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Патент USA US2115627

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April 26, 1938.
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R M, FOSTER
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2,115,627’
ELASTIC FABRIC
Filed Sept. 4, 1956
2 Sheets-Sheet l
April 26; 1938.
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RQMI FQSTER' 1
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2,115,627
ELASTIC FABRIC
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Filed Sept. 4, 1936
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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‘Patented a... 26,1938
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‘2,115,627
_ illNlTEDTSTATES PATENT OFFlCE
‘2,115,621
ELASTIC memo
Richard M. Foster, Camden, N. J., assignor to
Hastings & McIntosh Truss Company, Phila
delphia, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania
Application September 4, 1936, Serial No. 99,411
4 Claims. (01. 66-189)
This invention relates to an elastic knitted ‘have the same general appearance as the normal
fabric adapted primarily for use in the manufac- areas of the garment, whereby the presence of
ture of personal garments and surgical appliances
including girdles, corsets, arm, leg, knee, elbow,
5 wrist, ankle and abdominal bandages, or in an
article where a natural curvature is desirable, or
in an article which will be subject to bending durmg ‘188-
-
the garment, when worn, for example, under sheer
hosiery, will not be rendered conspicuous, as fre
quently occurs when such articles are composed 5 -
of different stitch formations in the different
areas respectively of the garment.
The construction of the fabric and its use in
One object of the present invention is to pro-
speci?c forms of bandages will be fully disclosed
10 vide an elastic fabric wherein one portion or area
thereof will be relatively shorter, in a walewise
hereinafter, reference being had to the accom- 10
panying drawings; of which:
_
direction, than another adjacent or surrounding
area; and wherein the foreshortened and normal
areas will be collectively composed of successively
15 knit courses of regularly formed stitches respectively extending uninterruptedly through said
Fig. i diagrammatically illustrates what is gen
erally referred to as a surgical stocking with the
garment composed of fabric made in accordance
with the principles of the present invention;
_15
Fig. 2 is a sar view illustrating what is nor
normal and foreshortened areas, with a rubber
strand laid in each course or in relatively spaced
courses.
20
mally referred to as a lmee bandage; and
Fig. 3 diagrammatically illustrates the stitch
formation of the fabric and the manner in which
Another object of the invention is to construct
the fabric in such a manner that the rubber
strands will he maintained in a common plane
throughout the whole of the fabric, including the
normal and relatively foreshortened areas, with25 out being staggered or overlapping to edect the
foreshortening.
'
a predetermined area thereof is foreshortened 20
walewise with respect to an adjacent or sur
rounding area in accordance' with the principles
of the present invention.
'
The fabric shown in Fig. 3 is of the rib type,
i. e. it is composed of a plurality of stitchwales 25
a, a formed on one set or bank of needles, such,
Another object of the invention is to construct
a garment of the above noted fabric, in either a
circular form, as could be knit on a circular lniit80 ting machine, or in a flat form, as could be lmit
on a flat knitting machine, or wherein the flat
knit fabric would be provided with oppositely
disposed edges arranged to be permanently or
temporarily joined together to form a circular
35 garment, and in either case to position the foreshortened area in such relation to the normal
area as to provide a natural curvature in the tube
or band so formed to causethe article to ?t com-
fortably, for example, to position the foreshort40 ened area at the various joints in those parts of
the anatomy about which such articles are adapted to be applied. In cases where the article
would be applied to the ankle or knee joints the
foreshortened area, in the case of the ankle,
> 45 would be positioned in front of the ankle, i. e.
across the instep; whereas, in the case of the
for example, as the cylinder needles of a circular
knitting machine, whereby the stitch wales a, a
would lie on one face, for example, the outer face
of the ‘fabric, and a series of stitch wales b, b 30
formed on another set of needles, such, for ex
ample, as/the dial needles of a circular knitting
machine, whereby the stitch wales b, i) would be
disposed on the opposite or back faceof the fabric.
For the purpose of illustration and differentiation 35
the wales a, a will hereinafter be referred to as
the outside wales and the wales b, b as the inside
wales of the fabric.
In the present illustration of Fig. 3, the fabric
shown is what is commonly referred to as a two- 40
to-one rib, i. e. the outside wales a, a are arranged
in pairs with single inside wales b disposed inter
mediate the pairs of outside wales. It will be‘
understood, however, that the invention is not
restricted to the use of a two-to-one rib and may 45
be constructed of one-to-one or two-to-two rib
article being applied to theknee joint, the fore-
‘fabric, etc., wherein the inside wales alternate
shortened area would be positioned behind or
singularly or in pairs or in odd numbers with
at the bend of the knee, in either case facilitating‘ corresponding or di?'erent numbers of inside
50 the bending of the limb at the joint encased by
_ the article.
