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Патент USA US2116040

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May _3, 1938.
2,1 16,040
Filed Feb. 7, 1956
Patented May 3, 1938
‘ George M. Quave, West Asheville, N. 0.
Application February 7, 1936, Serial No. 62,858
(01. 84-335),
12 Claims.
This invention relates to pipe organs and more
particularly to means for improving the tremolo
effects therein.
The tremulant or tremolo is connected by a
5 conduit to the bellows. By its action of rhythmi
cally and abruptly interrupting the escape of a
large stream of air, the tremolo causes the lid of
the bellows to oscillate up and down, and thus
produces a wavering or trembling quality in the
music being played. The bellows lid should swing
in time with the beat of the tremolo, therefore
the lid should swing like the pendulum of a clock,
freely and uninterrupted to the end of its nat
ural excursion on both sides of any given or
15 varying center. If the bellows lid is interrupted
in any of its excursions, it is thrown out of step
with the tremolo, and‘will presently “cross over”
its time, and skip a beat, thus destroying the
beautiful effect of the music and tending to stop
the tremolo.
The valves previously employed to regulate the
flow of air into the bellows have been open to
the objection that they did not have a free and
even movement at immediately below and imme
25. diately above their closing points, and thus seri
ously interfered with the action of the tremolo
when the organist was playing soft music.
The old curtain valve, while it had no ?xed
closing point, still did not work perfectly with
30 the tremolo, for the, curtain valve had no posi
tive action, but depended on gravity for its down
ward movement. The variations in the amount
of air rushing under and against the roller caused
a variation in the movement of the roller. The
35 action wasn’t quick enough to keep the strings
taut, and they would often jump from their
pulleys, or cause a swinging motion of the yoke
which would affect the free action of the valve.
The binding of the cords where they were wound
40 in the grooves at the ends of the roller, and the
frequent rubbing of the cords against the holes
through which they pass, caused an unevenness
in the action of this valve, and prevented its
synchronous action with the tremolo.
The pivoted disk valve used in the conduit from
the blower, is opened by a chain over a pulley,
and closed with a weight. It has a rigid closing
The hinged ?ap or door Valve, and the con
.50 valve, while‘having a positive action, being oper
ated by means of a rod from the bellows lid,
have the defect of a ?xed and rigid seat at their
closing point. When playing the organ on a dry
day, when the joints in the organ have shrunk
and a quantity of air is escaping, these valves
stay at a considerable distance from their seat,
and the tremolo may be used satisfactorily with
soft music. But on damp days, when the organ
is tight, if soft music requiring a very small quan
tity of air is played, the valve remains near its
seat. Should the tremolo now be turned on, the
bellows lid will begin to oscillate up and down.
These upward excursions of the bellows lid are
often interrupted by the striking of the valve
against its rigid seat. This, as explained above, 10
interferes with the action of the tremolo.
An object of the present. invention is to pro
vide bellows valves which allow an even and free
oscillation of the bellows. lid when the tremolo
is used.
Another object of the invention is to provide
an organ bellows with a non-stop type of Valve
which will not interfere with the action of the
bellows lid when the tremolo is used.
A further object is to provide an improved type 20
of valve for organ bellows which will be silent
and free acting under all conditions of use.
These and other objects‘and advantages of the
invention will be apparent from the following
speci?cation when taken with the accompanying 25
drawing, in which:
Fig. 1 is a fragmentary side view, with parts in
section, of an organ which includes a tremolo,
a bellows and bellows valve embodying the pres
ent invention;
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary plan view of the lower
wall of the bellows and the valve mounted there
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary perspective view of the
bellows valve;
Fig. 4 is a sectional view of an organ bellows
and another type of the same valve;
Fig. 5 is a plan view of the sleeve of the valve
shown in Fig. 4;
Fig. 6 is a perspective view of the sleeve of
the valve shown in Fig. 4; and
Fig. "I is a fragmentary sectional view of a
modification which omits a separate air box.
In the drawing, the reference numeral l iden 45
ti?es a plurality of pipes which are stepped into
the beam and slide assembly 2. The air supply
to the pipes is through the wind box 3 and trunk
4, and this supply is controlled by keys 5 or pedals,
not shown, in the usual manner.
The trunk 4 opens into the bellows which may
be a box or compartment having a lower Wall 6
and rigid side walls ‘I which are joined to the lid
8 by a ?exible bellows section 9. The bellows is
seated upon the air box 10 which receives air
under pressure from a blower, not shown, through
conduit II.
From the bellows opens another conduit l2
which carries the air supply to the tremolo.
When this supply is admitted to the tremolo by
a slide 13 it passes into wind box l4 through
valve 15 into a compartment of the tremolo hav
ing a flexible wall l6, and escapes through a vent
ll of the weighted lid H3. The parts so far
10 described may be of any conventional or desired
design as the exact construction is not a mate
rial part of this invention.
