Патент USA US2115659код для вставки
April 26, 1938. . ' a. WIENECKE METHOD OF PRODUCING SYNTHETIC MUSICAL SOUNDS Filed Feb. 17, 1934 I WZ 2,115,659 2,115,659 I Patented Apr. 26, 1.938 umrao ,s TATEs2,115,059PATENT ‘OFFICE'mrrnon or raonucma smns'ri . I mJsrosLsormns . ‘ Bruno Wienecke, Berlin, Germany 17, 1934, Serial No. 711,655 .ApplicationmFebrnary Germany March 6, 1983 lclalms. (Cl. 84-1) a tone of diifer'ent pitch, _it is necessary in ac This invention relates‘to-a method of and ap ‘of cordance with existing methods to draw a new musical sounds. paratus for producing synthetic curve comprising a correspondingly greater num- In the past few years methods have been de vised having the object of producing the sound Ul record provided on a sound ?lm in the form of periodical blackened portions, not through the medium of microphone and ampli?er, but in im mediate fashion by the photographical recordal of corresponding drawings. Preferably these 510 drawings are a direct representation of the single oscillation curves approximately of the kind whichv are produced-on reduced scale—-on a second ?lm according to the amplitude process. Naturally full scope is available for devising new forms of curves, and in following this procedure the observation has been made that sound struc tures or combinations may be produced, which are peculiar in their nature,.and heretofore have ‘ ber ‘of oscillations per unit of length. According to the invention, however, the shape or basic 5 curve is not altered, but the plane of the ?lm and the plane of the board or sheet on which the shape is drawn are merely rotated in relation to each other. This is preferably performed by rotating the said board or sheet about an axis 10 vertical to thedirection of movement of the ?lm. By reason of this rotation the length of the shape is shortened perspectively, so that the re production thereof on'the ?lm will also be short er. To preclude gaps between the single repro- 15 ductions the speed of the ?lm must be changed (decreased) accordingly. With correct adaptation of the angle of rota tion of the shape board or sheet to the advance not been capable of being produced in direct ' movement of the ?lm ‘and the number of expo- ,0 20 fashion by any form of musical instrument. It sures there is again produced on the ?lm a con will thus be obvious that by .the additional de velopmentof these methods the prospect is ob tained of opening up new ?elds of musical sound which previously were in no way available. nective series of curves which, however, now com prise a different number of oscillations for a cer tain length of ?lm, and accordingly will result in a different tone upon the reproduction; Ac- 25 will readily be appreciated that the method cording to one form of embodiment of the in 26 ofItproducing the single oscillations of a sound vention it is possible, instead of directly photo wave in the form of a drawing is extremely tedi graphing the drawing or shape, to photograph an image of the curve or shape produced opti Thus, for example, a tone of 800 periods intended cally, for example by projection. In this case 30 to endure, say, for 5 seconds would require 4000 so it is possible to twist the plane of the curve or single oscillations. shape in relation to the plane of the projection It is an essential feature of the method accord surface, and thus to'obtain optical distortion of ing to the invention that all of the numerous the ?lm image. It is also possible to twist both possibilities of variation inherent in principle in the original curve or shape as well as the surface 35 as regards vari 35 this method, more particularly of the film in relation to the projected image ation in the form of the curve, are not in any of the shape, in which case the extent of distor way obstructed as occurs in connection with tion may be doubled. The optical distortion may other methods hitherto 'known. also be accomplished by the interposition of cyl The method according to the present inven inder lenses or cylindrical re?ectors. It is also 40 40 tion proceeds‘ in the first place from an image possible to project a plurality of basic curves or ous and requires a considerable amount of time. 7 of an oscillation, which may be. obtained, for shapes on to a screen simultaneously, and thus example, by drawing by handjor by the method superpose different frequencies. peculiar to the invention as described later, and‘ The invention will now be described more fully which for the purpose of the further description with reference to the accompanying drawing, in 46 45 I prefer-to term the "shape".- This single oscil lation is transmitted photographically in the cor Fig. 1 is a perspective view'of a possible form rect size to the ?lm ‘by the use of suitable optical ‘ of embodiment of the apparatus for carrying the means, the ?lm_ being advanced continuously and which the image or shape exposed for a brief space of 50 time. The rate of‘movement of the ?lm must be in such relation to the number of exposures that the single reco'rdals on the ?lm are caused to follow each other without overlapping and without intermediate spacing. _ ‘Assuming it is desired to reco rd an oscillation ' invention into eifect. v - ‘ Fig. 2 represents a form of embodiment of the 50 curve board I in Fig. 1, comprising an elastic band, the form of which may be varied as desired with the assistance of a keyboard. For produc ing contrast between the surfaces above and be low the band there are secured to the lower side 05 . zqssugoou of the band dark overlapping strips of mate the inverse ratio of the diameters of the drums, rial. vFig. 3 shows a modified form of embodiment