Патент USA US2115627код для вставки
April 26, 1938. r R M, FOSTER - 2,115,627’ ELASTIC FABRIC Filed Sept. 4, 1956 2 Sheets-Sheet l April 26; 1938. _‘ RQMI FQSTER' 1 ' 2,115,627 ELASTIC FABRIC I Filed Sept. 4, 1936 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 4 _ -, ‘Q a I on ‘1 ummkwnuv w“ \ r . ' \\0 I 7 I \‘zuL g? I; I \ 4 , I¢ -J'?4 , , I I: 4-] Ill -- 1v I‘ J I I / L, i? v 7 ; '1" elwcmmwmm‘zmuwimw - ‘ I , -, ‘Patented a... 26,1938 _ I r' ' ‘2,115,627 _ illNlTEDTSTATES PATENT OFFlCE ‘2,115,621 ELASTIC memo Richard M. Foster, Camden, N. J., assignor to Hastings & McIntosh Truss Company, Phila delphia, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania Application September 4, 1936, Serial No. 99,411 4 Claims. (01. 66-189) This invention relates to an elastic knitted ‘have the same general appearance as the normal fabric adapted primarily for use in the manufac- areas of the garment, whereby the presence of ture of personal garments and surgical appliances including girdles, corsets, arm, leg, knee, elbow, 5 wrist, ankle and abdominal bandages, or in an article where a natural curvature is desirable, or in an article which will be subject to bending durmg ‘188- - the garment, when worn, for example, under sheer hosiery, will not be rendered conspicuous, as fre quently occurs when such articles are composed 5 - of different stitch formations in the different areas respectively of the garment. The construction of the fabric and its use in One object of the present invention is to pro- speci?c forms of bandages will be fully disclosed 10 vide an elastic fabric wherein one portion or area thereof will be relatively shorter, in a walewise hereinafter, reference being had to the accom- 10 panying drawings; of which: _ direction, than another adjacent or surrounding area; and wherein the foreshortened and normal areas will be collectively composed of successively 15 knit courses of regularly formed stitches respectively extending uninterruptedly through said Fig. i diagrammatically illustrates what is gen erally referred to as a surgical stocking with the garment composed of fabric made in accordance with the principles of the present invention; _15 Fig. 2 is a sar view illustrating what is nor normal and foreshortened areas, with a rubber strand laid in each course or in relatively spaced courses. 20 mally referred to as a lmee bandage; and Fig. 3 diagrammatically illustrates the stitch formation of the fabric and the manner in which Another object of the invention is to construct the fabric in such a manner that the rubber strands will he maintained in a common plane throughout the whole of the fabric, including the normal and relatively foreshortened areas, with25 out being staggered or overlapping to edect the foreshortening. ' a predetermined area thereof is foreshortened 20 walewise with respect to an adjacent or sur rounding area in accordance' with the principles of the present invention. ' The fabric shown in Fig. 3 is of the rib type, i. e. it is composed of a plurality of stitchwales 25 a, a formed on one set or bank of needles, such, Another object of the invention is to construct a garment of the above noted fabric, in either a circular form, as could be knit on a circular lniit80 ting machine, or in a flat form, as could be lmit on a flat knitting machine, or wherein the flat knit fabric would be provided with oppositely disposed edges arranged to be permanently or temporarily joined together to form a circular 35 garment, and in either case to position the foreshortened area in such relation to the normal area as to provide a natural curvature in the tube or band so formed to causethe article to ?t com- fortably, for example, to position the foreshort40 ened area at the various joints in those parts of the anatomy about which such articles are adapted to be applied. In cases where the article would be applied to the ankle or knee joints the foreshortened area, in the case of the ankle, > 45 would be positioned in front of the ankle, i. e. across the instep; whereas, in the case of the for example, as the cylinder needles of a circular knitting machine, whereby the stitch wales a, a would lie on one face, for example, the outer face of the ‘fabric, and a series of stitch wales b, b 30 formed on another set of needles, such, for ex ample, as/the dial needles of a circular knitting machine, whereby the stitch wales b, i) would be disposed on the opposite or back faceof the fabric. For the purpose of illustration and differentiation 35 the wales a, a will hereinafter be referred to as the outside wales and the wales b, b as the inside wales of the fabric. In the present illustration of Fig. 3, the fabric shown is what is commonly referred to as a two- 40 to-one rib, i. e. the outside wales a, a are arranged in pairs with single inside wales b disposed inter mediate the pairs of outside wales. It will be‘ understood, however, that the invention is not restricted to the use of a two-to-one rib and may 45 be constructed of one-to-one or two-to-two rib article being applied to theknee joint, the fore- ‘fabric, etc., wherein the inside wales alternate shortened area would be positioned behind or singularly or in pairs or in odd numbers with at the bend of the knee, in either case facilitating‘ corresponding or di?'erent numbers of inside 50 the bending of the limb at the joint encased by _ the article. _ ' Another object of the invention is to produce a natural curved or foreshortened area and/or welt or marginal area in a garment such as a limb 55 bandage, wherein the foreshortened areas will wales. ' 50 The stitch wales a, a and b, b are formed as the result of knitting successive‘ courses of stitches