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Патент USA US2115659

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April 26, 1938.
. '
Filed Feb. 17, 1934
I Patented Apr. 26, 1.938
umrao ,s TATEs2,115,059PATENT ‘OFFICE'mrrnon or raonucma smns'ri
‘ Bruno Wienecke, Berlin, Germany
17, 1934, Serial No. 711,655
Germany March 6, 1983
(Cl. 84-1)
a tone of diifer'ent pitch, _it is necessary in ac
This invention relates‘to-a method of and ap ‘of
with existing methods to draw a new
paratus for producing synthetic
curve comprising a correspondingly greater num-
In the past few years methods have been de
vised having the object of producing the sound
Ul record provided on a sound ?lm in the form of
periodical blackened portions, not through the
medium of microphone and ampli?er, but in im
mediate fashion by the photographical recordal
of corresponding drawings. Preferably these
510 drawings are a direct representation of the single
oscillation curves approximately of the kind
whichv are produced-on reduced scale—-on a
second ?lm according to the amplitude process.
Naturally full scope is available for devising new
forms of curves, and in following this procedure
the observation has been made that sound struc
tures or combinations may be produced, which
are peculiar in their nature,.and heretofore have
ber ‘of oscillations per unit of length. According
to the invention, however, the shape or basic 5
curve is not altered, but the plane of the ?lm and
the plane of the board or sheet on which the
shape is drawn are merely rotated in relation
to each other. This is preferably performed by
rotating the said board or sheet about an axis 10
vertical to thedirection of movement of the ?lm.
By reason of this rotation the length of the
shape is shortened perspectively, so that the re
production thereof on'the ?lm will also be short
er. To preclude gaps between the single repro- 15
ductions the speed of the ?lm must be changed
(decreased) accordingly.
With correct adaptation of the angle of rota
tion of the shape board or sheet to the advance
not been capable of being produced in direct '
movement of the ?lm ‘and the number of expo- ,0
20 fashion by any form of musical instrument. It sures there is again produced on the ?lm a con
will thus be obvious that by .the additional de
velopmentof these methods the prospect is ob
tained of opening up new ?elds of musical sound
which previously were in no way available.
nective series of curves which, however, now com
prise a different number of oscillations for a cer
tain length of ?lm, and accordingly will result
in a different tone upon the reproduction; Ac- 25
will readily be appreciated that the method cording to one form of embodiment of the in
26 ofItproducing
the single oscillations of a sound vention it is possible, instead of directly photo
wave in the form of a drawing is extremely tedi
graphing the drawing or shape, to photograph
an image of the curve or shape produced opti
Thus, for example, a tone of 800 periods intended cally, for example by projection. In this case 30
it is possible to twist the plane of the curve or
single oscillations.
shape in relation to the plane of the projection
It is an essential feature of the method accord
surface, and thus to'obtain optical distortion of
ing to the invention that all of the numerous the ?lm image. It is also possible to twist both
possibilities of variation inherent in principle in the original curve or shape as well as the surface 35
as regards vari
35 this method, more particularly
of the film in relation to the projected image
ation in the form of the curve, are not in any of the shape, in which case the extent of distor
way obstructed as occurs in connection with tion may be doubled. The optical distortion may
other methods hitherto 'known.
also be accomplished by the interposition of cyl
The method according to the present inven
inder lenses or cylindrical re?ectors. It is also 40
40 tion proceeds‘ in the first place from an image possible to project a plurality of basic curves or
ous and requires a considerable amount of time.
of an oscillation, which may be. obtained, for
shapes on to a screen simultaneously, and thus
example, by drawing by handjor by the method superpose different frequencies.
peculiar to the invention as described later, and‘
The invention will now be described more fully
which for the purpose of the further description with reference to the accompanying drawing, in 46
45 I prefer-to term the "shape".- This single oscil
lation is transmitted photographically in the cor
Fig. 1 is a perspective view'of a possible form
rect size to the ?lm ‘by the use of suitable optical ‘ of embodiment of the apparatus for carrying the
means, the ?lm_ being advanced continuously and
the image or shape exposed for a brief space of
50 time. The rate of‘movement of the ?lm must
be in such relation to the number of exposures
that the single reco'rdals on the ?lm are caused
to follow each other without overlapping and
without intermediate spacing.
_ ‘Assuming it is desired to reco rd
an oscillation
invention into eifect.
Fig. 2 represents a form of embodiment of the 50
curve board I in Fig. 1, comprising an elastic
band, the form of which may be varied as desired
with the assistance of a keyboard. For produc
ing contrast between the surfaces above and be
low the band there are secured to the lower side 05
of the band dark overlapping strips of mate
the inverse ratio of the diameters of the drums,
vFig. 3 shows a modified form of embodiment of
the curve board on enlarged scale. .In this case
the surface of the board comprises a plurality of
prismatic rods or bars situated close together and
having their upper ends colored white and their
moves at a speed. which is approximately one
lower ends colored black, the relative position of
these bars being adjustable by means of a key
quarter of that of the drum H.