_
'
Another object of the invention is to produce a
natural curved or foreshortened area and/or welt
or marginal area in a garment such as a limb
55 bandage, wherein the foreshortened areas will
wales.
'
50
The stitch wales a, a and b, b are formed as
the result of knitting successive‘ courses of stitches
coordinately on the two banks of needles with the
stitches ,of each course interlooped with the
stitches of a preceding and a succeeding course 55
2
2,115,627
to form a complete fabric. Such a plurality of
courses is illustrated at l to I! inclusive in Fig. 3.
Each of the courses I to I! is continuous
throughout the width or circumference of the
fabric and in each'course, in the present instance,
preceding and immediately succeeding courses,
which are of normal length, together, produc
ing a compensation uniformly throughout the
. foreshortened area.
is laid an elastic thread 0 which may be of either
A practical application of the fabric shown in
bare, cut or extruded rubber or latex, or a similar
Fig. 3 is illustrated in Fig. 1 wherein the fore
shortened area B is formed in the instep portion
of a surgical stocking, such foreshortening of the
strand provided with a spiral covering of fibrous
thread as is common in articles of the types noted.
10
so doing draw the stitches of the immediately
As shown in Fig. 3, the fabric may, according
to the principles of the present invention, include
normal areas A, A1, A’, and A3 disposed respec
tively at the opposite sides and at the top and
bottom of and surrounding the foreshortened
15 area B. The stitch formation in the areas A, A1,
A’, and A3 is of the usual regular common stitch
type, and wherein all of the stitches I6, in each
of the successively knit and interlooped courses,
are of a uniform predetermined length, which
20 normally would produce an ordinary common
knitted fabric which would be of uniform shape
and appearance throughout its length and
breadth or circumference when composed en
tirely of such uniform regular stitches.
The walewise foreshortening of the area B,
according to the principles of the present in
vention, is effected by producing relatively shorter
regular common stitches I 1, in alternate or in
relatively spaced courses, in a predetermined
30 number of immediately adjacent wales. For
example, the unevenly numbered courses I, 3, 5,
etc. are of regular length stitches I6 and the
evenly numbered courses 2, 4, 6, etc. are of
shortened length stitches l6, course I being the
35 last course in the normal area A3 while course
l5 forms the ?rst course in the normal area A".
The sum of the difference between the col
lective lengths of the stitches in the successive
courses in the normal areas and the collective
40 lengths of the stitches in the foreshortened area
determines the extent to which the area B would
be foreshortened with respect to the adjacent
areas A, A1, for example.
.
In the present instance, the shortened stitches
45 I‘! are formed in alternate courses throughout the
length of the area B as noted above. However,
it is within the scope of the present invention
that the courses containing the shortened
stitches may be spaced as desired, for example,
in every third or fourth course, etc.
The shortening of the stitches IS in prede
termined courses may be readily effected during
the knitting of the fabric by tightening or in
creasing thev tension on, the knitting thread at
55 predetermined intervals as. the thread} guide
moves past predetermined needles or as said
needles move past said thread guide, as the case
may be, and applying normal tension to the
thread during relative movement between the
thread guide and the needles adapted for knit
ting those areas adjacent to the foreshortened
area.
The knitting of relatively short regularly
shaped stitches I‘! in a group of'im'mediately ad
65 jacent wales, including both the inside and out
fabric within said area producing a natural cur
10
vature in the front of the stocking, as illustrated
at l8. In this application the marginal edges
B1 of the foreshortened area B are in the form of
steps produced by varying the number of needles
to which the thread under the above noted ab
normal tension is fed during the knitting of differ
ent groups of successively knit courses and by
periodically increasing, then periodically decreas
ing the number of needles so affected in suc
ceeding groups of stitch courses.
20
In the application illustrated in Fig. 2, the
foreshortened area B is disposed at the back of
the knee band providing a natural curvature l9
at that portion of the band which would lie
immediately behind the knee, or at the bend of 25
the knee. In this case, the marginal edges B2
of the foreshortened area B are varied at each
succeeding course, whereby different portions
of the marginal edges B2 are caused to lie at
different angles with respect to the wales and 30
courses of the fabric.
'
In each of the instances of Fig. 1 and Fig. 2,
the foreshortened area B is surrounded by normal
areas A and A1, at the opposite sides respectively
of the area B, and at the top and bottom of said 35
area with normal areas A2 and A3 respectively.
In each of the instances of Fig. l and Fig. 2,
the upper portion of the garment illustrated
is provided with a welt area C, wherein alternate
courses, or otherwise relatively spaced courses, 40
are formed completely, from side to side or
around the garment, of shortened stitches I‘!
and intermediate complete courses of normal
length stitches l6.
