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Патент USA US2116010

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May' 3, 1938.
-
‘
B. H. BROWALL
VARIABLE LEVERAGE
2,116,010
BRAKE RIGGING
Filed Feb. 28, 1935 .
'
3 Sheets-Sheet l
6
641mm,”,
May 3, 1938.
B. H. BROWALL
_
2,116,010
VARIABLE LEVERAGE BRAKE RIGGING
Filed Feb. '28, 1935
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
May 3, 1938.
B. H. BROWALL
,
2,116,010
VARIABLE LEVERAGE BRAKE RIGGING
Filed‘ Feb. 28, 1955
.
s Sheets-‘Sheet s
lure/27%)”
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6i zwu
Patented May 3, 1938.,
2,116,010
um'reo STATES
PATENT OFFICE ‘
. 2,116,010
VARIABLE LEVERAGE BRAKE RIGGING
Bert Henry Browall, Malmo, Sweden, assignor
to Svenska Aktiebol aget Bromsregulator,
Malmo, Sweden, a corporation of Sweden
Application February 28, 1935, Serial No. ‘8,746
_
r
6 Claims.
(Cl. 188-195)
This invention relates to equalized vehicle
brake riggings, especially railway freight car
brake riggings, of the type in which the two
main pull rods which are connected to the free
5
ends of the cylinder and ?oating levers, respec
tively, and extend towards the opposite ends of
the car, respectively, are disposed on opposite
sides of the longitudinal axis of the car, and
in which, therefore, the ?oating lever is inverted
but as applied to an existing brake rigging of
the kind referred to above.
1
,
1
Figs. 3 ‘and 4 illustrate diagrammatically and
in plan view two constructional forms of the
invention as applied to. a brake rigging having
a Variable leverage arrangement similar to that
shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, respectively.
Fig. 5 illustrates in the same way another
10 in relation to the cylinder lever.
manner of realizing the principle underlying the
The principal object of the invention is to
provide an improved variable leverage arrange
ment for equalized‘ brake riggings of the said
type. Another object of the invention is to pro
15 vide in equalized brake riggings of the said type.
an improved variable leverage arrangement of
the general character described and illustrated
by Setterwall in the U. S. Patent No. 1,949,187,
invention.
dated February 27, 1934, in which, for the pur
pose of selectively producing different brake ap
plying leverages, one or more auxiliary levers
are connected between the cylinder and ?oating
levers to which the main pull rods are connected.
More particularly, the invention has for its ob
25 ject to provide a variable leverage arrangement
which can be built in moreeasily and to greater
advantage in brake riggings of the said type on
cars new existing. where the brake rigging, as
originally constructed, has an invariable brake
30 applying leverage suited to the empty weight of
the car, and where the brake cylinder and the
?xed fulcrum of the ?oating lever are so dis
posed that the connection rod between the cyl
inder and ?oating levers is substantially parallel
35 to the longitudinal axis of the car.
'
"
10
Fig. 6 is a detail section on a larger scale of
parts shown in Fig. 5.
Fig. 7 illustrates diagrammatically and in plan
view a further constructional form of the inven
tion.
1
‘
Fig. 8 illustrates in the same manner still an
other constructional form of the invention. ‘
15
Referring to Figs. 1 and 2, i represents the
brake cylinder and 4 and I’! the cylinder and
?oating levers, respectively, which in the original
construction of the brake, rigging are intercon 20
nected by means of a connection rod‘linked to
‘the said levers in the points 31 ‘and 38, respec- .
tively, so that these points divide the two levers
in equal leverage ratios
K
25
.
a,
2 and '1)‘;
.
respectively, suited to the empty weight of the
car. The main pull rod 56!. connected to the free
end of the ?oating lever I ‘l and the main pull
rod ‘51) connected to the cylinder lever 4 are
disposed on opposite sides of the longitudinal}
axis of the car and, consequently, the cylinder
In such a j lever and the ?oating lever extend towards op
case, if an attempt is made to build in the ‘vari
posite sides of the car from the brake piston 35
able leverage arrangement of the construction , head 2 and the ?xed fulcrum 3, respectively, the
shown, for instance, in Fig. 3 or Fi g. 4 in the ; construction being such that the aforesaid‘ con
1.1; O
drawings of the said U. S. 'Patent
1,949,187,, ' nection rod between the cylinder. and ?oating
between the cylinder and ?oating No;
lovers with- - levers is substantially parallel to the longitudinal
40
out otherwise changing the brake rigging, .cer ‘axis of the car.
