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Патент USA US2115865

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May 3, 1938.
0. LU H N
2,1 15,865
Filed Aug. :51, 19:55
ZSheets-Sheet 1
fawn z‘ar .
Filed Mg. '31, 19:55
2 Sheets-Sheet 2'
‘In van for.
Patented May 3, 1938
2,115,865 _
Rodelhelm, near Frankfort-on-thei
Application August 81, 1935,
,In Germany April 12, 1935
8 Claims. (Cl. 115-320) 7
It is well—known that, in the electric control
of recording devices, lighting systems and the
like by means of capacity variations, an ampli?er
must be employed if the controlling device is to
m operate satisfactorily. ‘Ampli?cation is also nec
No. 38,797
magnet i; a shorting armature 2; a switch
operating armature 3; a variable resistor 4 car
ried by the armature 3; an interrupter compris
ing a contact spring II which is operated by the
armature I and which co-operates with a rigid a
essary if the controlling device operates by means ‘contact i2; and a rotary switch comprising a cam "
of a photo-electric cell. It is also known that
contacts with small directing force, such as ther
mal elements and moving coil contacts, produce
10 sparkling which tends to destroy the contacts.
The vtendency of the contacts to stick is also a
' cause of failure of the controlling device, to act
The usually employed ampli?ers, operating
, with or without thermionic valves,'moving coil
relays, and the like, while generally too expensive,
. are not sui?ciently reliable for ensuring a satis
factory operation of the controlling devices. The
known employment of a moving coil galvanome
ter has proved unsuitable on account of its tend
ency to act under the in?uence of the slightest
mechanical vibration.
The object of the present invention is to obtain
a relay which, without being affected by mechani
” cal vibrations, is readily responsive to capacity
vibrations, and which will operate without am
plifying ,devices and with contacts, such as ther
mal elements, moving coil contacts and the like
having very small directing force.
a With this object in view, the invention con
sists essentially in the combination with an elec
tro-magnetic relay of a variable resistor of par
ticular construction which is responsive to the
smallest pulsations of current and which can be
I operated by means of a' capacity diaphragm or
other contact with very small directing force.
The variable resistor has the property of lower
ing its resistance under the in?uence oi’ weak
pulsations of current and thus allowing a local,
40 normally inactive electric source to operate the
. Fig. 1 of the accompanying drawings represents
a diagram of one form of the relay,
Fig. 2 is ‘a sectional view of the variable re
45 slstor,
Figs. 3 and 4 are views showing different modi
?cations of the operating device,
l which is operated by means of a ratchet wheel
6 and a pawl 5, the latter being mounted on the
armature 3. The cam 1 co-operates with two
contact springs I1 and II which close and break 10',
circuits by co-operation with contacts is and
20. The circuit of the electro-magnetic relay
contains the winding of the electro-magneti one
end of which is connected through the inter
rupter with the positive pole of an electric source 16
ii, the other 'end-of the winding being connected
through contacts i6, 9 and 8, through the vari
able resistor 4, through the armature I and
through the armature-controlling spring ll with
the negative pole of the source II.
20 '
The internal resistance of the element 4 is very
high so long as the element is not affected by
pulsations of current, and the direct current from
the source I5 will not ?ow through it to the ex
tent of operating the readily responsive arma- 25
ture 2.
The resistor 4 comprisu, as shown in Fig. 3, a
pair of dished stampings 31 and 38 which are
?lled with tinsel 48 and connected together over
an insulating frame 39 to form a casing. The 30
latter contains a pair of oscillatory electrodes 40
and 42 which are connected by means of blade,
springs 4| and binding posts 44 and 45 to the‘
two parts 31 and 38, one to each. Any weak
pulsations of current to which the electrodes 35
are exposed will, as is usual in coherers, re
duce the resistance of the tinsel to the potential
imposed on it by the ‘source ii. The two masses
of tinsel separated by the presence of the in
sulating frame ll, may be interconnected by 40
means of a lead containing two coils 48 and 41
embedded in the tinsel. This arrangement,
which somewhat reduces the resistance of the re- _
sister 4 to the current from the source II, will
not be required except in the case of relays 45
, desired to be especially sensitive.
