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Патент USA US2115742

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May 3, 1938.
R. H. NEWTON
2,115,742
MIXING
Filed Sept. 10, 1936‘
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EoyerH Newfon
INVENTOR
_ BY MM\2.M
ATTORNEY
May 3, 1938.
R. H. NEWTON
2,115,742
MIXING
Filed Sept. 10, 1936
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FIG. 4
' Eoge rH New ‘for!
INVENTOR _
BY
ATTORNEY
May 3, 1938.
R. H. NEWTON
2,115,742
MIXING
Filed Sept. 10, 1956
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
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/->’.v New fan
ENTOR
BY
ATTORNEY
May 3, 1938.
R. H. NEWTON
2,115,742
MIXING
Filed Sept. 10, 1936
‘ 4 Sheets-Sheet 4
Boyer H. Newfon
INVENTOR
BY
ATTORNEY
"Patented May 3, 1938 - .
2,115,142 I
’. uNlTso-Q s'rArss ' _ PAT Eur OFFICE '
2,115,142
.
.mxmG
. Roger B. ‘Newton, near Shei?eld, Ala.
' Application September 10, 1930, ‘Serial No. 100,141
'
'
I 8 Claims.
(-01. 259-102)
(Granted under the m of March a, 188:, as
amended April so. 1928; m‘ o. G.)
. This application is made under the Act of
Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic, sectional, plan view
March 3, 1883, as amend'ed’by the Act of April 30, ‘ of‘ another form of apparatus for the embodiment
1928, and the invention herein described, it pat
of my invention taken through 3-8 of Fig. 4 in
ented, may be manufactured and used by or for
which the driving gear and the driven gears are
the samesizev and the cylindrical shell and the 5
the Government for governmental purposes with
out the payment to me of any royalty thereon.
. base with its aiiixed blades rotate,
This invention relates to a process of and an
Fig. 4_ is a diagrammatic, vertical, sectional view
apparatus'for mixing liquid, solid or liquid and
solid materials.-v
of Fig. 3,
_
-
)
>
Fig. 5 is a diagrammatic, sectional, plan view,
10 One of the ogiects of this invention is to pro- ' through
C—C 01' Fig. 2 showing in detail the paths 10
vide a method for very rapid and continuous mix
of therespective rotating blades in‘ relation to
ing of various materials, particularly liquid and the ‘shell and blades aiiixed to the base, and
?nely divided solid materials. Another object 01.’
Fig. 6 is a diagrammatic view of the path of the
this invention is to provide an effective means for leading edge of two rotating blades where the
15
mixing materials which pass from a ?uid through
number of teeth in the stationary gear is twice 15
the number of teeth in the epicycloidal gear.
a plastic into asolid state very shortly after ini
tial mixing. Other objects of this invention in
In Fig. 1, gear I, rotating on a?lxed shaft 3, is
clude the provision of an apparatus in which the driven by pinion. 9. The epicycloidal gear 1, at
essential mixing elements are continuously mutu- ‘ ?xed to‘ a shaft 19, in the driven gear I, rotates
ally wiped oil’ in order to prevent building up of about the stationary gear I I, which is aihxed tothe ' go
physical or chemical reaction mixtures on their stationary shaft 3. The vertical blade assembly
surface.
j
I3, is a?lxed to the eplcycloidal gear shaft 9. The
I have discovered a process and apparatus for cylindrical shell II, is shown adjacent to the ex
eil’ecting the objects of this invention. In the
process for carrying out my invention the, mate‘
ternal path of the blades in the assembly I3.
In Fig. 2, there-is shown in addition to those as
elements included in Fig. 1, the rotating blades I1, '
so that each blade passes adjacent to the shell” yet the vertical blade assembly I3, the vertical
of the mixer, adjacent to the center of the cross stationary blades I9, a?lxed'to the base 2I, in
section of the shell, and adjacent to at least one which is located the discharge outlet 23.
side of an amxed blade with each rotating blade
In Fig. ,3, the gears 25, on the shafts 21, which 30
forming a looped epitrochoidal path, with the cross have ?xed centers are driven by gear 29. The ver
sections of all the blades in one complete cycle, tical blade assemblies l3, carrying the rotating
substantially covering the cross section 01' themix , blades are amxed to the ‘driven gear shafts 21.