Thelfact that the normal stitches l6 and the‘ 45
shortened stitches I? are of the same general
regular common form and differ only in length,
while they retain substantially the said width,
produces a garment in which there is no material
difference in the appearance between the area 50
composed of the normal length stitches and the
fabric composed partly of normal length stitches
and partly of the shortened length stitches, and
what little difference in appearance may be ap
‘parent when the fabric is in a normally con
tracted condition disappears when the fabric
is placed under slight lateral tension as when
being worn. .For these reasons the fabric under
conditions of use has a substantially uniform
appearance throughout the garment and attracts 60
no undue attention when worn under an outer
garment composed of thin sheer fabric.
While the shortening of the stitches H has
been described as being effected by increasing
the tension on the knitting thread as such stitches 65
side wales, produces the e?ect of foreshortening are being formed, it will be apparent that in ma
those particular wales with respect to the wales chines of the independently movable needle type,
in the adjacent normal areas composed solely on which such bandages, etc. are commonly or
of the regular shaped and lengthened stitches IS. frequently knitted, the difference in the lengths
The shortening of stitches in predetermined of the stitches l6 and I1 respectively may be
70
courses does not materially aifect the coursewise produced by automatically or otherwise varying 70
elasticity of the fabric‘, for the reason that when the position of the stitch cams with respect to
the fabric is stretched coursewise the short the stitch casting point of the machines whereby
stitches being under abnormal tension tend to ‘a greater or lesser amount of knitting thread
75 straighten out coursewise of the fabric, and in may be drawn by each needle or group of needles 75
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2,116,627
as required and whereby the change from the
normal length stitch I6 to the shortened stitch
i1 and vice versa may be eifected at will.
iii
I claim:
1. A tubular ribbed knit fabric comprising two
outside wales with rubber strands laid in pre
determined courses between said inside and out
side wales, said predetermined courses being com
laterally adjacent areas composed conjvunctly of
complete continuous successively knit courses of
stitches forming inside and outside wales with
posed of regular full length stitches loosely em
bracing the rubber strands in said side areas and
rubber strands laid in predetermined courses be
regular short length stitches tightly embracing
10 tween said inside and outside wales, said prede
the same rubber strands in said instep area, said
termined courses being composed of regular full
stocking also including within and extending
length stitches loosely embracing the. rubber
across said front and side areas in alternating
strands in one of said areas and regular short
relation to said predetermined courses, additional
courses composed solely of full length stitches
length stitches tightly embracing the same rubber
strands in the other of said areas, said fabric
also including within and extending across said
loosely embracing rubber strands respectively laid
in said additionalpcourses, and said stocking also
laterally adjacent areas in‘ parallel interposed
relation to said‘predetermlne'd courses, additional
courses composed solely of full length stitches
20 loosely embracing said rubber strands respec
tively laid in said interposed courses.
including successively knit courses composed sole
ly of full length stitches with loosely embraced
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2. A tubular ribbed knit fabric comprising two
laterally adjacent areas composed conjunctly of -
complete continuous successively knit courses of
25 stitches forming inside and outside wales with
rubber strands laid in predetermined courses be
tween said inside and outside wales, said prede
termined courses being composed of regular full
length stitches loosely embracing the rubber
30 strands in one of said areas and regular short
length stitches tightly embracing'the same rubber
strands in the other of said areas, said fabric
also including within and extending across said
laterally adjacent areas in parallel interposed
relation to said predetermined courses, additional
courses composed solely of full length stitches
loosely embracing rubber strands respectively
laid in said interposed courses, said fabric‘ at
and beyond the opposite ends of said laterally
‘adjacent areas including successive courses com
V40 posed solely of full length stitches with rubber
strands therein and loosely'embraced thereby.
3. A tubular knit surgical stocking including a
foot section, a leg section and a section inter
mediate said leg and foot sections-said inter
3
laterally adjacent area at each side of said front
area, said stocking being formed of ribbed knit
fabric composed of complete continuous succes
sively knit courses of stitches forming inside and
45 mediate section including a frontv area and a
rubber strands therein in said leg and foot sec
tions at the opposite ends of said intermediate
section.
_
4. A tubular knit surgical knee band compris
ing a front area and a back area formed of ribbed
knit fabric composed of complete continuous suc- ,_
cessive'ly knit courses of stitches forming inside
and outside wales with rubber strands laid in
predetermined courses between said inside and
outside wales, said predetermined courses being
composed of regular full length stitches loosely
embracing the rubber strands in said front area
and regular short length stitches tightly em
bracing the same rubber strands in said back
area, said knee band also including within and
extending across said front and back areas in
alternating
relation
to
said
predetermined
courses, additional courses composedsolely of full
length stitches loosely embracing rubber strands
respectively laid in said additional courses, and
said Iknee band also including successively knit
courses composed of full length stitches with
loosely embraced rubber strands therein-in cir~
cumferential. areas adjacent each of the opposite
ends of said front and back areas.
RICHARD M. FOSTER.
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