of the curve board on enlarged scale. .In this case the surface of the board comprises a plurality of prismatic rods or bars situated close together and having their upper ends colored white and their moves at a speed. which is approximately one lower ends colored black, the relative position of these bars being adjustable by means of a key quarter of that of the drum H. In order that the drum I2‘ will be moved by the operating drum II, the former is pressed against the drum l l by spiral springs 68. The surfaces of the two drums may be milled for the purpose of increasing the friction. The two drums II and 12 are conical insofar I as the two ends of each drum possess different 10 10 board. Fig. 4 shows an arrangement for reducing the invention to practice, having the object of con verting the image of the curve into sound in direct fashion without the medium of a ?lm. Referring now to the drawing,‘ i is the board or sheet bearing the basic _ curve or shape. This board or sheet is rigidly connected to the ?xed shaft 2. The basic curve or shape i is lighted by the lamp 3. The rays of light re?ected 20 by the light portions of the basic curve or shape _ pass to a certain extentthrough the slot 4 in the - disk 5, and are projected by the lens 6 on to the light-sensitive ?lm ‘I. From the dark portions no light passes to-thecorresponding points of the v25 ?lm, so that on the latter there is produced a natural reproduction of the ciirve on the table I, preferably on reduced scale. , The lens is an ordinary photographic lens hav ing a short focal distance, similar to the lenses 30 of ?lm cameras. The form of the lens is well known in the art, and does not constitute part of - the invention as claimed. diameters. The jacket of the drum ll represents a straight line. On the other hand the jacket line of the drum I2 is curved outwardly. The curvature of If is arcuate in form. This jacket line, however, may also be parabolic or of other suitable form. The drum l i is the operating drum, and I2 the driven drum. Vice versa the power might also be transmitted from l2 to H, i. e., from a convex conical to a straight conical or even concave 20 conical drum. There would also be no objection to making both drumsin convex conical form, the radius of curvature being made to vary. Although in the following for the ‘sake of brevity reference will be made to conical drums, this term will be understood to include any of the forms referred to in the above. The movement on the part of the shaft of the drum I! (Fig. l) is caused by the fact that the extended bearing I'I contacts with a cam. ll. 30 The cam I8 is ?rmly connected to the shaft 2. About the rigid shaft 2 there is also provided in The ?lm is situated in a light-proof chamber, in the side of which directed towards the board or table I there is located the lens 8. The film ‘I is advanced by the toothed drum 8, which is also situated within the chamber. This drum'is vrotatable fashion the complete arrangement in the previously known embodiments having ; driven by the motor l0 through the medium of the shaft 62 and the worm gear 9. The motor straight jacket surfaces. Straight drums of this ‘ nature require to be connected by means of a In also drives by means of a belt and a pulley 85 coupling member, which'consists, for example,'of 40 the conical drum ll,.which is made to contact with a second conical drum H, the jacket of which, however, in contradistinction to the drum a driving belt or a roller. To‘ vary the trans mission ratio this coupling ‘member must be dis-, ‘ ' sofar as the same is mounted on the base plate ID. The gear comprising the conical drums II and 35 I2 possesses considerable advantages in face of placed by a threaded spindle. This displacement H, is curved in slightly convex fashion, so that 45 the two drums touch each other only at one point. The shaft of the drum [2 drives through the medium of'the belt pulleys l3 and I4 the shaft l5 having mounted thereon the slotted cannot be performed very rapidly, so that a con disk- 5. The drums ll and i2 constitute a gear 50. for varying the number of revolutions without altered quickly and easily by slight movement . _ any break. siderable amount of time is lost if the‘transmis sion ratio is varied very frequently. In the em 45 bodiment having curved jacket lines according to the invention the transmission ratio may be of the shaft of the one drum in a lateral direc 50 The variation in the speed takes ‘ tion, as set forth in the following description of place by rocking the shaft of the drum II, which shaft for this purpose is mounted to turn in the shiftable bearings II. By the- movement of the shaft of the drum I! the point of contact between the two drums is caused to move from the one the operation. _In this manner different diam eters of the two drums are made to contact. Little force is required for this lateral movement, was the one?rum merely rolls over the periphery 55 of the other. - .