rials are mixed by driving vertical, rotating blades
lng zone except that occupied by the a?ixed blades
in the base of the mixing zone. In the appara
tus for carrying out my process the rotating blade
assembly is a?ixed to the shaft of an epicycloidal
gear, with the shell base and its a?ixed blades re
maining stationary, or the rotating blade assem
bly is a?ixed to the shaft of a driven gear which
has a ?xed center, with the shell mounted on a ro
- tating base, to which is attached the ?xed blades
within the shell rotating in a direction opposite to
the driven gear but with exactly the same speed.
In the accompanying drawings, which form a
part of the speci?cation, and wherein reference
symbols refer to like parts whenever they occur,
Fig. l is a. diagrammatic, sectional plan view
of one form of apparatus for the embodiment of
my invention taken through A-A of Fig. 2 in
which the ?xed gear and the epicycloidal gear are
the same size and the cylindricalv shell, base and
the ?xed blades are stationary,
Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic, vertical, sectional view
of Fig. 1,
-
1
The cylindrical shell 3I, is attached to a rotating
base 33, which is driven by the assembly 35, in 35
the same direction and at exactly the same speed .
as the driving gear-29.
' -
In Fig. ‘4 there is shown, in addition to those
elements included in Fig. 3, the rotating blades I1,
of the vertical blade assemblies I3, the vertical 4°
blades I9, a?ixed to the rotating base 33, and the
outlet 31 for the discharge of materials after
mixing.
_
.
,
In Fig. 5, the vertical blade assembly 13, with
the rotating blades I1, were speci?cally ‘identified 45
as Ila, Mb, 110, and "d, is shown in an initial.
starting position. The respective positions of
these rotating blades along their respective looped
epitrochoidal paths areshown for 10 degree in
tervals, as well as the relative relationship be- 50
tween the paths of the respective rotating blades
I1, the cylindrical shell I9, and the vertical sta
tionary blades I9, speci?cally identi?ed as 19a,
I91), I90, and I9d.
In Fig. 6 the rotating blade assembly is shown 55
2
2,115,742
with only two rotating blades l1, speci?cally iden
gear, then the curve described by the leading edge
ti?ed as He and I1)‘. Since‘ the number of teeth
in the stationary gear'is twice the number of teeth
in the epicycloidal or driven gear, then the path
described by the ,leading edge of the rotating
of the blade which corresponds ‘to the tracing "
point on the tracing circle is the double looped
epitrochoid. Similarly, other small integer ratios
for these particular gears will cause the resulting
blades He and Hi, respectively, each describes a paths to be other’ types of looped epitrochoids.
It seems to be necessary that there be a mini
double looped epitrochoid. Even though the en
tire paths of the cross section of the rotating mum of two blades in-the rotating assembly, al
blades He and H)‘ are not shown, this ?gure though it is obvious that a larger number may be used and undoubtedly more satisfactorily. In ap 10
10 shows the relation of the outside of the respec
tive paths to‘the' cylindrical shell I5, and to the 'paratus actually constructed a minimum of four
blades l9, speci?cally identi?ed as He, I9)‘, I99, rotating blades has been thus far used.
A very essential element of this invention lies.
and l9h, which are affixed to the base of the
in the discovery of the necessity for blades af
mixer.
v
'
One example of the operation of my process ?xed to the base of the mixer and so located ad 15
15
and apparatus is given for mixing ?ne phosphate jacent to the epitrochoidal paths of the blades
rock and concentrated phosphoric acid in the of the rotating assembly that mutual wiping ac
production of monocalcium phosphate. The tion is effected which cleans the af?xed blades,
mixer used was constructed exactly as disclosed the rotating blades and the inside of the shell of
20 in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2. The cylindrical shell was 6 the mixer free from accumulated portions of solid 20
inches in diameter and 6 inches deep. The epi- ' material after mixing. The number of blades
affixed to the bottom of the mixer should be at
cycloidal gear was operated at 150 R. P. M. Phos
phoric acid containing 70 per cent by weight of least equal to the number of the paths described
H3PO4 and ?ne phosphate rock‘containing 28.5 by theblades of the rotating, blade assembly or
per cent P205 were used. The phosphoric acid assemblies. Ordinarily, for one rotating ‘assem 25
and the ?ne phosphate rock were charged into bly of four blades or two assemblies of four blades
the mixer continuously at the rate of 4.5 tons of each, in which the paths of travel of the blades
the acid and 3.0 tons of the rock per hour. The of the second assembly are identical to the ?rst,
resulting mixture was continuously withdrawn the minimum of four af?xed blades is used.