‘
tain di?iculties will be met with.
In building in the variablelleverage arrange
It is the object of the invention to reduce or ment in the said existing brake rigging the afore
eliminate these di?ficulties
and, therefore, in ' ‘ said original connection rod between the cylinder
order‘that the nature of the invention and the
advantages gained thereby m ay be fully under
stood, the nature of the said di?iculties will be
declared in the following with reference to Figs.
50 1 and 2 on the accompanying drawings.
In the accompanying drawings:
Figs. 1 and 2 illustrate diagrammatically and
in plan view the variable leverage arrangement
as constructed accordin g to Fig. 3 and Fig. 4,‘
55 ..respectively, in the said U..S. Patent No. 1,949,187,
and ?oating levers is substituted by a connection 45
rod l2 ‘or 20 which is linked to the cylinder lever
and an auxiliary lever 7 or I8 in the points 3'!
and I I as shown in Figs. 1 and 2, respectively,
and a further brake lever connection 8 1 or 22 is
established between thecylinder lever and another
auxiliary lever 6 as shown in Fig. l, or between
the cylinder lever 4 and the same auxiliary ‘lever.
l8 as shown in Fig. 2. This further connection
rod 8 or 22 which is adapted to be rendered .
. operativealternately with the connection rod‘ I2
2,116,010
2 ,
while the lever ‘l is unsupported and non
or 20 by means of the switchable abutment I5,
is linked to the cylinder lever 4 in a point 39
dividing the said lever in a leverage ratio
operative.
It may be shown in the same manner as above
0
that the condition for equal output forces of the
cylinder lever and the ?oating lever is exactly
the same as that expressed by the equation
suited to loaded car. The ?oating lever I1 is con
2__aj-_b_
nected to said auxiliary levers or lever B, ‘I or l8
by an articulated or single link rod Illa, or 220.,
c’ _a’ + b’
It is thus to be seen that although the known 10
7 construction certainly is operative, its application
respectively, which is linked to the ?oating lever
10 I‘! in a point 48 dividing said lever in such a‘
leverage ratio
\ on existing cars leads to the drawback that the
connection rod Illa takes an oblique position.
Evidently, if the connection rod lOa is placed
substantially parallel to the other rods, the out 15
that the pulling force transmitted to the pull rod put forces oflthe cylinder lever and the ?oating
511 at a braking operation will be equal to the lever will be unequal.
pulling force transmitted to the pull rod 5b, ir
Also when considering the construction shown
respective of whether the transmission of the in Fig. 2, in which the auxiliary lever l6 has the
20
braking power takes place at the lower leverage leverage ratio
CI
75’
20 ratio suited to empty car, or at the higher lever
age ratio suited to loaded car.
olm
'
Considering the construction as shown in Fig. 1,
will be found that in order to obtain equality
in which the levers Band 1 have the leverage _ it
in respect of the pulling forces in the two pull 25
ratios
rods 5a and 5b when braking at the higher lever
2 and a
age ratio as well as when braking at the lower
_21
a
leverage ratio, the connection rod 22a by neces
respectively, the following relations will be found. sity must take an oblique position. Such obliquity
(a) Braking at the lower leverage ratio suited to is undesirable due to the lateral stresses or loads 30
empty car. The shiftable abutment I5 is then on the fulcrums and the piston head 2 resulting
30
in the right hand position and supports the end
of the lever ‘I. The lever B is unsupported and
non-operative. 'I‘he pull on rod
therefrom.
The present invention has for its object to
avoid obliquity in the brake rigging, while main
taining a proper action of the variable leverage
P designating the force from the push rod of the
brake cylinder. The pull on rod 5a:
(1) In the original condition with rod l2 connect
ed directly to point 38
40
I
_
a+b
a’
__
.3
QaE—-P' b 'aI+bI_"P b
arrangement for selectively producing the desired
different brake applying leverages. This result
is obtainable, when applying the invention to an
existing brake rigging of the kind set forth with
reference to Figs. 1 and 2 herein, by connecting 40
the connection rod IOa or 22a not to the ?oating
lever I‘! but to an additional lever which has a
?xed fulcrum disposed substantially on the axis
of the brake cylinder, and by connecting the
?oating lever IT to the said additional lever.
4.5
Referring to Figs. 3 and 4, the same reference
characters are used therein as in Figs. 1 and 2,
(2) In the altered condition in which the auxiliary
levers B and 1 are added according to the U. S.
