Патент USA US2115615код для вставки
April 26, 1938. K. H. BRUNNER - 2,115,615 P_REFA‘BRIGATED CUBIC'UNITS FOR SMALL. HOUSES Filed June 17, 1936 3 Sheets-Sheet l Apr-i126, 1938. ` K. H. BRUNNER ` 2,115,615 PREFABRICATED CUBIC UNITS FOR SMALL HOUSES Filed June 1'7, 1936 'l 5 Sheets-Sheet Q2 - Hlm/g- H. BRUN/vm V53M WMM' " SLW@ @HMM/w" Aprilze, 1938. I KHBRUNNER ' 2,115,615` PREFABRICATED VCUBIC UNITS FOR SMALL HOUSES Filed Junel 17, 193e » s sheets-sheet 3 [iq/QL H. ERL/NNE@ Patented Apr. 26, 193s . y v l 2,115,615 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE PREFABRICATED oUßIc UNITS Foa SMALL HOUSES _ Karl H. Brunner, Bogota, Colombia Application June 17, 1936, Serial No. 85,805 J 1_2 Claims. (Cl. 20-1) The present invention relates to improvements in prefabricated cubic units for small houses and has for an object to accomplish prefabrica- tion block assembly employed in the structure of Figures 1 and 2, tion of a house to such an extent that the com- step in the process of building up the house 5 pletion of the house requires only the building of a foundation, assembly of the units and mak- -Figure 5 is a perspective view showing the ñrst shown in Figures 1 and 2 from the units. 5 , Figure 6 is a fragmentary detail of the hinged o ing the usual connections with gas, water etc. l Another object is to provide building units roof structure of one of the units shown in Fig ures 1 and 2, which are readily transportable and easily and ~ Figure 'I is a fragmentary detail of the man 10 cheaplyassembled and disassembled. t ner of Joining the hinged roof sections of two 10 A further object is the provision of building such units as shown in Figures-5 and 6, units which may be assembled without the usel Figure 8 is an enlarged fragmentary detail of of cranes and the like. the peak joint of the roof shown in Figure "l, Another object is the possibility of enlarging Figure 9 is a detail view of the insulating joint 15. a completed house by the addition of vfurther units; or modification of the existing plan of a set of assembled units. employedinconnecting walls of the several units, 15 showing the parts disjoined, ' Figure l0 is a detail view of- the parts of Fig Another object is to allow the building of a prefabricated house which has lhitherto unat20 tainable architectural beauty. ' Further objects include building the units to conform with the gauge of railroads to facilitate rail transportation of the units over` long distances; reducing the cost of housing by'increas25 ing the amount of factory work and decreasing the >amount of work at the building site; the possibility of assembling the units in any kind of weather; the use of a roof structure which reduces the height of the unit While it is being Í 30 transported; assembling the units with an insulating joint between abutting walls; eliminating in large measure overlap of walls which resuits in great waste of material and is not neces- sary; the possibility of placing a readily trans35 portable house on a rented lot which> is of par.. ticular value .in communities where land is of very high price; and providing a. house with the above features with distributing characteristics similar to those of other factory built prod40 uctsl Suchv as automobiles. 45 y y ` v Figure 11 is a detail view of a modified dove tail joint with parts disjoined, 20 Figure 12 is a detail view of the parts of Fig ure 11 joined and showing the dove-tail filled with a sealing substance, Figure 13 is a floor plan of_a modified house structure incorporating additional building units, 25 and ` l l Figure 14 is a roof plan of a further modifica tion incorporating still more building units. Referring nOW t0 the drawings und Particu lurly 110`F1gure 1, the hOuSe here Shown is com- 30 DOSed 0f W10 L-Shaped units 20, „2l and a rec tangular unit 22- The l--,sheped units are placed with their longer Sides abutting While the rec tangular unit 22 is placed against the Shorter sides thereof. `35 AS Will be Seen by reference t0 Figure 5 the L-Shaped unit 20 is a completely prefabricated building unit. The framework may be either Steel 01‘ WOOd and the Walls of any suitable ma terlal. AS the units are built at the factory they 40 With the foregoing and other Objects in View' are complete with _iloors, windows, doors etc. the invention will be more- fully described here- The walls of the umts are dlsposed as Show@ in inafter.` and will be more particularly pointed Figures 2 gud? to prevent needless ovçrlappmg om., i in the claims appended hereta In the drawings’ wherein like symbols refer to like or corresponding parts throughout the With m viewwith the wall 23 of24the 20 ends so as this to register the wall of unit the unit'I 22. 45 The inner wall 25 of the unit 20 ends against the side of the inner Wan 25' of the ,mit „_ several Views" There is then no overlapping or waste of wall ' _ . Figure 1 is a perspective view of one form of 50 hou.“ assempled from three of the bundiïlg umts» Fleur? 