The relay comprises in addition a transformer
21 the primary 0! which is connected to the
Fig. 6 is a diagram of a iurther modi?cation, mains”, the secondary being connected on the
60 Fig. '1 is a sectional view of a modi?ed form. of one hand to the mains and on the other hand, 50
through a capacitor 2: and through the contact
spring i1 and contact is, to a vibratory tongue
a Fig. 8 is a detail view .of the resistor, and
Fig. 9 is a diagram of electric connection of the . 2! which can be adjusted by means of a screw 24.
_ In order to start the tongue ‘2i vibrating under
the in?uence of a capacitor variation, a ‘metal .55
i i The relay shown in, Fig. l'comorisea an electro
Fig. 5 is va diagramof a modi?ed form of relay,
plate 22 is provided which is slightly spaced from
the tongue. The diaphragm formed by the
between the latter except when the plate 53 is
tongue 2| and the metal plate 22, serves the pur
Electricimp'ulses by hand or body capacity can
also be setup by means of the device shown in
pose of setting the tongue 2| into vibrations
whenever the plate 22 is in?uenced by hand or
body capacity. The tongue, on being vibrated,
makes contact with the plate 22 and thus sets up
weak pulsations of current. When a metallic
conductor approaches or contacts with a pole
10 subjected to ya static electric charge, sparks are
produced which in their turn set up pulsations
of current, and it therefore follows that such
pulsations will be obtained by the contact of the
tongue 2| with~the plate 22. In order’ to enable
.15 the pulsations of current to actuate the variable
resistor 4, the lead from the transformer 21 to
the contact springs l’! is connected to the re
sistor through capacitors 25 and I8.
When, with the arrangement shown in Fig. 1,
20 the metallic plate 22, which may be arranged
behind a glass plate 23, is subjected to a capacity
variation, the tongue 2| begins to vibrate, and
capacitively in?uenced.
Fig. 4. I This device comprises a star electrode 68
which is mounted on a supporting disc 54 so as tov
be easily rotatable. The four limbs of the illus
trated electrode 58 co-operate with the rigid
electrodes 55, 56, 51 and 58 secured to the disc 54.
The distance between the cooperating electrodes 10
is regulated‘ by means oi.‘ a screw 68. A coil 6
connects the star electrode with the contact I8.
When the disc 54, which is insulated from the
electrode 58, is in?uenced by hand or body
capacity, the star electrode will be attracted by 15
the rigid electrode, and pulsations of current will
be set up by the contact between them.
The retarding device connected to the contacts
l8 and 28 in Fig. 1, may be of any suitable known
type. For instance it may be ?tted with a clock
movement which is released when the current
from the source 36 passes through the terminals
35 and which, after a predetermined time, op
erates a switch for energizing the magnet 38.
Lamps 34 or other indicating devicesmay be in 25
as it touches the plate 22 impulses of current will
be set up which are transmitted through the
25 capacitor 25 to the ‘variable resistor 4. The in
ternal resistance of the latter then sinks and ‘ cluded in the circuit of the contacts I8 and 28.
allows direct current from the source l5 to pass
The relay illustrated in Fig. 5 is similar to the
through the winding of the electro-magnet I, the one already described and is operated like the
circuit being traced through |2—||--|—|8—4-— latter but by the de?ection of a moving coil galva
30 3--|3——|5. The shorting armature 2 will then be
nometer 82 the needle of which makes contact 30
‘attracted by the magnet and placed against the with one or the other of two rigid contacts 83 and
contact I6, thereby cutting out the resistance
from the circuit which is traced through |2,-—
||,-|-|6—2—|3--|5. The magnet will then be
35 suiliciently energized for attracting the armature
3 which lifts the spring II from the contact |2
and thus breaks the circuit of the relay. At the
same time the armature 2 leaves the contact |6
under the in?uence of the spring l3, and the
40 armature 3 is also restored by the spring I4 to its
normal position. The return movement of the
armature 3 brings about a rotation of the cam
‘I so that the contactspring II will be separated
84. The moving coil maybe actuated by the
illumination of a selenium cell 86 for shifting the '
needle from the contact 83 onto the contact 84.