30 through the outlet in the bottom of the mixer.
However, under certain circumstances four more 30v
The mixture so obtained exhibited characteristics a?ixed blades of proper size and shape may be in
which indicated that a more intimate mixture serted in those portions of the horizontal cross
had resulted than it had been hitherto possible section of the mixer which is not traversed by
blades of the rotating blade assemblyyor assem
to attain in such a short period of mixing in con
35
35 tinuous operation and with relatively inexpensive blies.
Another modi?cation of my apparatus which is
apparatus.
It is believed obvious from the results given
in the above example that even in the small-scale
apparatus very effective mixing has been ob~
40 tained. It\ is to be pointedout, however, in con
nection with the particular materials used in the
example that such effectiveness in mixingwould
not have been possible were it not for the fact
that the inside of the cylindrical shell, the rotat
45 ing blades, ‘and the ?xed blades were continuous
ly and thoroughly kept free from any portions of
the resulting mixture, which otherwise would
have set up concretely on the surfaces to which
it was attached, had it not been so positively
50 removed while in a~ ?uid condition.
It is evident that there are numerous factors
which will influence conditions for the most sat
isflactory operation of my invention, the actual
limits of which cannot be established except by
55 a detailed study of each set of raw materials and
all the conditions involved.
It will be observed that the various individual
points on the rotating blades describe a looped
epitrochoidal path in all cases which have been
60 effective in carrying out my invention. In de
scribing an epitrochoid, it is necessary to refer
to the ?xed circle, a rolling circle, and a tracing
point on a tracing circle.
This may be a con
venient means of reference, even though these
65 speci?c elements may be referred to in terms of
parts of apparatus. For instance, when the ?xed
circle and the rolling circle are represented by
gears of equal size and equal number of teeth
and with the leading edge of a blade of the ro
used in order to obtain effects substantially iden
tical to those ?rst described may be obtained by
changing the epicycloidal gear with the rotating
blade assembly attached to its shaft, to an as 40
sembly in which the gear merely revolves on a
shaft with a ?xed center. At the same time it is
necessary that the shell be ai?xed to a rotatable
base, on which are af?xed the other vertical
blades, and this entire latter assembly must be
rotated counter to the direction of rotation of
the assembly rotating above but at the same time
at exactly the same speed as the assembly which
rotates from above. It will be seen that by means
of this arrangement the motion of the rotating
blades relative to the position of the ?xed blades
is such that looped epitrochoidal paths are still
formed relative to the positions of the blades af
?xed to the rotating base.
The speed of rotation of the rotating blade as
sembly or assemblies depends materially upon
the size of the mixer and the corresponding size
of this assembly. In apparatus already con
structed and operated, it has been found that a
speed of 100 to 200 revolutions per minute is sat
isfactory for accomplishing adequatemixing in
45
50
55
60
a minimum period of time. Undoubtedly higher
speeds may be used and smaller equipment, and
lower speeds may be required for substantially
larger equipment. In any event, the actual linear 65
motion of the respective blades will remain sub
stantially the same.
.
.