2 1S e Section teken 0n the-11H8 2--2 55 ure 9 with the Joint made, Structure and the abutting Walls may be se_ cured together by any desirable form of boit or 50 the like. Likewise, the outer wan 21 of the unit - 0f tile Figure 1, Figure 3 is a diagrammatic view 0f the units 2| abuts the end' wall 28 of the unit 22. The inner wan 2s of the una 2| is provided with just used 1n Figure 2 Showing them disassembled, Figure 4 is a perspective view of the founda- suñlcient length to complete the end of a room 30 and to hold a door 3l opening into said room. 55 2 2,115,015 A post 28' supports open corner oi' the unit 2|. At the joints between these ` truckorlorryllmay a sealing Joint which consists in corresponding grooves in the abutting walls between which is placed `ttsealing member. Figures 9 and 10 show centers the- unit above the foundation blocks shown in Figure 10 thus making a perfect in~ unit 28. The insulating joints will be completed the Joint so made between the wall 28 of the` when a series of Jacks or the like are placed be- ls unit 22 and the end of the wall 21 of the unit 2|. neath the’overhtnging edges of the unit to raise ' Corresponding vertical grooves 22 and 82 are the same and permit the truck to be moved out iet into the abutting edges of the respective walls. of the way, after which the jacks are lowered and the unit settled on the foundation Vblocks 52'. 10 A compressible block 24, of rubber or the like, is ntted into these grooves. When the Joint is 10 tightened in `assembling the unita the block I4 way on the truck into the passageway 55 and placed with its long side abutting that of the is crushed to i111 the two grooves completely as sulating Joint between the walls 21 and 28. B_im ilar Joints are 'provided at each of. the connect ing Joints of the house. unit 22 is then driven 15 in the remaining passageway 56 and placed on ` against the short s'ides‘ Referring now to Figure 6, the unit 22 is' shown and the same .insulatingv with its roof in carrying position. 'I‘he roof and roof joints completed. 'I'he spaces between structure consists in the transverse brace 85 be tween outer wall 86 and the inner wall 28 of the foundation blocks 52' may be iilled in or as 20 the unit, the vertical support 21 which rests on shown in Figure 1 a base board 51 may be placed completely around the bottom of the assembled the transverse brace 25 and the longitudinal rib` units. ' I8 which extends the length of the unit and is It isto be noted, supported by the vertical members 31. A nxed internal walls and that the units are built with . roof side '38 is held between the block 48 of the 25 wall 86 and the longitudinal rib 88 by a series of braces 4| which are secured at their opposite ends to the block 40 and the rib 88. The upper 30 end of the' brace 4I is provided with pivot 42 for a second roof section 42. This section 48 of this unit.is provided with a door 58 which in 30 rests on the braces 44 which are pivoted at 42 this assembly forms .the entrance door of the The hall 58 then serves with the iixed braces 4|. The outer end of the movable roof section43 is reinforced by means of an angle bar 45 which in the folded lposition shown in Figure 6 rests on'the top of the inner which in this case wall 26 of the unit. 'The roof sections have at their pivot point a joint which consists in the of the unit 2|. In Figure 13 there is added to cut away section 46 of the fixed roof and the the house the two additional rectangular sec tions 65 and 66. The entrance to the house is corresponding overlapping section 41 of the mov provided for through the hall 61 in the'unit 65. able roof. As shown in Figure 7, when this _mov 40 able roof section 43 is raised an overlapping Joint The former entrance hall 58 now being only an It will, however, be seen that is formed above the pivot. It will also be seen that a substantial portion of the height of the the addition of the unit 65 and 65 may be accom 45 building unit is removed by-folding down this movable" roof section. This is highly convenient in transporting the units to the building site. alsv When the units are placed in position for an assembly the movable roof sections of the abut ting units are raised. When the wall joints are completed these roof sections will rest against one another and will be “prevented by their length from returning to the folded position. As shown in Figures 7 and 8 the angle bars 45 and 48 come may readily be varied as to the number. size and arrangement of the rooms contained. 50 In order to renderthe addition of further units simple, each 55 together and may be anchored in this position if desired. In addition to this the edges of the 55 roof sections are bevelled and their upper sur faces provided with the corresponding angular locking strips 49 and 50. Over these locking strips when the units are fastened together is placed a peak cap 5i which eifectively seals the peak joint of the roof. The twor abutting sec tions now provide an A roof. When the movable sections of the roof are raised there will be left in forming a joint with a new unit. With reference to this problem of the sealing 60 joint a modiñed form `of joint is shown in Fig 65 between the two units a diamond shaped space which, is filled in by a similar shaped insert 52 which completes the walls of the units. This structure of roof is best carried out by the em ployment of sheet metal as a roof covering. 