Patent No. 1,949,187, and the end portion of rod
45 l2 adjacent the lever I1 is replaced by rod “la.
The values of n and 0’ must 'be selected so that
respectively, for corresponding details and, there
the pull on rod 50. will still be equalto
fore, it will be unnecessary to describe again such
details as already have been described with ref—
a
P'Z;
50
The pull on rod So can be expressed by the equa
tion
_
Q“E—P
a+b 31
o’
b ‘n c’+d’
erence to Figs. 1 and 2. It is to be noted, how
ever, that the connection rod 10a in Fig. 3 and
.22a in Fig. 4 is connected to the free end of an
additional lever 42 having a ?xed fulcrum 43 dis
posed substantially on the axis la of the brake 55
cylinder I. The length of this additional lever
42 is equal in Fig. 3 to n and in Fig. 4 to c. The
additional lever 42 and the ?oating lever H are
interconnected by means of a connection rod
wherein c'+d'=a’+b'.
Obviously the condition
,, . Hlb in Fig. 3 and 22b in Fig. 4, which is linked 60
,to the ?oating lever H in the point 38 and to
60
the additional lever 42 in a point at a distance
ya from the pivot point 43. This construction
works properly for selectively producing the de
~ Now, as n in the known arrangement is chosen
65 greater than a, it follows from the above‘ equa
tion that also 0' must be chosen correspondingly
longer than a’. Hence, the left end of rod Hla
takes a lower position (11. greater than 'a)" and
the right end takes a higher position (0’ greater
than a’) than did the corresponding points on
rod l2 in the original condition;
‘
' '
(b) Braking at the higher leverage ratio suited to
loaded car. The shiftable abutment ‘ I Bis then in
the left hand position and supports the lever 6, -
. sired different brake applying leverages and gives
the desired equality in respect of the pulling
forces transmitted to the two main pull rods 5a
and 5b when braking at the higher leverage ratio
as well as when braking at the lower leverage
ratio, as may be shown in the same manner as in 70
the case of the known construction in Fig. 1,
while obtaining the desirable parallelism of all
the connection rods in the construction.
The invention, however, can also be realized in
a manner resulting in a much more simple con
2,116,0‘101
struction ‘of ‘the variable leverage arrangement,
in thatthe additional lever having its ?xed ful
crum disposed on the axis ‘of the brake cylinder
“may be'used to substitute all the auxiliary levers
"used in‘ the constructions hereinbefo‘r‘e described
for’ selectively producing the desired different
brake applying leverages. An‘example of such
a simpli?ed construction is shown in Fig. 5 on
the ‘accompanying drawings, in which the same
tened to the lever 42, most favourable disposal
of the strains on the bolt is obtained if the pivoted ‘ ’
end of the coupling member 50 is bifurcated and
embraces the bifurcated adjacent end of the rod
45, as shown in Fig. 6.
For the rest the con
struction of the device for selectively setting the‘
’ connection ‘rods 44‘ and 48in and out of action
forms no part of the present invention, and this ‘
‘reference characters are used as‘in Figs. 3 and device ‘may be‘constructed in any suitable man
4 for corresponding details. According to this ‘ ner or be of any suitable type, for instance of
construction‘the original connection rod between the type described and shown in the co-pcnding‘ ‘
the points 31 and 38 on the cylinder and ?oating application Ser. No. 752,167, ?led November 8,
‘ levers 4*an‘d II, respectively, is divided into two _ 1934, or of the type disclosed in the French Patent
No. 762,438 or of the type disclosed in co-pending
“parts 44 and 45. The part 44 is connected be
tween the point 3'! on the cylinder lever 4 and a application Ser. No. 15,691 ?led April 10, 1935‘.
point 46 on an additional lever 42, and the part Further there is no-hindrance to providing each
45 is connected between the said point 46 and the of the rods 44 and 48 with a device for positively‘
point 38 on the ?oating lever I1. The distance‘ setting the rod in and‘ out of ‘ action, and for such '
‘between the ?xed fulcrum 43 for the lever 42, purpose devices of the characters disclosed in the
which‘
{is disposed on the axis la of the brake U. S. Patents Nos. 1,963,224 and 1,980,328 may be 20
‘
cylinder and the point 46, is equal to‘ the dis-‘ used. Of course it is also possible to provide
tance between the piston head 2 and the point more than two connection rods between the cyl-“ l_
37 on the cylinder lever 4, so that the "rods 44 inder lever 4 and the additional lever 42 for selec- \ 5.