In order that the drum I2‘ will be moved by
the operating drum II, the former is pressed
against the drum l l by spiral springs 68. The
surfaces of the two drums may be milled for the
purpose of increasing the friction.
The two drums II and 12 are conical insofar
I as the two ends of each drum possess different 10
10 board.
Fig. 4 shows an arrangement for reducing the
invention to practice, having the object of con
verting the image of the curve into sound in
direct fashion without the medium of a ?lm.
Referring now to the drawing,‘ i is the board
or sheet bearing the basic _ curve or shape.
This board or sheet is rigidly connected to the
?xed shaft 2.
The basic curve or shape i is
lighted by the lamp 3. The rays of light re?ected
20 by the light portions of the basic curve or shape
_ pass to a certain extentthrough the slot 4 in the
- disk 5, and are projected by the lens 6 on to the
light-sensitive ?lm ‘I. From the dark portions no
light passes to-thecorresponding points of the
v25 ?lm, so that on the latter there is produced a
natural reproduction of the ciirve on the table I,
preferably on reduced scale.
The lens is an ordinary photographic lens hav
ing a short focal distance, similar to the lenses
30 of ?lm cameras. The form of the lens is well
known in the art, and does not constitute part of
- the invention as claimed.
diameters. The jacket of the drum ll represents
a straight line. On the other hand the jacket
line of the drum I2 is curved outwardly. The
curvature of If is arcuate in form. This jacket
line, however, may also be parabolic or of other
suitable form.
The drum l i is the operating drum, and I2 the
driven drum. Vice versa the power might also
be transmitted from l2 to H, i. e., from a convex
conical to a straight conical or even concave 20
conical drum. There would also be no objection
to making both drumsin convex conical form,
the radius of curvature being made to vary.
Although in the following for the ‘sake of
brevity reference will be made to conical drums,
this term will be understood to include any of the
forms referred to in the above.
The movement on the part of the shaft of the
drum I! (Fig. l) is caused by the fact that the
extended bearing I'I contacts with a cam. ll. 30
The cam I8 is ?rmly connected to the shaft 2.
About the rigid shaft 2 there is also provided in
The ?lm is situated in a light-proof chamber,
in the side of which directed towards the board
or table I there is located the lens 8. The film
‘I is advanced by the toothed drum 8, which is
also situated within the chamber. This drum'is
vrotatable fashion the complete arrangement in
the previously known
embodiments having ;
driven by the motor l0 through the medium of
the shaft 62 and the worm gear 9. The motor
straight jacket surfaces.
Straight drums of this ‘
nature require to be connected by means of a
In also drives by means of a belt and a pulley 85
coupling member, which'consists, for example,'of 40
the conical drum ll,.which is made to contact
with a second conical drum H, the jacket of
which, however, in contradistinction to the drum
a driving belt or a roller. To‘ vary the trans
mission ratio this coupling ‘member must be dis-, ‘ '
sofar as the same is mounted on the base plate ID.
The gear comprising the conical drums II and 35
I2 possesses considerable advantages in face of
placed by a threaded spindle. This displacement
H, is curved in slightly convex fashion, so that
45 the two drums touch each other only at one
point. The shaft of the drum [2 drives through
the medium of'the belt pulleys l3 and I4 the
shaft l5 having mounted thereon the slotted
cannot be performed very rapidly, so that a con
disk- 5. The drums ll and i2 constitute a gear
50. for varying the number of revolutions without
altered quickly and easily by slight movement
. _ any break.
siderable amount of time is lost if the‘transmis
sion ratio is varied very frequently. In the em
bodiment having curved jacket lines according to
the invention the transmission ratio may be
of the shaft of the one drum in a lateral direc
The variation in the speed takes ‘ tion, as set forth in the following description of
place by rocking the shaft of the drum II, which
shaft for this purpose is mounted to turn in the
shiftable bearings II. By the- movement of the
shaft of the drum I! the point of contact between
the two drums is caused to move from the one
the operation. _In this manner different diam
eters of the two drums are made to contact.
Little force is required for this lateral movement,
was the one?rum merely rolls over the periphery 55
of the other.
" '
The operation of the complete apparatus is as
follows: If the base plate 19 is so adjusted that
the drum are connected immovably with the base the surface of the ?lm ‘I is parallel to the board
60 plate I 9, whilst the bearings 68 (Fig. 1) for the or sheet I, the reproduction of the curve or shape
drum I! may be shifted parallel to the base plate on the ?lm will possess its maximum length.
end to the other, the contacting peripheries ac
cordingly varying in size. The bearings 85 for
. along slideways It and II. By reason of this dis
, placement alteration is effected in the point of
contact 61 between the two drums.
