Патент USA US2115865код для вставки
May 3, 1938. 0. LU H N 2,1 15,865 ELECTROMAGNETIC RELAY Filed Aug. :51, 19:55 ZSheets-Sheet 1 33 fawn z‘ar . o. LUHN 2,115,865 ELECTROMAGNETIC RELAY Filed Mg. '31, 19:55 2 Sheets-Sheet 2' ‘In van for. v2,115,865 Patented May 3, 1938 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,115,865 _ 08kt! EIEOTROMAGNETIC my Rodelhelm, near Frankfort-on-thei Germany Application August 81, 1935, ,In Germany April 12, 1935 8 Claims. (Cl. 115-320) 7 It is well—known that, in the electric control of recording devices, lighting systems and the like by means of capacity variations, an ampli?er must be employed if the controlling device is to m operate satisfactorily. ‘Ampli?cation is also nec No. 38,797 magnet i; a shorting armature 2; a switch operating armature 3; a variable resistor 4 car ried by the armature 3; an interrupter compris ing a contact spring II which is operated by the armature I and which co-operates with a rigid a essary if the controlling device operates by means ‘contact i2; and a rotary switch comprising a cam " of a photo-electric cell. It is also known that contacts with small directing force, such as ther mal elements and moving coil contacts, produce 10 sparkling which tends to destroy the contacts. The vtendency of the contacts to stick is also a ' cause of failure of the controlling device, to act satisfactorily. I The usually employed ampli?ers, operating , with or without thermionic valves,'moving coil relays, and the like, while generally too expensive, . are not sui?ciently reliable for ensuring a satis factory operation of the controlling devices. The known employment of a moving coil galvanome ter has proved unsuitable on account of its tend ency to act under the in?uence of the slightest mechanical vibration. The object of the present invention is to obtain a relay which, without being affected by mechani ” cal vibrations, is readily responsive to capacity vibrations, and which will operate without am plifying ,devices and with contacts, such as ther mal elements, moving coil contacts and the like having very small directing force. a With this object in view, the invention con sists essentially in the combination with an elec tro-magnetic relay of a variable resistor of par ticular construction which is responsive to the smallest pulsations of current and which can be I operated by means of a' capacity diaphragm or other contact with very small directing force. The variable resistor has the property of lower ing its resistance under the in?uence oi’ weak pulsations of current and thus allowing a local, 40 normally inactive electric source to operate the relay. . Fig. 1 of the accompanying drawings represents a diagram of one form of the relay, _ Fig. 2 is ‘a sectional view of the variable re 45 slstor, ‘ Figs. 3 and 4 are views showing different modi ?cations of the operating device, l which is operated by means of a ratchet wheel 6 and a pawl 5, the latter being mounted on the armature 3. The cam 1 co-operates with two contact springs I1 and II which close and break 10', circuits by co-operation with contacts is and 20. The circuit of the electro-magnetic relay contains the winding of the electro-magneti one end of which is connected through the inter rupter with the positive pole of an electric source 16 ii, the other 'end-of the winding being connected through contacts i6, 9 and 8, through the vari able resistor 4, through the armature I and through the armature-controlling spring ll with the negative pole of the source II. 20 ' The internal resistance of the element 4 is very high so long as the element is not affected by pulsations of current, and the direct current from the source I5 will not ?ow through it to the ex tent of operating the readily responsive arma- 25 ture 2. v The resistor 4 comprisu, as shown in Fig. 3, a pair of dished stampings 31 and 38 which are ?lled with tinsel 48 and connected together over an insulating frame 39 to form a casing. The 30 latter contains a pair of oscillatory electrodes 40 and 42 which are connected by means of blade, springs 4| and binding posts 44 and 45 to the‘ two parts 31 and 38, one to each. Any weak pulsations of current to which the electrodes 35 are exposed will, as is usual in coherers, re duce the resistance of the tinsel to the potential imposed on it by the ‘source ii. The two masses of tinsel