ‘I0 is adjusted for
responsiveness to changes in the rate of rotation
of the shaft 52. This is accomplished by rotating
the bracket 56 and the bolt 65 about the axis of
60
the bolt which extends iira plane at substantially
45° to the axis of the shaft 52. This causes the
inner end of the tube 19 to be moved rotatlvely
in advance of the outer end of the tube 10 and
also moves the radially outer end of the tube
radially inwardly slightly so as to reduce the 65
magnitude of the centrifugal force operating on
the mercury. This, however, is offset 'so as not
to alter the first adjustment of the tube because
the radially inner end of the tube is raised slight 70
ly and the radially outer end of the tribe is lowered
slightly so that the effect of gravity tending to
move the mercury radially inwardly is slightly
decreased, thus maintaining the first adjustment.
While the switch of the type shown in Fig. 4 75
auaooa
has been illustrated as having a pair of switch
elements, it should be understood that this form
‘ of switch provided by my invention is not limited
to the use of a pair of switch units, but that-one
of these units may be omitted and a suitable
counter-weight substituted for it. Where a pair
of switches are employed, one of the switch units
controls the application of current to a motor
for one direction of rotation while the other
switch controls the application of current to a
motor for the other direction of rotation. ‘The
tube 10 of one of the switches has its radially
inner end rotatively in advance of the radially
outer end for one direction of rotation, while the
15 other tube has its radially inner end rotatively
in advance of the radially outer end for the op
posite direction of rotation. The switches are
herein shown as connected in series and would
be substituted for the single switch indicated at
III in the diagram shown in Fig. 3. These would
then control the circuit to the motor, the opening
of the circuit being effected by the switch which
is set to control that particular direction of ro
tation.
From the foregoingv it will be seen that I have
provided an improved switch responsive to the
force of gravity, centrifugal force and responsive
also to changes in the speed of rotation of the
switch and in which the responsiveness of the
switch to centrifugal force and to changes in the
speed of rotation may be adjustably varied. It
will also be seen that I have provided an improved
switch which may be easily adjusted. Although
I have described my device as being responsive to
decelerating conditions, it is obvious that my in
vention is equally responsive to accelerating con
ditions. While the preferred embodiments of the
switch have been illustrated and described in de
tail, it should be understood that the invention is
not limited to these details of construction but
that numerous changes may be made without de
parting from the scope of the following claims.
I claim:
1. In a device of the class described, a member
45 revolvable about an axis, a movable element asso
ciated with the revolvable member and movable
in a path de?ned by said member, the movable ele
ment being movable responsive to centrifugal
force in a path disposed at an angle to a radial
plane extending through the axis of the revolvable
member and intersecting said path, whereby the
movable element is responsive to changes in the
speed of the revolvable member.
2. An electric switch, comprising: a rotatable
55 driving member; contact means; controlling
means revolvable by said driving member and
movable under in?uence of forces caused by said
revolution to control said contact means; means
for directing the movement of said controlling
means in an inclined path disposed at an angle to
a plane passing through said axis of rotation of
said driving member and intersecting said path;
and means for adjusting said directing means to
alter said inclination of the path.
3. An electric switch, comprising: a driving
member rotatable about an axis; contact means;
and controlling means revolvable by said driving
member and movable under in?uence of forces
caused by said revolution to control said contact
means, said controlling means being movable in
70
a path intersecting a plane passing through said
axis of rotation of said driving member and in
tersecting said path.
4. An. electric switch comprising a driving
member
rotatable about a ?xed axis, contact
75
5
means, controlling means revolvable by the driv
ing member and concurrently movable under in
?uence of forces caused by said revolution to
control the contact means, means constraining
the controlling means to a path of movement an
gularly disposed to the plane which is defined by
the axis of the driving member and radius of
revolution of the controlling means, and means
to adjust the angular disposition of said path with
respect to said plane.