The bottom wall 6 of the bellows has a large
opening 19 in alignment with a smaller open
15 ing or valve port 19' in the upper wall of the
intake box. As shown in the perspective view,
Fig. 3, the port opening I9’ is of rectangular form
is of such length that the piston valve never
passes beyond the sleeve during any normal oper
ation of the system, i. e., the sleeve is substan
tially longer than the range of movement of the
piston valve.
The valve proper may take the form of a
wooden disk 3| which ?ts loosely within the
sleeve and. has a ring of soft, tough leather 3|’
secured to its lower surface and projecting so
that it comes into approximate contact with the
sleeve. The. slight clearance left between the
disk and sleeve, possible because some leakage of
air into the bellows is offset by the leakage
through the organ, forms a noiseless and almost
frictionless bearing of air around the piston and 15
allows it to ride perfectly free. The disk 31 is
centrally apertured to ?t upon the lower end of
and the valve 20 is a rectangular block of wood, ' a rod 32 that is ?xed to a board 33 carried by the
with slightly rounded edges, which has a slight bellows lid 8, and washers 34 are arranged be
20 clearance, say about 1/64 inch, around it through tween the clamp nuts 35 to provide air tight 20
which a small quantity of air passes in the closed
position of the valve. This is offset by the leak
age through the organ, and allows the valve to
Both of the illustrated forms of valves operate
positively noiselessly with no appreciable fric
tion, and admirably perform the function of an
organ bellows valve. When the pedals (not 25
move freely. In a bellows having a top wall
25 three feet square, the valve 20 may be, for ex
ample, a wooden block about 4 inches wide, 8
inches long and 2 inches thick. The metal rod
2! extends centrally through the valve and is
pivoted in a bore which extends through the
30 upper wall of the inlet box It), the ends of this
bore being sealed by plugs 22. The valve may, of
course, be pivotally mounted in other ways, for
example, in a board I 00 secured to the under
side of the bellows, and other arrangements for
35 supplying air to the bellows, such as the supply
conduit llll, Fig. 7, may be used. A wood block
23 is ?xed to one end of the valve 20 and is bored
to receive one bent end of a metal rod 24. The
opposite bent end of rod 24 extends through a
40 similar wood block 25 that is ?xed to a plate 26
that is ?xed over an aperture into the top wall
8 of the bellows by any convenient means, not
shown, such as screws or cement.
The purpose
of the aperture in the bellows lid 8 is to allow
45 an entrance for assembling the valve. The rod
is ?tted with washers at blocks 23 and 25, and
is held in place by cotter pins. The wooden parts
that form bearings for the operating rod 24 and
the pivot rod 2|, also the edges of the valve 20
50 ‘are lubricated, preferably graphited, to reduce
friction and prevent noisy operation.
Another form of this valve which has no rigid
seat for a stopping point and allows the bellows
to oscillate in perfect time with the tremolo is
55 shown in Figs. 4, 5 and 6. The bellows and in
take box may be substantially as described above,
except that the adjoining walls of the bellows and
air box are provided with centrally aligned cir
cular openings through which the sleeve 21 of the
60 valve mechanism extends. This sleeve may be
formed of sheet metal, for example sheet iron,
and it may be conveniently supported in proper
position by a ?ange 28 that is secured to the
sleeve and has apertures for receiving attaching
65 screws that hold the ?ange in tight engagement
with a washer 29 on one of the walls through
which the sleeve passes, which wall may be, as is
shown in Fig, 4, that of the air box.
Both ends
of the sleeve 21 are open and the portion which
70 extends into the bellows is imperforate. The
lower portion of the‘ sleeve is provided with a
plurality of parallel slots 30 which, in the aggre
gate, may occupy about one-half of the cylin
drical surface of that portion of the sleeve which
75 is positioned within the air box. The sleeve
shown) or keys are actuated to open the valves of
the organ pipes, air passes to them from the
bellows, through the trunk 4, the lid 8 of the
bellows sinks and the metal rod carries the valve
downwardly. When the valve opens, compressed .530
air enters the bellows and tends to again close
the valve as the air pressure acts upon the large
area of the bellows lid 8. In addition to this
function, which is performed more or less well
by all organ bellows valves, both of the illus
trated valves perform another very important
function, that of freely oscillating in time with
the beat of the tremolo. When a large amount
of air is withdrawn suddenly by turning on the
tremolo, the bellows lid 8 drops quickly, carrying
its valve with it. The compressed air rushes
from the bellows well into the tremolo, through
the open valve I5, forces up lid I8 of the tremolo
bellows, which abruptly closes the felt-padded
valve IS. The bellows lid 8 then swings upward,
carrying its valve. The air trapped in the bellows
of the tremolo escapes through vent l1, weighted
lid l8 falls, opening valve l5, through which
compressed air again rushes from the organ
bellows. This action is repeated rhythmically.