separated by the presence of the in sulating frame ll, may be interconnected by 40 means of a lead containing two coils 48 and 41 embedded in the tinsel. This arrangement, which somewhat reduces the resistance of the re- _ sister 4 to the current from the source II, will not be required except in the case of relays 45 , desired to be especially sensitive. The relay comprises in addition a transformer 21 the primary 0! which is connected to the Fig. 6 is a diagram of a iurther modi?cation, mains”, the secondary being connected on the 60 Fig. '1 is a sectional view of a modi?ed form. of one hand to the mains and on the other hand, 50 through a capacitor 2: and through the contact spring i1 and contact is, to a vibratory tongue a Fig. 8 is a detail view .of the resistor, and Fig. 9 is a diagram of electric connection of the . 2! which can be adjusted by means of a screw 24. _ In order to start the tongue ‘2i vibrating under resistance. the in?uence of a capacitor variation, a ‘metal .55 i i The relay shown in, Fig. l'comorisea an electro Fig. 5 is va diagramof a modi?ed form of relay, resistance, ' ' . 2 2,115,865 plate 22 is provided which is slightly spaced from the tongue. The diaphragm formed by the between the latter except when the plate 53 is tongue 2| and the metal plate 22, serves the pur Electricimp'ulses by hand or body capacity can also be setup by means of the device shown in pose of setting the tongue 2| into vibrations whenever the plate 22 is in?uenced by hand or body capacity. The tongue, on being vibrated, makes contact with the plate 22 and thus sets up weak pulsations of current. When a metallic conductor approaches or contacts with a pole 10 subjected to ya static electric charge, sparks are produced which in their turn set up pulsations of current, and it therefore follows that such pulsations will be obtained by the contact of the tongue 2| with~the plate 22. In order’ to enable .15 the pulsations of current to actuate the variable resistor 4, the lead from the transformer 21 to the contact springs l’! is connected to the re sistor through capacitors 25 and I8. When, with the arrangement shown in Fig. 1, 20 the metallic plate 22, which may be arranged behind a glass plate 23, is subjected to a capacity variation, the tongue 2| begins to vibrate, and capacitively in?uenced. Fig. 4. I This device comprises a star electrode 68 which is mounted on a supporting disc 54 so as tov be easily rotatable. The four limbs of the illus trated electrode 58 co-operate with the rigid electrodes 55, 56, 51 and 58 secured to the disc 54. The distance between the cooperating electrodes 10 is regulated‘ by means oi.‘ a screw 68. A coil 6 connects the star electrode with the contact I8. When the disc 54, which is insulated from the electrode 58, is in?uenced by hand or body capacity, the star electrode will be attracted by 15 the rigid electrode, and pulsations of current will be set up by the contact between them. The retarding device connected to the contacts l8 and 28 in Fig. 1, may be of any suitable known type. For instance it may be ?tted with a clock movement which is released when the current from the source 36 passes through the terminals 35 and which, after a predetermined time, op erates a switch for energizing the magnet 38. Lamps 34 or other indicating devicesmay be in 25 as it touches the plate 22 impulses of current will be set up which are transmitted through the 25 capacitor 25 to the ‘variable resistor 4. The in ternal resistance of the latter then sinks and ‘ cluded in the circuit of the contacts I8 and 28. allows direct current from the source l5 to pass The relay illustrated in Fig. 5 is similar to the through the winding of the electro-magnet I, the one already described and is operated like the circuit being traced through |2—||--|—|8—4-— latter but by the de?ection of a moving coil galva 30 3--|3——|5. The shorting armature 2 will then be nometer 82 the needle of which makes contact 30 ‘attracted by the magnet and placed against the with one or the other of two rigid contacts 83 and contact I6, thereby cutting out the resistance from the circuit which is traced through |2,-— ||,-|-|6—2—|3--|5. The magnet will then be 35 suiliciently energized for attracting the armature 3 which lifts the spring II from the contact |2 and thus breaks the circuit of the relay. At the same time the armature 2 