- ~ " ' The operation of the complete apparatus is as follows: If the base plate 19 is so adjusted that the drum are connected immovably with the base the surface of the ?lm ‘I is parallel to the board 60 plate I 9, whilst the bearings 68 (Fig. 1) for the or sheet I, the reproduction of the curve or shape drum I! may be shifted parallel to the base plate on the ?lm will possess its maximum length. end to the other, the contacting peripheries ac cordingly varying in size. The bearings 85 for . along slideways It and II. By reason of this dis , placement alteration is effected in the point of 65 contact 61 between the two drums. If the shaft 64 of the drum is, moved into the one extreme, the point of contact 61 is located , at the left-hand end of the drums. In this posi The disk I having the slot 4 acts as a photo- > graphic diaphragm, which allows the-light pro ceeding from the board or sheet. I to act on the ?lm ‘for a space of time as short as possible, i. e., the, time required by the slot to scan the curve once must be so short that the advance of the tion the drum l2, corresponding with the inverse - ?lm taking place at the same time does not result in any appreciable lack of sharpness or distortion 70 speed which is approximately four times that of of the reproduction. This is important if the ?lm. 70 ratio of the diameters of the drums, moves at a the drum H. ‘ - If the shaft 64 of the drum is moved into the other extreme position, the point-of contact is situated, at the right-hand end of the drums. In 75 this position the drum- l2, corresponding with as shown, is moved continuously. If the ?lm is moved intermittently, the time of exposure may naturally be extended without unduly affecting the sharpness of the image. ' ' The operating mechanism is so‘ adjusted that 3 2,115,050 upon each revolution of the disk. 5 the ?lm is ad vanced to an extent representing the, length of the image of the curve or shape on the ?lm, so that on the ?lm there is produced a continuous series of reproductions of the curve or shape‘on the board or sheet I . The parallel disposal of the board or sheet I .and' the ?lm as described results in the smallest number of reproductions per length of ?lm, and 10 accordingly in the lowest tone. To produce a higher tone the plate i9 together with the total apparatus including the ?lm ‘I is ‘turned about the shaft 2, so that the surface of the sheet or board i, which is not moved conjointly is not 15 parallel to the plane of .the ?lm. The reproduc tion of the shape on the ?lm will accordingly be shorter. If the rate of movement of the film were not altered, spaces would result on the ?lm be tween the single recordals, and the tone would not 20 be pure. For this reason there is provided the cam l8, which does not rotate together with the plate I’, but by reason of the movement displaces the bearing 11 of the drum I! in such fashion 'that in accordance with the shortened'repro 25 duction on the ?lm the number of exposures is also increased by increasing the circumferential velocity of the disk 5. This increase in the num variable curve is shown in Fig. 3. A number of small narrow bars 4! are situated close together so as to form a surface. The bars, as indicated, are colored over the one half black and over the other half white. Each bar is connected by means of levers with the keyboard 42, and may be lifted or lowered by actuation of the key. In this manner the bounding line 43-44 between the black and the white portion of each bar is, shifted within the surface formed. By variable depres 10 sion the bounding line may be varied to produce a desired form of curve, as illustrated in the drawing. The greater the number of bars, the greater are the degrees of ?neness of the curve which may be produced. For ?xing the curve 15 according to Fig. 1 a photographic recordal is made on a ?lm of the bounding line between black and white in the manner indicated above. Immediate reproduction of the sound without the use of a ?lm may be performed, according to 20 the invention, by means of an apparatus such as shown in Fig. 4. , In a circular drum 5i having about its periph ery a number of slots 52 there is located a lamp '53, the light of which is concentrated by a col 25. lecting lens 54 to a part of the inner wall of the drum. The light passing through the slots is ber of exposures is such that the single reproduc- ' projected through the lens 55 on to the sheet or board 55. The drum 5| is set into rapid motion, tions on the ?lm follow each other without inter so that the single beams of light are passed in 30 30 mediate spacing. There is accordingly again formed a continuous series of curves which, how ever, comprises a greater number of reproduc tions per unit of length and accordingly results in a higher tone when passed through an ordi 35 nary sound ?l'm projector. The turning-of the plate'l may be performed, for example, by the foot of the operator, as indicated in Fig. 1 by the Preferably, operations will be performed at a 4,0 reduced speed, similar to the quick run exposures in kinematograph ?lms, so that in connection with the higher. tones the speed of the apparatus _ ‘ In order that a proper idea of the nature of the tone may be obtained before the record is made on the ?lm, there is provided in the path of the rays of light the reflector 20. An additional feature of the invention is the rapid production of different forms of curves. 50 This is accomplished by the fact that the curve or shape is constructed as a tangible element, the form of which may be changed mechanically. For example, an elastic band composed of rubber, steel or the like may act as marginal line for the 55 curve, the form of which may be readily changed by being bent or curved in diil'erentfashion by a keyboard by the useof pins, levers or the like. A possible form of embodiment of this arrange ment is illustratedin Fig. 2. In this case 3| is the 60 elastic band, which is tensioned ?rmly at “and ll. 34 are the pins, the ends of which are con nected ?rmly with the band. The pins 34 are moved by means of the levers 35 constructed to form keys and rotatably mounted on the shaft 36. 