coordinately on the two banks of needles with the stitches ,of each course interlooped with the stitches of a preceding and a succeeding course 55 2 2,115,627 to form a complete fabric. Such a plurality of courses is illustrated at l to I! inclusive in Fig. 3. Each of the courses I to I! is continuous throughout the width or circumference of the fabric and in each'course, in the present instance, preceding and immediately succeeding courses, which are of normal length, together, produc ing a compensation uniformly throughout the . foreshortened area. is laid an elastic thread 0 which may be of either A practical application of the fabric shown in bare, cut or extruded rubber or latex, or a similar Fig. 3 is illustrated in Fig. 1 wherein the fore shortened area B is formed in the instep portion of a surgical stocking, such foreshortening of the strand provided with a spiral covering of fibrous thread as is common in articles of the types noted. 10 so doing draw the stitches of the immediately As shown in Fig. 3, the fabric may, according to the principles of the present invention, include normal areas A, A1, A’, and A3 disposed respec tively at the opposite sides and at the top and bottom of and surrounding the foreshortened 15 area B. The stitch formation in the areas A, A1, A’, and A3 is of the usual regular common stitch type, and wherein all of the stitches I6, in each of the successively knit and interlooped courses, are of a uniform predetermined length, which 20 normally would produce an ordinary common knitted fabric which would be of uniform shape and appearance throughout its length and breadth or circumference when composed en tirely of such uniform regular stitches. The walewise foreshortening of the area B, according to the principles of the present in vention, is effected by producing relatively shorter regular common stitches I 1, in alternate or in relatively spaced courses, in a predetermined 30 number of immediately adjacent wales. For example, the unevenly numbered courses I, 3, 5, etc. are of regular length stitches I6 and the evenly numbered courses 2, 4, 6, etc. are of shortened length stitches l6, course I being the 35 last course in the normal area A3 while course l5 forms the ?rst course in the normal area A". The sum of the difference between the col lective lengths of the stitches in the successive courses in the normal areas and the collective 40 lengths of the stitches in the foreshortened area determines the extent to which the area B would be foreshortened with respect to the adjacent areas A, A1, for example. . In the present instance, the shortened stitches 45 I‘! are formed in alternate courses throughout the length of the area B as noted above. However, it is within the scope of the present invention that the courses containing the shortened stitches may be spaced as desired, for example, in every third or fourth course, etc. The shortening of the stitches IS in prede termined courses may be readily effected during the knitting of the fabric by tightening or in creasing thev tension on, the knitting thread at 55 predetermined intervals as. the thread} guide moves past predetermined needles or as said needles move past said thread guide, as the case may be, and applying normal tension to the thread during relative movement between the thread guide and the needles adapted for knit ting those areas adjacent to the foreshortened area. The knitting of relatively short regularly shaped stitches I‘! in a group of'im'mediately ad 65 jacent wales, including both the inside and out fabric within said area producing a natural cur 10 vature in the front of the stocking, as illustrated at l8. In this application the marginal edges B1 of the foreshortened area B are in the form of steps produced by varying the number of needles to which the thread under the above noted ab normal tension is fed during the knitting of differ ent groups of successively knit courses and by periodically increasing, then periodically decreas ing the number of needles so affected in suc ceeding groups of stitch courses. 20 In the application illustrated in Fig. 2, the foreshortened area B is disposed at the back of the knee band providing a natural curvature l9 at that portion of the band which would lie immediately behind the knee, or at the bend of 25 the knee. In this case, the marginal edges B2 of the foreshortened area B are varied at each succeeding course, whereby different portions of the marginal edges B2 are caused to lie at different angles with respect to the wales and 30 courses of the fabric. ' In each of the instances of Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, the foreshortened area B is surrounded by normal areas A and A1, at the opposite sides respectively of the area B, and at the top and bottom of said 35 area with normal areas A2 and A3 respectively. In each of the instances of Fig. l and Fig. 2, the upper portion of the garment illustrated is provided with a welt area C, wherein alternate courses, or otherwise relatively spaced courses, 40 are formed completely, from side to side or around the garment, of shortened stitches I‘! and intermediate complete courses of normal length stitches l6. Thelfact that the normal stitches l6 and the‘ 45 shortened stitches I? are of the same general regular common form and differ only in length, while they retain substantially the said width, produces a garment in which there is no material difference in the appearance between the area 50 composed of the normal length stitches and the fabric composed partly of normal length stitches and partly of the shortened length stitches, and what little difference in appearance may be ap ‘parent when the fabric is in