The slightest contact of the needle with the con 35
tact 84 will cause pulsations of current to be
set up which reach the variable resistor 65
through a capacitor 89, whereupon ?rst the
armature 63 and then the armature 64 will be op
erated. After the armature 64 has been operated,
the circuit of the source 16 is interrupted by the
contact spring 12 which leaves the contact 13,
thereby restoring the armatures 63 and 64 to
from the contact I8, while the contact spring I8 their initial positions. The return movement of
45 will be brought into contact with the contact 28, the armature 64 is brought about by a spring
thereby connecting a retarding device 33 to an 15 and effects a rotation of the switch cam 68
electric source 36. Since, owing to the altered ‘through the medium of the pawl 66 and the
position’of the cam ‘|, the connection of the relay ' ratchet wheel 61, whereupon the spring 18 leaves
with the tongue 2| is broken, further operation of the contact 88 and makes contact with the con
50 the relay by capacity variations is temporarily tact 8|. When the illumination of the selenium 60
cell is interrupted, the needle of the coil 82 returns
impossible. ‘The restoration of the device to op
erative position is 'eiTected after a predetermined to the contact 83, sparks and impulses of cur
time by means of the retarding device 33. This rent being then again produced for renewed op
is eifected by means of an armature 3| which, eration of the relay. This causes the spring 18
55 after a given lapse of time, is momentarily at
to be pressed against the contact 88, thus restor
tracted by a magnet 38, thereby discharging ing the relay to its normal condition. The re
through the contact 32 the tension imposed on tarding device in Fig. 6 is only used in some cases
the armature through the capacitors 26, 25, and for retarding the restoration of the relay to its
28 and producing sparking at the contact 32.. The normal condition. In this case the electric con
nection between the contact 83 and contact 8| is 60.
circuit is traced through earth, 21, 26, 25, 28, 3|, interrupted,
so that the restoration oi’ the relay
32, 28, I8 and earth. As the armature is con
be effected by means of the retarding device
nected through [28‘, 8 and 8 with the resistor 4, will
instead of by means of the moving coil needle.
the latter will be affected by impulses of cur
In order to nullify the suction effect on the needle
65 rent due ‘to the sparking, and’the relay will once due to the tension between the contacts 88 and
more be operated for restoringthe cam and the 8|, capacitors 85 and 81 are placed in parallel
springs I1 and I8 to their normal positions. with the contacts 88 and 8|. For instance, a
Thereupon the relay is again ready for opera
suction effect would exist between the contact
84 and the needle in the absence of the capaci-‘
The operation of the relay through capacity tor 85. v .
' variations» can alternatively be eilected by means
The relay shown in Fig. 6 also employs a mov
of the tube shown in Fig. 3 which contains two ing coil galvanometer and can be used for the
electrodes 58 and 5|. A capacitor formed by a same purpose as the relay shown in Fig. 5. The
plate 53 is tuned by a capacity 52 arranged across ‘circuit comprises an electro-magnet |8|; an in
the electrodes, so that no sparking will take place terrupter comprising a contact spring “I and 75
magnet, a‘ circuit ‘for said magnet including a
a contact II2; a source III of electric current;
a- variable resistor Ill; and contacts Ill and
Ill. The relay'di?'ers from that of Pig. 5 prin
cipally by the feature that one pole oi’ the source
source of direct current, a resistor in said circuit
attached to the armature and operative to pre
vent normally a ?ow of current through the mag
net and to.allow such ?ow when influenced by
pulsations of current, an electric spark producer,
means for maintaining said spark producer under
static tension, means for actuating said spark
producer, and connections between said spark
producer and the resistor for ‘transmitting to the 10
latter impulses produced by the sparking and
causing the electro-magnet to be energized.