The bellows lid 8 often swings high enough to
carry the valve slightly above its closing point,
but as it is impossible'for the valve to seat against
a stop surface, the lid of the bellows can com~
plete its upward swing without interruption, and 55
thus beat in perfect time with the tremolo.
It is to be understood that the embodiments of
the invention shown and described are the pre
ferred forms but that the invention contemplates
such other modi?cations as fall within the scope
of the appended claims.
I claim:
1. In a pipe organ, the combination with a
plurality of pipes, a bellows, a trunk connecting
said pipes and bellows, and an air intake box
having an opening in the upper wall thereof, said
bellows being seated on said intake box and hav
ing an opening alined with said air intake box
opening, of a valve controlling communication
between said intake box and said bellows, and an 70
operating member for said valve connected to
the upper rigid wall of said bellows, said valve
being of the non-stop type.
2. A pipe organ as claimed in claim 1, wherein
one of the alined openings of said intake box and 75
bellows is of rectangular form, and said valve
comprises a rectangular member pivotally sup
ported in said rectangular opening.
3. A pipe organ as claimed in claim 1, wherein
the opening in said air intake box is of rectangu»
lar form, and said valve is a rectangular block
pivotally supported in the rectangular opening
of said intake box.
4. In a pipe organ, the combination with a
10 bellows having a ?oating top wall, and an air
intake box below said bellows, said bellows and
air intake box having alined openings forming a
passage between the same, of a valve in and of
smaller size than said passage to leave a leakage
15 opening entirely around said valve when the lat
ter stands in closed position, and operating means
connected between said valve and the ?oating
top wall of said bellows.
5. In a pipe organ, the combination with a
20 bellows having a ?oating lid, and an air box
beneath said bellows, of a valve sleeve mounted
on the bottom wall of said bellows and extending
in opposite directions therefrom, the portion of
the sleeve within the bellows being imperforate
25 and the portion within the air box being aper
tured, a piston valve within said sleeve for con
trolling air ?ow through said apertures, and
means rigidly connecting said piston valve to
said bellows lid, said sleeve being unobstructed
30 and’ open at both ends and of a length exceeding
the range of movement of the piston valve.
6. In a pipe organ, the combination with an
air box and a trunk leading to organ pipes, of a
bellows connected between said air box and trunk,
35 said bellows comprising a bottom and rigid side
walls joined to a lid by a ?exible wall section, an
opening in said bottom wall, a sleeve extending
through said opening, an exterior ?ange on said
sleeve and seated on said bottom wall, said sleeve
40 being imperforate above said bottom wall and
apertured below the same, a piston valve within
said sleeve, and means rigidly securing said pis
ton valve to the bellows lid.
'7. The invention as claimed in claim 6, wherein
45 said valve comprises a disk and a ?exible ring on
said disk having a loose ?t within said sleeve.
8. The invention as claimed in claim 6, wherein
said valve comprises a disk and a ?exible ring
50 on said disk having a loose ?t within said sleeve;
and said securing means comprises a rod secured
to the bellows lid and means rigidly attaching
said disk to said rod.
9. A pipe organ having an air control assembly
of the type including a bellows having a ?oating
lid, an air box beneath said bellows, and a valve
actuated by said lid to control the flow of air
from said air box into said bellows, characterized
by the fact that said valve includes a sleeve open
at both ends and extending into the air box and
bellows respectively, and a piston valve in said 10
sleeve and secured .to said bellows lid.
10. A pipe organ comprising a plurality of
pipes, and means for supplying air under pressure
to said pipes; said means comprising a bellows
having a ?oating lid, an air conduit beneath the 15
bottom of said bellows, a valve sleeve mounted on
the bottom wall of said bellows and extending in
opposite directions therefrom, the portion of the
sleeve within the bellows being imperforate and
the portion within the conduit being apertured, 20
a piston valve within said sleeve for controlling
air ?ow through said apertures, and means con
necting said piston valve to said bellows lid.
11. In a pipe organ, the combination with an
air box and a trunk for supplying air to organ 25
pipes, of a bellows between said air box and trunk,
said bellows having opposite walls ?exibly con
nected to form a chamber of variable size, an
opening in one of said walls affording communi
cation with said air box, a tubular sleeve extend
ing through said opening, a sliding valve in said
sleeve, said sleeve being open at both ends and
having a perforate and an imperforate wall sec
tion located at opposite sides of said opening,
and means connecting said valve to the other of 35
said opposite walls.
12. A pipe organ comprising a plurality of
pipes, means for supplying air under pressure to
said pipes for sounding the same, and key-actu
ated means for controlling the flow of air to said 40
pipes; said air supply means comprising a bellows
having a lid ?exibly connected to the bottom wall,
an air conduit beneath the bottom wall, a trunk
opening out of the bellows to pass air to the
pipes, a sleeve extending through said bottom
wall into the bellows, the portion of the sleeve at
one side of the bottom Wall being imperforate
and that at the opposite side being apertured,
and a sliding valve within said sleeve, and ?xed
to said lid,
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