tively producing more than two different leverage
“and 45lwill be substantially parallel to the longi
tudinal axis of the car. Between the point 4'! ratios, if desired. Such a constructional form of
the invention is illustrated in Fig. 7, in which, in
on' the cylinder lever 4, which divides the cyl
inder lever in a leverage ratio adapted to give addition to the connection rod 48, there are two
connection ‘rods 44' and 44" connected to- the
“a brake applying leverage
suited to loaded car,
and the point 49 on the additional lever 42 there
is ‘establisheda connection 48, the distance be
tween the point 49 and the ?xed fulcrum 43 being
equal‘ to the vdistance between the point 41 and
the ‘pistonhead 2. In the rod 44, there is pro
vided a device for setting this rod in and out of
action for selectively producing the desired dif
ferent brake applying leverages, the lower lever
age, for empty car being obtained when the said
rod‘44 is active as a power transmitting member
" at braking, and the higher leverage‘for loaded
car being obtained when the said rod 44 is made
inactive so that the power transmission is taken
cylinder lever 4 at 31'and 37", respectively, and ‘‘
adapted to cooperate with rod couplers 50’ and "
54",, respectively, which are ‘pivoted to ‘the addi
tional ‘lever 42 and are operable selectively by
mechanism 52', 53', 54',rand 52", 53", 54", re- ‘
spectively. Finally the connection between the
cylinder lever 4 and the additional lever 42 can
also be constructed in such a way as to make
possible a progressive variation of the brake ap
plying leverage, for instance by adopting a
variable leverage mechanism substantially of the
character disclosed in the U. S. Patent No. 621,653
or of the character disclosed inthe U. S. Patent
No.v 1,937,267. Fig; 8 illustrates a constructional
over ‘by the connection rod 48. In the example ‘ form of the invention, in which the cylinder lever
shown the said device is in the form of a ‘so called
4 and the additional lever 42 are interconnected
rod coupler having a coupling member 50‘ which by
of a connection rod 59 which is secured
is movable in and out of active position in which to means
the levers by means of pins 60 engaged in
it couples the rod 44 to the lever 42, by means elongated slots 6! in the ‘levers and slidable thereof a link 52, a bell crank lever 53 pivoted on the
in by a mechanism 62‘, as disclosed in the afore
?xed fulcrum 43, a link 54 and a crank arm 55 on
‘
,us Ll
'
said US. Patent No. 621,653, for the purpose of
progressive variation of the leverage ratios of the
handles for setting the coupling member 50 man~ two levers 4 and 42. ‘In all‘these cases the in
ually, or a device of any suitable kind may be pro-‘ _ vention enables all the ‘connection rods to be dis
in‘ parallelism to‘ the longitudinal axis ‘of 'I'
vided for setting the coupling member auto ' posed
the car.“ “
matically in dependence upon the load of the car,
If it should be desirable, for some reason or
for instance a device of the character disclosed
the
other, to abstain from linking both the rods
in the German patent speci?cation No. 598,085.
Preferably the rod coupler is so constructed that 44 and 45 to the same point 46 on the additional
lever 42, it is permissible to displace the con
when in active position it leaves a certain slack
a transverse shaft 56.
This shaft 56 may extend
‘to the sides of the car and be provided with crank
5| in the rod 44. This slack serves the same
purpose as do the slacks provided for by the
elongated holes 13 and I9 in the constructions
shown in Figs.' 1-4 herein, and the purpose of
these slacks may not be described here since it
is evident from the speci?cation pertaining to
the hereinbefore mentioned U. S. Patent No.
1,949,187 and forms no feature of the present in
vention. In the rod 48 there is provided an
elongated hole 57 for at least one of the connec
tion bolts 4'! and 49 in order to allow for the rel
ative movement of the points 47 and 49 towards
each other, which takes place when braking at
the lower leverage ratio.
When pivoting the coupling member 50 on the
bolt. 46 by which the connection rod 45 is fas
necting point of the rod 45 on the lever 42 a
small distance towards or away from the ?xed 60
fulcrum 43. When doing so also the connecting
point 38 for the rod 45 on the ?oating lever I‘!
should be displaced a corresponding distance to
wards or away from the ?xed fulcrum 3 of the
lever ll. If, in such a case, the object is to build
in the variable leverage arrangement in an exist
ing brake rigging where it is impossible to alter
the local position of the entire lever I‘! by a
parallel-displacement thereof, or to alter its total
length, the rod 45 will take a somewhat oblique 70
position, but the lateral stresses arising there
from will be taken up by the ?xed fulcrums 3
and 43 and will have no in?uence upon the
piston head 2. In the construction of new cars,
however, it is possible to select such a position
75
2,116,010
4,
for the ?xed fulcrum 3 andlor such a length of
the lever I‘! that the connecting point 38 on the
lever I‘! ‘will be so aligned with the displaced
connecting point for the rod 45 on the lever 42
that the rod 45 is maintained in parallelism to
UK
the other connection rods.