It will be seen, therefore, that this invention
actually may be carried out by the modi?cation
tating blade assembly representing the tracing
of certain details without departing from its spirit 70
point on the tracing circle, then the curve de
or scope.
scribed by one complete cycle of this tracing point
is a single looped epitrochoid. Likewise the epi
cycloidal gear may have one-half the number
75 of the same size teeth as existed on the stationary
I
claim:
.
y
r
1. In an apparatus for mixing materials, th
combination which comprises a receptacle with
cylindrical side wall, a base a?ixed to the bottom 75
l 2,115,742
' -
10
15
20
25
3
of the side wall, and an outlet through the base; tween the vertical axis and the side wall of the
four stationary blades a?ixed to the base of the - receptacle; a plurality of rotating blade assem
receptacle and uniformly spaced between the ver
blies with each assembly comprised of a plural—
tical axis and the side wall of the receptacle; a ity of vertical blades; and a means for support
rotating blade assembly comprised of four verti
ing and driving each oi! the rotating blade assem- cal blades; and a means for supporting and driv
blies such that in one complete cycle of each
ing the rotating blade assembly such that in one assembly each ‘of the vertical blades thereof
complete cycle of the assembly each of the verti
moves in a looped epitrochoidal path, as an in
cal blades thereof moves in a looped epitrochoidal
scribed projection upon the base of the recep
path, as an inscribed projection upon the base tacle; with the stationary blades of such a size
of the receptacle; with the stationary blades of and shape and so positioned within thé'looped. 10
such a size and shape and- so positioned within epitrochoidal paths of the rotating vertical
the looped epitrochoidal paths of the rotating blades, and the rotating vertical blades of such
vertical blades, and the rotating vertical blades of a size and shape and so positioned that in one
such a size and shape and so positioned that in complete cycle the rotating vertical blades in .10
one complete cycle of the rotating vertical blades their looped epitrochoidal paths pass adjacent‘
in their looped epitrochoidal paths, the cross sec
to both the stationary blades and the side wall’ "
of the receptacle.
tions of all of the rotating blades cover substan
tially all the cross section of the interior of the
5. In an apparatus for mixing materials, the
cylindrical receptacle except that occupied by the combination which comprises a receptacle with
stationary blades.
.,
cylindrical side wall, a base amxed to the bot
2. In an apparatus for mixing materials, the tom of the side wall, and an outlet through the
combination which comprises a receptacle base; four blades a?lxed'to the base of the re
with cylindrical side wall, a base ?xed to the ceptacle and uniformly spaced between the ver
bottom of the side wall, and an outlet through tical axis and the side wall of the receptacle; a 25
the base;
a, plurality of stationary blades
rotating blade assembly comprised of four verti
a?ixed to the base of the receptacle and uni- ' cal blades; a means for supporting and driving
formly spaced between the vertical axis and
the side wall of the receptacle;
a rotating
the rotating blade assembly such that in one
complete cycle of the assembly each of the verti
30 blade assembly comprised of a plurality of ver
tical blades; a means for supporting and driv
cal blades thereof moves in a looped epitrochoidal 30
path; and a means for supporting and driving
ing the rotating blade assembly such that
in one complete cycle of the assembly each of
the vertical blades thereof moves in a looped epi
35 trochoidal path as, an inscribed projection upon
the base of the receptacle; with the stationary
the receptacle in the direction opposite to the
direction of rotation of the rotating blade assem—
bly and at a speed synchronized with the speed
of the blade assembly; with the blades a?ixed to 35
the base of the receptacle of such a size and
blades of such a size and shape and so positioned
within the looped epitrochoidal paths of the ro
shape and so positioned within the looped epi
trochoidal paths of the rotating vertical blades,
tating vertical blades, and the rotating vertical
as an inscribed projection upon the rotating base
of the receptacle, the cross sections of all of the
rotating blades cover substantially all the cross
blades of such a size and shape and so positioned
that in one complete cycle the rotating vertical
blades in their looped epitrochoidal paths pass
adjacent to both the stationary blades and the
side wall of the receptacle.
45
3. In an apparatus for mixing materials, the
combination which ‘comprises a receptacle with
cylindrical side wall, a base aiiixed to the bot
tom of the side wall, and an outlet, through the
base; four stationary blades a?ixed to the base of
50 the receptacle and uniformly spaced between the
vertical axis and the side wall of the receptacle;
a plurality of rotating blade assemblies, each
assembly comprised of four vertical blades; and
a means for supporting and driving each of the
55 rotating blade assemblies such that in one com
plete cycle of each assembly each of the vertical
blades thereof moves in a looped epitrochoidal
path, as an inscribed projection upon the base of
the receptacle; with the stationary blades of
60 such a size and shape and so positioned within
the looped epitrochoidal paths of the rotating
vertical blades, and the rotating vertical blades
of such a size and shape and so positioned that
in one complete cycle of the rotating vertical
section of the interior of the cylindrical recepta
cle except that occupied by the blades a?ixed to
the base of the receptacle.