10
5. An electric switch, comprising: a rotatable
driving member; contact means; and controlling I
means rotatable by said driving member and mov
able in response to changes in angular velocities
of said driving member to operate said contact 15
means, and movable in response to rates of de
crease in angular velocity of said driving member
to again operate said contact means.
6. In a device of the class described, a member
revolvable about an axis, an element movable in 20
a path defined by said member, said element hav
ing a normal position and being movable from
said normal position responsive to centrifugal
force, said path being disposed at an angle to a
plane passing through said axis and intersecting 26
said path, the end of said path toward the axis
being positioned revolvably in advance of the
other end of said path whereby said element is
movable towards the axis responsive to decreases
in the revolving speed of said member, and a con
30
tact controlled by said element.
'7. In a device of the class described, a, member
revolvable about a substantially vertical axis, an
element movable in a path defined by said mem
her, said path being disposed at an angle to a 35
plane passing through said axis and intersecting
said path whereby said element is responsive to
centrifugal force and to changes in the speed of
said revolving’ member, and a contact controlled
by said element.
8. In a. device of the class described, a member
revolvable about an axis, an element associated
with said member and movable in a path de?ned
by said member, said path having the portion
thereof remote from said axis positioned higher 45
than and revolvably behind the portion thereof
adjacent said axis, and means to adjustably vary
the relative positions of the portions of said path
both vertically and revolvably.
9. In a device of the class described, a member 50
revolvable about a substantially vertical axis, a
movable element associated with said member,
the element being movable in an inclined path
disposed at an angle to a vertical plane passing
through said axis and intersecting said path, and 55
means to vary the inclination of said path and
the angle said path makes with said plane, said
means comprising a support rotatable about an
axis disposed substantially at 45° to said vertical
axis, and a second support rotatably supported
on said ?rst member and rotatable on an axis ex
tending substantially perpendicular to the axis on
which the first support is rotatable, said supports
being so arranged with respect to each other that
adjusting of said path with respect to one of said
supports leaves the adjustment of said path with
respect to the other of said supports substantially
unaltered.
10. In a device of the class described, a member
revolvable about an axis, an element associated 70
with said member and movable in a path defined
by said member, said element having a normal
position and being movable from said normal po
sition responsive to centrifugal force, the path
de?ned by said member being inclined and dis 76
6
2,110,003
posed at an angle to a plane passing through said
axis and intersecting said path, whereby the ele
a path de?ned by said member, said path being
inclined and disposed at an angle to a plane pass
ment is responsive to changes in the speeds of the ‘ ing through said axis and intersecting said path,
revolving member, a contact controlled by said whereby the element is responsive to centrifugal
element, and means to adjustably vary the Iorce and to changes in the speed of the revolving
amount of inclination of said path.
member, a contact controlled by the element, and
11. In a device 01' the class described, a member
revolvable about an axis,'an element movable in
a path de?ned by said member, said element
10 having a normal position and being movable from
said normal position responsive to centrifugal
force, said path de?ned by said member being
disposed at an angle to a plane passing through
said axis and intersecting said path, whereby the
15 element is responsive to changes in the speeds of
the revolving member, a contact controlled by
said element, and means to adjustably vary the
angle said path~makes with said plane, whereby
the effect of changes in speed of the revolving
20 member is adjustably varied.
12. In a device of the class described, a member
revolvable about an axis, an element movable in
means to adjustably vary the inclination of said
path and the angle said path makes with said
plane.
13. In a device of the class described, a mem
ber revolvable about a substantially vertical axis,
an element movable in a path de?ned by said
member, said path having the portion thereof re
mote from the axis of said member positioned
higher than and revolvably behind the portion 15
thereof adjacent the axis of said member, and
means to adjustably vary the relative positions
of the portions of said path both vertically and
revolvably, whereby an adjustment of either one
of said positions does not a?’ect the adjustment of 20
said other position.
HARRY L. WILCOX.
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