65 This might be performed, for examplaby at taching to the elastic band narrow strips 31 of a dark material, in such a manner that the same ~75 between the board 56 on the one hand and the drum 5! and objective 55 on the other hand is such that on each occasion only the light from the one slot impinges against the board. Im 35 mediately the one beam of light moves away from the board on the one side the next beam of light appears on the other side. double-headed arrow 5|. will not become excessive. rapid succession over the board 56. The distance , ' The light re?ected by the light portions of the board meets against the re?ector 51 which con 40 tains the photo-cell 58. The photo-electric cur rents produced are conducted over the ampli?er 59 to the loudspeaker 60, where the same are made audible. In this arrangement the pitch of the tone produced is'determined by the number of 45 revolutions of the drum, while the tone itself is determined in the manner already described ‘by mechanical alteration of movable parts of the ’ board 56. In order to produce rapid variations in the pitch it is possible in accordance with the 50 invention to provide a plurality of slotted drums, which revolve at different speeds and are so ar ranged that their beams of light all impinge against the same board. By shading off the single rays of light it is possible to produce different frequencies very quickly. It is also possible to make provision at will for diiferent frequencies simultaneously. The intensity of the sound may be varied by dif ferent degrees of illumination of the board or sheet, or by the provision of light ?lters in front of the photo-cell or the ?lm. Reference has already been made to the possi bility of the basic curve or shape being scanned not in direct fashion by the rays of light, but through the medium of an image thereof. This image may be obtained, for example, by the dia hang down and thus cause the surface below the .scopic or episcopic projection of one or more (different) basic curves or shapes. In the case band to appear dark as compared with the visible, for example white background above the band. of direct reproduction by means of photo-cell this 70 vIi’ these strips of material were made so wide as projected image naturally cannot be scanned by to overlap, no light points of the background rays of light according to the method illustrated in below the same‘ would be visible when the band Fig. 4. In this case it is necessary, by means of a movable slotted diaphragm, to allow a part of the were curved. "An additional example ‘of a mechanically light from the total image to fall on to a photo 75 4 2,115,659 ‘ . cell. In the embodiment according to Fig. 4 the photo-cell might be provided-within the drum 5! them to assume any desired position with respect in place of the lamp 53. The board or sheet 5% sive order single records of the said ?gure on the said ?lm, means for advancing the said ?lm after would then form the projection surfacefor the basic curve or shape. ' to one another, means for producing in succes each single record by an amount exactly equal What I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is: to the length of a single record on the said ?lm, 1. In an apparatus for making synthetic sound records adapted for use in sound-reproducing ap paratus, a light-sensitive surface, va variable struc ture in relation to the plane of the ?lm, and ture disposed over a plane and representing a. means for varying the plane'of the said struc- - means for varying the rate of movement of the said ?lm consistent with variations in the num ber of records produced per unit of time. single oscillation of the sound to be produced, means for producing in successive order single records of the said structure on the said surface, ' 4. A method of making sound records adapted comprising a plurality of adjacently disposed and relatively shiitable rods forming a desired ?gure, vary the length of the single records produced on for use in sound-reproducing apparatus, which consists in- preparing a basic ?gure representing means for varying the form ‘of the said structure a single oscillation of the tone to be produced and 15 in any desired order, and means for varying the extending over a plane, producing in successive plane of the said structure with respect to the order single records of the said ?gure on a light sensitive surface whilst at the same time ad plane of the said surface. 2. In an apparatus for making synthetic sound vancing the said surface after each record has been made by an amount exactly equal to the 20 records adapted for use in sound-reproducing ap length of a single record on the said surface, paratus, a light-sensitive surface, a variable struc ture comprising a plurality of adjacently disposed varying the form of the said ?gure to assume any ' and relatively shiftable rods, means for shifting desired form, producing in successive order single the said rods so as to cause them'to assume any records of the new form onvthe light-sensitive desired position with respect to one another, and surface whilst advancing the said surface as means for producing in successive order single before, repeating the said process of varying the form of the basic ?gure, successively reproducing records of the said structure on the light-sensi tive surface representing a continuous record of the same and advancing the said surface until the desired record of the single tones has been com the desired tone. 3. In an apparatus for making synthetic sound pleted in the desired order, and varying at desired phases the plane of the said ?gure in relation to records adapted for use in sound-reproducing ap paratus, a photographic ?lm, a variable structure - the’ plane of the light-sensitive surface in order to means for shifting the said rods so as to cause the said surface. I ' BRUNO WIENECKVE.