6. In an apparatus for mixing materials, the
combination which comprises a receptacle with
cylindrical side wall, a base a?ixed to the bottom
of the side wall, and an outlet through the base;
a plurality of blades ai?xed to the base of the
receptacle and uniformly spaced between the 50
vertical axis and the side wall of the receptacle;
a plurality of rotating blade assemblies with each
comprised of a plurality of vertical blades; a
means for supporting and driving each of the
rotating blade assemblies such that in one com? 55
plete cycle of each assembly each of the vertical
blades thereof moves in a looped epitrochoidal
path, as an inscribed projection upon the base
of the receptacle; a means for supporting and
driving the receptacle at a speed synchronized
with the speed of the respective blade assem
blies; ‘with the blades a?ixed to the base of the
receptacle of such a size and shape and so posi
tioned within the looped epitrochoidal paths of
blades in their looped epitrochoidal paths the
the rotating vertical blades as an inscribed pro
cross sections of all of the rotating blades cover
substantially all the cross section of the interior
jection upon the rotating base of the receptacle,
of the cylindrical receptacle except that occupied
by the stationary blades.
4. In an apparatus for mixing materials, the
combination which comprises a receptacle with
cylindrical side wall, a base affixed to the bottom
of the side wall, and an outlet through the base;
a plurality of stationary blades aflixed to the
base of the receptacle and uniformly spaced be
65
and the rotating vertical blades of such a size
and shape and so positioned that in one com
plete cycle the rotating vertical blades in their
looped epitrochoidal paths pass adjacent to both 70
the blades ailixed to the base of the receptacle
and the wall of the receptacle.
'7. In an apparatus for mixing materials, the
combination which comprises a receptacle with
cylindrical side wall, a base ai?xed to the bottom 75
4
9,115,742
~
of the side .*wall, and an outlet through the base;
a plurality of blades a?ixed to the base of the
receptacle and uniformly spaced between the
vertical axis and the side wall 01' the receptacle;
at least one rotatingr blade assembly comprised
8. In an apparatus for mixing material, the
combination which comprises a receptacle with
side wall and a base affixed to the bottom of the
side wall; a plurality of blades ailixed to the base
of a plurality of vertical blades; and "a means
at least one rotating blade assembly comprised
for maintaining the relative motion between the
plurality of ‘vertical blades of the rotating blade
assembly in respect to; the plurality of the blades
10 a?ixed to the base of the receptacle such that
in one complete cycle of the rotating blade as
sembly each of the vertical blades thereof moves
in a looped epitrochoidal path, as an inscribed
projection upon the base of the receptacle; with
oi’ the receptacle and uniformly spaced thereon; 6
of a plurality of vertical blades; and a means for
maintaining the relative motion between the"
plurality of vertical blades of the rotating blade
assembly in respect to the plurality of the blades 10
ailixed to the base receptacle such that in one
complete cycle of the rotating blade assembly
each of the vertical blades thereof moves in a
looped epitrochoidal path, as an inscribed pro- '
15 the blades a?ixed to the base 01’ the receptacle
of such a size and shape and so positioned within
jection upon the base of the receptacle; with the
blades a?lxed to the base of the receptacle of
the looped epitrochoidal paths of the rotating
vertical blades, and the rotating vertical blades
such a size and shape and so positioned within
of such a size and shape and so positioned that
vertical blades, and the rotating vertical blades
in one complete cycle of the rotating vertical
blades in their looped epitrochoidal paths the
cross sections of all of the rotating blades cover
substantially all the cross section of the interior
of the cylindrical receptacle except that occu
25 pied by the blades aillxed to the base of the
receptacle.
the looped epitrochoidal paths oi.’ the rotating
of such a size and shape and so positioned that 20
in one complete cycle the rotating vertical blades,
in their looped epitrochoidal paths, pass adja
cent to the blades a?lxed to the base of the re
ceptacle.
'
ROGER H. NEWTON.
25
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