leaves the contact |6 under the in?uence of the spring l3, and the 40 armature 3 is also restored by the spring I4 to its normal position. The return movement of the armature 3 brings about a rotation of the cam ‘I so that the contactspring II will be separated 84. The moving coil maybe actuated by the illumination of a selenium cell 86 for shifting the ' needle from the contact 83 onto the contact 84. The slightest contact of the needle with the con 35 tact 84 will cause pulsations of current to be set up which reach the variable resistor 65 through a capacitor 89, whereupon ?rst the armature 63 and then the armature 64 will be op erated. After the armature 64 has been operated, the circuit of the source 16 is interrupted by the contact spring 12 which leaves the contact 13, thereby restoring the armatures 63 and 64 to from the contact I8, while the contact spring I8 their initial positions. The return movement of 45 will be brought into contact with the contact 28, the armature 64 is brought about by a spring thereby connecting a retarding device 33 to an 15 and effects a rotation of the switch cam 68 electric source 36. Since, owing to the altered ‘through the medium of the pawl 66 and the position’of the cam ‘|, the connection of the relay ' ratchet wheel 61, whereupon the spring 18 leaves with the tongue 2| is broken, further operation of the contact 88 and makes contact with the con 50 the relay by capacity variations is temporarily tact 8|. When the illumination of the selenium 60 cell is interrupted, the needle of the coil 82 returns impossible. ‘The restoration of the device to op erative position is 'eiTected after a predetermined to the contact 83, sparks and impulses of cur time by means of the retarding device 33. This rent being then again produced for renewed op is eifected by means of an armature 3| which, eration of the relay. This causes the spring 18 55 after a given lapse of time, is momentarily at to be pressed against the contact 88, thus restor tracted by a magnet 38, thereby discharging ing the relay to its normal condition. The re through the contact 32 the tension imposed on tarding device in Fig. 6 is only used in some cases the armature through the capacitors 26, 25, and for retarding the restoration of the relay to its 28 and producing sparking at the contact 32.. The normal condition. In this case the electric con 60 nection between the contact 83 and contact 8| is 60. circuit is traced through earth, 21, 26, 25, 28, 3|, interrupted, so that the restoration oi’ the relay 32, 28, I8 and earth. As the armature is con be effected by means of the retarding device nected through [28‘, 8 and 8 with the resistor 4, will instead of by means of the moving coil needle. the latter will be affected by impulses of cur In order to nullify the suction effect on the needle 65 rent due ‘to the sparking, and’the relay will once due to the tension between the contacts 88 and more be operated for restoringthe cam and the 8|, capacitors 85 and 81 are placed in parallel springs I1 and I8 to their normal positions. with the contacts 88 and 8|. For instance, a Thereupon the relay is again ready for opera suction effect would exist between the contact 84 and the needle in the absence of the capaci-‘ The operation of the relay through capacity tor 85. v . ' variations» can alternatively be eilected by means The relay shown in Fig. 6 also employs a mov of the tube shown in Fig. 3 which contains two ing coil galvanometer and can be used for the electrodes 58 and 5|. A capacitor formed by a same purpose as the relay shown in Fig. 5. The plate 53 is tuned by a capacity 52 arranged across ‘circuit comprises an electro-magnet |8|; an in the electrodes, so that no sparking will take place terrupter comprising a contact spring “I and 75 tion. - ‘ ' . ‘ 3 8,115,866 magnet, a‘ circuit ‘for said magnet including a a contact II2; a source III of electric current; a- variable resistor Ill; and contacts Ill and Ill. The relay'di?'ers from that of Pig. 5 prin cipally by the feature that one pole oi’ the source source of direct current, a resistor in said circuit attached to the armature and operative to pre vent normally a ?ow of current through the mag net and to.allow such ?ow when influenced by pulsations of current, an electric spark producer, means for maintaining said spark producer under static tension, means for actuating said spark producer, and connections between said spark producer and the resistor for ‘transmitting to the 10 latter impulses produced by the sparking and causing the electro-magnet to be energized. 