70 When a definite house plan has been- adopted and the units obtained a series of foundation blocks 52’ are »erected or built on the site, as u, shown in Figure 4. 'I'he arrangement of these blocks 52’ is such that there will be provided between the blocks passageways into which a 65 or‘the like' which completely seals the joint. In case of disassemblyof the units the plaster may be 70 sawed very readily to break the joint. Another feature contemplated by the present invention> relates to the disposition of all rooms required to bee- connected to water, gas, drains - and the like within a single one of these building 7 n n ' ananas units.' In the-house` structure shown in Figure -2 ' 1. `A composite building structure, comprising a warm air system in which ducts from the room units having wall openings for register with adja the unit 22 carries all such rooms. For instance, -independent building units each having a fixed the 'room 6l may be a bath room, lB2 a kitchen and a movable roof section, _and means for secur and 15 a furnace room. It will then only be ing lthe movable roof sections of adjacent building necessary to make a single connection with the 'units together „to provide s.- composite roof for drain,- a single water connection and a single gas the composite building structure. connection. The internal .piping and connections " 2. A compositeífbuilding structure, comprising may all be completed at the factory before ship-` independent building units v'each having a fixed ping units. Of course it will be seen that the wall andan adjustable roof section, means for secur 28 is common to some of the rooms in the other ing the adjustable roof sections of adjoining 10 10 building units together into a composite roof for units and so, if desired, water and other con nections may be carried into the other units to> the composite building structure, and means vfor be supplied through the unit 22. The. furnace sealing the adjoint portions of the building units rooml 'i5 is located in the unit 22 which may be together "into a composite building structure. 3. A composite building structure, comprising designated as the service unit. VThe heat pro a plurality of independently complete building. vided is preferably, for the small house shown, 'l5 may carry'the warmed air into the other units. The room 15 has built into it the flue 16 and 20 after the roof is attached to the neighboring unit the chimney 11 is placed in position and con nected with the flue. cent units in the composite structure and each having a complete roof with an adjustable por tion for relative adjustment with the adjustable 20 roof portions of adjacent units to provide a com posite roof for the composite building structure. 4. A composite building structure, comprising The above described structure then carries out ‘ all of the objects stated. All of the Work on the independent building units each having an A roof units may be completed at s'ome central factory ` with one side section thereof hinged at .the peak where modern assembly methods will serve to relatively to the other side section to swing into reduce to a minimum the cost of building. At substantially the plane thereof, and means for this factory the units will be completely finished securing the free edges of the hinged roof sec tions of adjacent units to provide a common roof as to floors, doors, windows, and fixtures. It is for the composite building structure. 30 only necessary then to set the foundation blocks 52 in the positions suited to the layout of the units, set units thereon, make the joints between them, and complete outside connections.- It will readily be seen that all this may be accomplished435 within a few hours. The units are made of such width that they ' may be carried on standard rail and truck equip ment making for ease and quickness in delivery. Also in line with facilitating transportation of 40 the units overall height is considerably dimin 5. A composite building structure, comprising independent building units each having an A _roof with one side section thereof hinged _at the peakv w relatively to the other side section to swing into substantially the plane thereof, ~corresponding 35 locking members at the outer edges of said hinged sections to secure together the hinged sections of adjacent units in the raised position. 