2. The relay claimed in claim 1 in combinationv
II! is connected to the variable resistor Ill
through a coil I II, the other pole being connected
to the resistance through contacts Ill and Ill ac
cording to the position of the spring I" relative
to the contacts I22 and I21 01' I24 and I2l. The
10 object of this arrangement is to-cause the variable
resistor to be short-circuited at the moment of
contact between the galvanometer needle and its
contacts I21 and I 2l. Such a contact andvthe
resulting pulsations of current, will be su?icient
to in?uence the variable resistor and to allow the
direct current from Hi to energize the electro
magnet I III. The operation is substantially the
same as before.
with an additional armature responsive to smaller
currents than the switch-operating armature, and 15
means controlled by said additional armature for
cutting out the resistance from the circuit when
attracted by the magnet.
As an example, a lamp I20 or '
3. The relay claimed in claim 1 in combination
the like, fed from a source “9, can be switched
a retarding device, and means operated by 20
for restoring the relay to its initial
The lead containing the capacity I2l|may con
nect the resistor Ill with a source Ill or alter
4. A relay as claimed in claim 1 wherein the
nating current in order to render the relay more ‘
responsive. The relay may be controlled either
by direct or alternating current according to the
nature of ‘the moving coil. The spark-quenching
spark producer comprises a vibratory tongue con
nected to the source providing the static tension, 25
siderably under the in?uence or the electro
magnetic oscillations caused by the sparking. In
body capacity.
and wherein the actuating means consists of a
metal plate adapted to attract and make contact
' property ot-the variable resistor is very large, be
cause the internal resistance thereof sinks con-. ‘with said tongue under the influence or hand or
5. A relay as claimed in claim 1 ‘wherein the 30
spark producer comprises an electrode tube hav
ing one electrode connected to the source pro
viding the static tension, ‘and wherein the actu
, order to achieve this ei‘lect, the constructions
shown-in Figs. 2 and 7 are of importance. The
resistor shown in Fig. 8 consists of a casing the
body portion I22 01' which is made or insulating
ating means consists of a plate connected to a
second electrode in the tube so as to generate
oscillations under the in?uence of hand or body
35 material while the top and bottom portions Ill
and Ill are adapted to‘ serve as electrodes. The
casing is ?lled with tinsel having the property
of reducing the electric resistance under the in
?uence of the pulsations of current. The tinsel
40 content of the casing is divided by an insulating
disc I“ into two separate portions. The shaft
'Il‘l on which the disc Ill is mounted is divided
into two parts which are connected by insulating
' capacity.
6.'A relay as claimed in claim 1 wherein the
spark producer comprises a spring-controlled star
electrode connected to the source providing the
static tension, a supporting disc whereon said
electrode is rotatably mounted and from which
it is insulated, and rigid electrodes mounted on
bosses Ill and Ill. The disc Ill serves as a _ said plate' and operative to attract the rotary
compensating means' for restoring the normal electrode on the disc being subiected‘to capacity 45
positions by a rotary movement of the disc. The .
rotation may be eitec'tedthrough the medium of
an arm Ill which may for this purpose cooperate
7. A relay as claimed in claim 1 wherein the
spark producer comprises a moving coil galva
either with the armature Ill or with a magnet
means oi'leads I“.
tion with a source of alternating current, a lead
connecting said source with the resistor, and a
1,.‘An electro-masnetic relay ior operating
switches and the like,‘ comprising an electro
magnet, a switch-operatingarmahire for said
8. The relay as claimed in claim 1 in combina
condenser arranged in said lead.
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