What I claim and desire to secure by Letters
Patent is:
I. In a variable leverage brake rigging of the
character
described, a brake cylinder, a cylinder
10
lever, a ?oating lever, an additional lever, a, non
shiftable fulcrum for said additional lever dis
posed substantially on the axis of the brake cylin
der, means for simultaneously varying the
15 leverage ratio of the cylinder lever and the addi
tional lever, and a connection between the addi
tional lever and the ?oating lever, said connec
tion being substantially parallel to the axis of the
brake cylinder and so arranged in relation to
20 said ?oating and additional levers, that the out
put force of the ?oating lever will be substan
tially equal to the output force of the cylinder
lever for both the high and low leverage setting
of the brake rigging.
25
'
2. In a variable leverage brake rigging of the
character described, a brake cylinder, a cylinder
lever, a ?oating lever, an addtional lever, a non
shiftable fulcrum for said additional lever at a
?xed point disposed substantially on the axis of
30 the brake cylinder, means for selectively produc
ing diiferent brake applying leverages connected
between said additionallever and the cylinder
lever, and a connection between said additional
lever and the ?oating lever, said connection be
ing substantially parallel to the axis of the cyl
inder lever and so arranged in relation to said
?oating and additional levers, that the output
force of the ?oating lever will be substantially
equal to the output force of the cylinder lever
40 for both the high and low leverage setting of
the brake rigging.
‘
3. In a variable leverage ‘brake rigging of the
character described, a brake cylinder, a cylinder
lever, a ?oating lever, an additional lever, a non
shiftable fulcrum for said additional lever at a
?xed ‘point disposed substantially on the axis of
the brake cylinder, a plurality of connections
between said additional lever and the cylinder
lever for selectively producing different brake
applying leverages, and a connection between
said additional lever and the ?oating lever, said
connection being substantially parallel to the
axis of the brake cylinder and so arranged, that
the output force of the ?oating lever will be sub
stantially equal tothe output force of the cyl- ‘
inder lever for both the high and low leverage
setting of the brake rigging.
4. In a variable leverage brake rigging of the
character described, a brake cylinder, a cylinder
lever, a ?oating lever, an additional lever, a non
shiftable fulcrum for said additional lever at a
?xed point disposed substantially on the axis of
the brake cylinder, substantially aligned connec
tions between the cylinder lever and the addi 10
tional lever and between the latter and the
?oating lever, respectively, and‘ means including
said connection between the cylinder lever and
the additional lever for simultaneously varying
the leverage ratio of the cylinder lever and the 15
additional lever, said substantially aligned con
nections between the cylinder lever and the addi
tional lever and between the latter and the ?oat
ing lever being substantially parallel to the axis
of the brake cylinder and so arranged, that the
output force of the ?oating lever will be substan
tially equal to the output force of the cylinder
lever for both the high and the low leverage set
ting of the brake rigging.
5. In a variable leverage brake rigging of the 25
character described, a brake cylinder, a cylinder
lever, a ?oating lever, an additional lever, a non
shiftable fulcrum for said additional lever at a
fixed point disposed substantially on the axis of
the brake cylinder, a connection rod between the 30
cylinder lever and the additional lever connected
to the cylinder lever in a point dividing the cyl
inder lever in a lower leverage ratio, a second
connection rod between the cylinder lever and
the additional lever connected to the cylinder 35
lever in a point dividing the cylinder lever in a
higher leverage ratio, a connection rod between
the additional brake lever and the ?oating lever
connected to the latter in a point dividing the
same in a leverage ratio equal to the said lower 40
leverage ratio of the cylinder lever, all the said
connection rods being substantially parallel, and
means for selectively setting the said connection
rods between the cylinder lever and the addi
tional lever in and out of action at braking.
6. In a. variable leverage brake rigging as
claimed in claim 5, the additional feature that
the said means includes a coupling member hav
ing a bifurcated end pivoted on a fastening bolt
on the additional lever for the connection rod
between the latter and the ?oating lever and
embracing the adjacent end of said connection
rod.
BERT HENRY BROWALL.
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