2. The relay claimed in claim 1 in combinationv II! is connected to the variable resistor Ill through a coil I II, the other pole being connected to the resistance through contacts Ill and Ill ac cording to the position of the spring I" relative to the contacts I22 and I21 01' I24 and I2l. The 10 object of this arrangement is to-cause the variable resistor to be short-circuited at the moment of 15 contact between the galvanometer needle and its contacts I21 and I 2l. Such a contact andvthe resulting pulsations of current, will be su?icient to in?uence the variable resistor and to allow the direct current from Hi to energize the electro magnet I III. The operation is substantially the same as before. with an additional armature responsive to smaller currents than the switch-operating armature, and 15 means controlled by said additional armature for cutting out the resistance from the circuit when attracted by the magnet. As an example, a lamp I20 or ' ' 3. The relay claimed in claim 1 in combination the like, fed from a source “9, can be switched ‘with a retarding device, and means operated by 20 on and oil! by means or the'contacts Ill and I2I. 20 said device for restoring the relay to its initial The lead containing the capacity I2l|may con condition. ' nect the resistor Ill with a source Ill or alter 4. A relay as claimed in claim 1 wherein the nating current in order to render the relay more ‘ 25 responsive. The relay may be controlled either by direct or alternating current according to the nature of ‘the moving coil. The spark-quenching spark producer comprises a vibratory tongue con nected to the source providing the static tension, 25 siderably under the in?uence or the electro magnetic oscillations caused by the sparking. In body capacity. and wherein the actuating means consists of a metal plate adapted to attract and make contact ' property ot-the variable resistor is very large, be cause the internal resistance thereof sinks con-. ‘with said tongue under the influence or hand or 30 5. A relay as claimed in claim 1 ‘wherein the 30 spark producer comprises an electrode tube hav ing one electrode connected to the source pro viding the static tension, ‘and wherein the actu , order to achieve this ei‘lect, the constructions shown-in Figs. 2 and 7 are of importance. The resistor shown in Fig. 8 consists of a casing the body portion I22 01' which is made or insulating ating means consists of a plate connected to a second electrode in the tube so as to generate oscillations under the in?uence of hand or body 35 material while the top and bottom portions Ill and Ill are adapted to‘ serve as electrodes. The casing is ?lled with tinsel having the property of reducing the electric resistance under the in ?uence of the pulsations of current. The tinsel 40 content of the casing is divided by an insulating disc I“ into two separate portions. The shaft 'Il‘l on which the disc Ill is mounted is divided into two parts which are connected by insulating ' capacity. 6.'A relay as claimed in claim 1 wherein the spark producer comprises a spring-controlled star electrode connected to the source providing the static tension, a supporting disc whereon said electrode is rotatably mounted and from which it is insulated, and rigid electrodes mounted on bosses Ill and Ill. The disc Ill serves as a _ said plate' and operative to attract the rotary compensating means' for restoring the normal electrode on the disc being subiected‘to capacity 45 positions by a rotary movement of the disc. The . rotation may be eitec'tedthrough the medium of an arm Ill which may for this purpose cooperate variations. " _ 7. A relay as claimed in claim 1 wherein the spark producer comprises a moving coil galva either with the armature Ill or with a magnet nometer. means oi'leads I“. tion with a source of alternating current, a lead connecting said source with the resistor, and a Illwhichisarrangedintherelaycircuitby I‘claim: ' . v - - 1,.‘An electro-masnetic relay ior operating switches and the like,‘ comprising an electro magnet, a switch-operatingarmahire for said ' ' - 8. The relay as claimed in claim 1 in combina condenser arranged in said lead.