6. A composite building structure, comprising independent building units each having an A roof 40 with one side section thereof hinged at the peak relatively to the other side section to swing into ished by forming the roof in two hinged sections. Previous prefabricated houses have had to be substantially the plane thereof, corresponding of unconventional design and therefore lack a` very important element of appeal to prospective locking ñanges on the upper surfaces of the outer edges, of the hinged sections abutting when the 45 45 purchasers. The houses from the above described hinged sections of adjacent units are raised into units have slanted roofs, and are not mere boxes the plane of the other section, and a cap ñtting but have graceful lines and readily adapt them selves to many interesting modifications in design. over- said ilangeslocking the hinged sections to- . Such building units as these may readily 'be gether and sealing the joint therebetween. 7. A composite building structure, comprising 50 exhibited and sold and various types kept in stock independent building units each having an A in every city, so that once it is decided to change the house structure, by enlarging or modifying, roof with one side thereof hinged at the peak this change may be made in a very short time. relatively to the other side section to swing sub It is also quite feasible when it is desired to move stantially into the plane thereof, the upper sur face of one of said sides being cut back from the 55 55 from one location to_ another to dismantle the peakfora distance, and the upper surface of said , house and carry it to the new site. This feature is also of a great deal of importance in localities other side extending over the peak for a distance Where land is very expensive, as the house may corresponding to said cut back to provide an over be placed upon a rented lot-and moved from one lapping joint at the hinge between said sides when the sides are swung into a common plane. lot to another when necessary. Of course, if desirable, the units may be _ar- ' ranged end to end instead of abutting sideways and in such a case the small A roof over each unit would be the permanent roof. The two sides of « 65 the A in such a case may both be hinged at the sides of the unit to fold over one another for \ purposes of transportation. ' It is obvious that various changes and modifi cations 'may be made in .the details of construc 70 tion and `design of the above specifically described embodiment of this invention without departing - from the `spirit thereof, such changesand modi ñcations being restricted only by the scope of the following claims. 75 What is claimed is: B. A composite house structure comprising a number of complete building units, each~ unit having a complete A roof one section_of which is hinged at the’peak to form with an adjacent unit of similar structure a larger A` roof over the two units. . 9. A pair of -prefabricated building units com prising each, a floor, corresponding wall struc tures to provide inner and outer walls, and a slanting roof structure for each unit adapted to 70 join and form an A roof over the two units and each of said roof structures being in two sections hinged 4together vtransversely to fold down and reduce the height of the unit for shipping. 10. A pair of building units comprising two 75 4 l - 2,115,615 separateìstructures each having walls and a roof, the walls being complementary to form a larger respective fixed roof sections, and the upper outer single structure when the units are brought to ` edges of said movable rooi' sections abutting to gether, said roofs being secured at an angle other complete an A-rooi' over the two adjacent units. 12. A composite structure comprising one unit than a right angle to said walls and adapted when the units are brought together to abut at having side walls with flat top edges and end 5 their upper edges to form an A-rooi.' over the walls with top edges tapering upwardly to a center two units, said roofs being hinged longitudinally higher than the side walls; a fixed roof section of the unit to allow the upper side of the roof. 10 to be folded down to reduce the overall height of the unit for shipping. 11. A composite structure comprising one unit having side walls with fiat top edges and end walls with top edges tapering upwardly to a 15 center higher than the side walls, a ñxed roof section secured to one side wall and one side of the tapering top edges of the end walls, a mov able roof section hingedly secured to the upper edge of said ilxed roof. section, and a second unit 20 having like side and end walls and fixed and movable roof sections, said units being `placed with the movable roof sections adjacent one an other and said roof sections being swung up roof section hingedly secured to the upper edge o1'. said fixed roof section, a second unit having 10 like -side and end walls and fixed and movable roof sections, said units being placed with the movable rooi' sections adjacent one another and said roof sections being swung upwardly on their hinges into the planes of their respective ñxed 15 rooi' sections, and the upper outer edges oi’ said movable roof sections abutting to complete an A-rcof over the two adjacent units,'and a dia mond shaped insert iilling the space at each end of the structure betweenthe raised movable roof 20 sections and the end Walls oi' the units. wardly on their hinges into the planes of their KARL H. BRUNNER.