a normally con tracted condition disappears when the fabric is placed under slight lateral tension as when being worn. .For these reasons the fabric under conditions of use has a substantially uniform appearance throughout the garment and attracts 60 no undue attention when worn under an outer garment composed of thin sheer fabric. While the shortening of the stitches H has been described as being effected by increasing the tension on the knitting thread as such stitches 65 side wales, produces the e?ect of foreshortening are being formed, it will be apparent that in ma those particular wales with respect to the wales chines of the independently movable needle type, in the adjacent normal areas composed solely on which such bandages, etc. are commonly or of the regular shaped and lengthened stitches IS. frequently knitted, the difference in the lengths The shortening of stitches in predetermined of the stitches l6 and I1 respectively may be 70 courses does not materially aifect the coursewise produced by automatically or otherwise varying 70 elasticity of the fabric‘, for the reason that when the position of the stitch cams with respect to the fabric is stretched coursewise the short the stitch casting point of the machines whereby stitches being under abnormal tension tend to ‘a greater or lesser amount of knitting thread 75 straighten out coursewise of the fabric, and in may be drawn by each needle or group of needles 75 _ 2,116,627 as required and whereby the change from the normal length stitch I6 to the shortened stitch i1 and vice versa may be eifected at will. iii I claim: 1. A tubular ribbed knit fabric comprising two outside wales with rubber strands laid in pre determined courses between said inside and out side wales, said predetermined courses being com laterally adjacent areas composed conjvunctly of complete continuous successively knit courses of stitches forming inside and outside wales with posed of regular full length stitches loosely em bracing the rubber strands in said side areas and rubber strands laid in predetermined courses be regular short length stitches tightly embracing 10 tween said inside and outside wales, said prede the same rubber strands in said instep area, said termined courses being composed of regular full stocking also including within and extending length stitches loosely embracing the. rubber across said front and side areas in alternating strands in one of said areas and regular short relation to said predetermined courses, additional courses composed solely of full length stitches length stitches tightly embracing the same rubber strands in the other of said areas, said fabric also including within and extending across said loosely embracing rubber strands respectively laid in said additionalpcourses, and said stocking also laterally adjacent areas in‘ parallel interposed relation to said‘predetermlne'd courses, additional courses composed solely of full length stitches 20 loosely embracing said rubber strands respec tively laid in said interposed courses. including successively knit courses composed sole ly of full length stitches with loosely embraced - 2. A tubular ribbed knit fabric comprising two laterally adjacent areas composed conjunctly of - complete continuous successively knit courses of 25 stitches forming inside and outside wales with rubber strands laid in predetermined courses be tween said inside and outside wales, said prede termined courses being composed of regular full length stitches loosely embracing the rubber 30 strands in one of said areas and regular short length stitches tightly embracing'the same rubber strands in the other of said areas, said fabric also including within and extending across said laterally adjacent areas in parallel interposed relation to said predetermined courses, additional courses composed solely of full length stitches loosely embracing rubber strands respectively laid in said interposed courses, said fabric‘ at and beyond the opposite ends of said laterally ‘adjacent areas including successive courses com V40 posed solely of full length stitches with rubber strands therein and loosely'embraced thereby. 3. A tubular knit surgical stocking including a foot section, a leg section and a section inter mediate said leg and foot sections-said inter 3 laterally adjacent area at each side of said front area, said stocking being formed of ribbed knit fabric composed of complete continuous succes sively knit courses of stitches forming inside and 45 mediate section including a frontv area and a rubber strands therein in said leg and foot sec tions at the opposite ends of said intermediate section. _ 4. A tubular knit surgical knee band compris ing a front area and a back area formed of ribbed knit fabric composed of complete continuous suc- ,_ cessive'ly knit courses of stitches forming inside and outside wales with rubber strands laid in predetermined courses between said inside and outside wales, said predetermined courses being composed of regular full length stitches loosely embracing the rubber strands in said front area and regular short length stitches tightly em bracing the same rubber strands in said back area, said knee band also including within and extending across said front and back areas in alternating relation to said predetermined courses, additional courses composedsolely of full length stitches loosely embracing rubber strands respectively laid in said additional courses, and said Iknee band also including successively knit courses composed of full length stitches with loosely embraced rubber strands therein-in cir~ cumferential. areas adjacent each of the opposite ends of said front and back areas. RICHARD M. FOSTER.