If the shaft 64 of the drum is, moved into the
one extreme, the point of contact 61 is located
, at the left-hand end of the drums. In this posi
The disk I having the slot 4 acts as a photo- >
graphic diaphragm, which allows the-light pro
ceeding from the board or sheet. I to act on the
?lm ‘for a space of time as short as possible, i. e.,
the, time required by the slot to scan the curve
once must be so short that the advance of the
tion the drum l2, corresponding with the inverse - ?lm taking place at the same time does not result
in any appreciable lack of sharpness or distortion
70 speed which is approximately four times that of of the reproduction. This is important if the ?lm. 70
ratio of the diameters of the drums, moves at a
the drum H.
If the shaft 64 of the drum is moved into the
other extreme position, the point-of contact is
situated, at the right-hand end of the drums. In
75 this position the drum- l2, corresponding with
as shown, is moved continuously. If the ?lm is
moved intermittently, the time of exposure may
naturally be extended without unduly affecting
the sharpness of the image.
The operating mechanism is so‘ adjusted that
upon each revolution of the disk. 5 the ?lm is ad
vanced to an extent representing the, length of
the image of the curve or shape on the ?lm, so
that on the ?lm there is produced a continuous
series of reproductions of the curve or shape‘on
the board or sheet I .
The parallel disposal of the board or sheet I
.and' the ?lm as described results in the smallest
number of reproductions per length of ?lm, and
10 accordingly in the lowest tone. To produce a
higher tone the plate i9 together with the total
apparatus including the ?lm ‘I is ‘turned about
the shaft 2, so that the surface of the sheet or
board i, which is not moved conjointly is not
15 parallel to the plane of .the ?lm. The reproduc
tion of the shape on the ?lm will accordingly be
shorter. If the rate of movement of the film were
not altered, spaces would result on the ?lm be
tween the single recordals, and the tone would not
20 be pure. For this reason there is provided the
cam l8, which does not rotate together with the
plate I’, but by reason of the movement displaces
the bearing 11 of the drum I! in such fashion
'that in accordance with the shortened'repro
25 duction on the ?lm the number of exposures is
also increased by increasing the circumferential
velocity of the disk 5. This increase in the num
variable curve is shown in Fig. 3. A number of
small narrow bars 4! are situated close together
so as to form a surface. The bars, as indicated,
are colored over the one half black and over the
other half white. Each bar is connected by
means of levers with the keyboard 42, and may be
lifted or lowered by actuation of the key. In
this manner the bounding line 43-44 between the
black and the white portion of each bar is, shifted
within the surface formed. By variable depres 10
sion the bounding line may be varied to produce
a desired form of curve, as illustrated in the
drawing. The greater the number of bars, the
greater are the degrees of ?neness of the curve
which may be produced. For ?xing the curve 15
according to Fig. 1 a photographic recordal is
made on a ?lm of the bounding line between black
and white in the manner indicated above.
Immediate reproduction of the sound without
the use of a ?lm may be performed, according to 20
the invention, by means of an apparatus such as
shown in Fig. 4.
, In a circular drum 5i having about its periph
ery a number of slots 52 there is located a lamp
'53, the light of which is concentrated by a col 25.
lecting lens 54 to a part of the inner wall of the
drum. The light passing through the slots is
ber of exposures is such that the single reproduc- ' projected through the lens 55 on to the sheet or
board 55. The drum 5| is set into rapid motion,
tions on the ?lm follow each other without inter
so that the single beams of light are passed in 30
30 mediate spacing.
There is accordingly again
formed a continuous series of curves which, how
ever, comprises a greater number of reproduc
tions per unit of length and accordingly results
in a higher tone when passed through an ordi
35 nary sound ?l'm projector.
The turning-of the
plate'l may be performed, for example, by the
foot of the operator, as indicated in Fig. 1 by the
Preferably, operations will be performed at a
4,0 reduced speed, similar to the quick run exposures
in kinematograph ?lms, so that in connection
with the higher. tones the speed of the apparatus
In order that a proper idea of the nature of the
tone may be obtained before the record is made
on the ?lm, there is provided in the path of the
rays of light the reflector 20.
An additional feature of the invention is the
rapid production of different forms of curves.
50 This is accomplished by the fact that the curve
or shape is constructed as a tangible element, the
form of which may be changed mechanically.
For example, an elastic band composed of rubber,
steel or the like may act as marginal line for the
55 curve, the form of which may be readily changed
by being bent or curved in diil'erentfashion by a
keyboard by the useof pins, levers or the like.
A possible form of embodiment of this arrange
ment is illustratedin Fig. 2. In this case 3| is the
60 elastic band, which is tensioned ?rmly at “and
ll. 34 are the pins, the ends of which are con
nected ?rmly with the band. The pins 34 are
moved by means of the levers 35 constructed to
form keys and rotatably mounted on the shaft 36.
This might be performed, for examplaby at
taching to the elastic band narrow strips 31 of a
dark material, in such a manner that the same
between the board 56 on the one hand and the
drum 5! and objective 55 on the other hand is
such that on each occasion only the light from
the one slot impinges against the board. Im 35
mediately the one beam of light moves away from
the board on the one side the next beam of light
appears on the other side.
double-headed arrow 5|.
will not become excessive.
rapid succession over the board 56. The distance
' The light re?ected by the light portions of the
board meets against the re?ector 51 which con 40
tains the photo-cell 58. The photo-electric cur
rents produced are conducted over the ampli?er
59 to the loudspeaker 60, where the same are
made audible. In this arrangement the pitch of
the tone produced is'determined by the number of 45
revolutions of the drum, while the tone itself is
determined in the manner already described ‘by
mechanical alteration of movable parts of the
’ board 56. In order to produce rapid variations
in the pitch it is possible in accordance with the 50
invention to provide a plurality of slotted drums,
which revolve at different speeds and are so ar
ranged that their beams of light all impinge
against the same board.
By shading off the single rays of light it is
possible to produce different frequencies very
quickly. It is also possible to make provision at
will for diiferent frequencies simultaneously.
The intensity of the sound may be varied by dif
ferent degrees of illumination of the board or
sheet, or by the provision of light ?lters in front
of the photo-cell or the ?lm.
Reference has already been made to the possi
bility of the basic curve or shape being scanned
not in direct fashion by the rays of light, but
through the medium of an image thereof. This
image may be obtained, for example, by the dia
hang down and thus cause the surface below the .scopic or episcopic projection of one or more
(different) basic curves or shapes. In the case
band to appear dark as compared with the visible,
for example white background above the band. of direct reproduction by means of photo-cell this 70
vIi’ these strips of material were made so wide as projected image naturally cannot be scanned by
to overlap, no light points of the background rays of light according to the method illustrated in
below the same‘ would be visible when the band Fig. 4. In this case it is necessary, by means of a
movable slotted diaphragm, to allow a part of the
were curved.
"An additional example ‘of a mechanically light from the total image to fall on to a photo 75
cell. In the embodiment according to Fig. 4 the
photo-cell might be provided-within the drum 5!
them to assume any desired position with respect
in place of the lamp 53. The board or sheet 5%
sive order single records of the said ?gure on the
said ?lm, means for advancing the said ?lm after
would then form the projection surfacefor the
basic curve or shape.
to one another, means for producing in succes
each single record by an amount exactly equal
What I claim as new and desire to secure by
Letters Patent is:
to the length of a single record on the said ?lm,
1. In an apparatus for making synthetic sound
records adapted for use in sound-reproducing ap
paratus, a light-sensitive surface, va variable struc
ture in relation to the plane of the ?lm, and
ture disposed over a plane and representing a.
means for varying the plane'of the said struc- -
means for varying the rate of movement of the
said ?lm consistent with variations in the num
ber of records produced per unit of time.
single oscillation of the sound to be produced,
means for producing in successive order single
records of the said structure on the said surface,
' 4. A method of making sound records adapted
comprising a plurality of adjacently disposed and
relatively shiitable rods forming a desired ?gure,
vary the length of the single records produced on
for use in sound-reproducing apparatus, which
consists in- preparing a basic ?gure representing
means for varying the form ‘of the said structure a single oscillation of the tone to be produced and 15
in any desired order, and means for varying the extending over a plane, producing in successive
plane of the said structure with respect to the order single records of the said ?gure on a light
sensitive surface whilst at the same time ad
plane of the said surface.
2. In an apparatus for making synthetic sound vancing the said surface after each record has
been made by an amount exactly equal to the 20
records adapted for use in sound-reproducing ap
length of a single record on the said surface,
paratus, a light-sensitive surface, a variable struc
ture comprising a plurality of adjacently disposed varying the form of the said ?gure to assume any '
and relatively shiftable rods, means for shifting desired form, producing in successive order single
the said rods so as to cause them'to assume any records of the new form onvthe light-sensitive
desired position with respect to one another, and surface whilst advancing the said surface as
means for producing in successive order single before, repeating the said process of varying the
form of the basic ?gure, successively reproducing
records of the said structure on the light-sensi
tive surface representing a continuous record of the same and advancing the said surface until the
desired record of the single tones has been com
the desired tone.
3. In an apparatus for making synthetic sound pleted in the desired order, and varying at desired
phases the plane of the said ?gure in relation to
records adapted for use in sound-reproducing ap
paratus, a photographic ?lm, a variable structure - the’ plane of the light-sensitive surface in order to
means for shifting the said rods so as to cause
the said surface.
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